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Social and political Values and Systems in India.

Concept of Purity and Pollution in India

Concept of purity and Pollution (Unclean)

Introduction – In India, Hinduism believes in a duality of Purity and impurity. All human activities revolves around the concept of physical, mental, and spiritual/religious ‘Purity and Pollution/Impurity’. According to it, some people adopt a life style, which is pure. It tells human beings should try to remain physically and mentally pure/clean in their day today activities. Lazy and ignorant persons do not pay much attention to cleanliness, until they are forced to do it. Thus, impurity becomes part of their everyday life.  

Meaning of the terms Purity and impurity – Synonyms of Purity are virtue, morality, goodness, righteousness, saintliness, integrity, uprightness, decency, worthiness. And  Impurity simply means uncleanliness, immorality or state of being morally bad. and pollution. Pollution means contamination. When something ie food, air, or water, contaminates , situation becomes hazardous.

Linking the concept with practice of untouchability is unfair- People who come into contact with polluted atmosphere or people who are engaged may fall victim to various dangerous diseases. Certain jobs like scavenging, barbering, leather work or butcher’s job are characterized as unhygienic and unclean professions. Therefore, usually people keep a distance from persons engaged in unclean or unhygienic jobs. Contact with such persons is said to be polluting the atmosphere. Birth and death are supposed to be done in polluted atmosphere. Therefore special care is supposed to be taken about hygiene and cleanliness to keep atmosphere free from pollution.

Unhealthy lifestyles can be changed into disciplined healthy lifestyle to prevent many communicable/non-communicable/genetic diseases. Diseases like Smallpox, Plague, Cholera, Flu, Dengue and Kovid 19 infection etc, which bring illness to millions of people, can be controlled by social distancing and isolation. At present, in the year 2020, after the spread of pandemic Carona (Kovid 19) allover the world. People are advised, to keep a safe distance from others for their own survival and safety, as well as to prevent its community spread. Everybody has become untouchable for others.

Many modern Anthropologists have inter-linked the idea of purity and pollution with caste system, its hierarchical order and practice of and untouchability in India. Two main features of are said to be  ‘purity and pollution‘ (unclean) and ‘endogamy’ (marriage within caste). The hierarchy of caste is decided according to the degree of purity and pollution. Ranking of different castes plays a very crucial role in maintaining the required distance between different castes. Dumont, W. Robertson Smith and James G. Frazer paid considerable attention to pollution ideas as well as to taboos, concepts.

It is said that the purity of a person can be measured from his/her caste. The concept of Purity and Pollution is also known as the basis of untouchability practice. Dr. Ambedkar had respect for religion. He was not that much against the caste system as was hostile to the evil practice of untouchability, that has been caused by men over the time to satisfy their superiority needs. Gandhiji also believed that everybody is equal in the eyes of God. He called lower caste people as Harijans meaning “Child of God”.

Formation of different social groups according to attitude and aptitude – Individuals differ from each other in natural endowments, intelligence, aptitudes, attitudes, skills, personal needs and other innate characteristics.  Such differences are apt to give rise to the formations of different social groups. It is quite conceivable that each of such groups consists of people agreeable to each other, because of the general similarities of taste, likes, dislikes, vocations, social status and such other factors.[i]

People can accomplish skill, specialization, success and happiness, better in company and cooperation with a group, engaged in common occupation due to common callings, common problems, and common solutions. They develop closeness within such a group, due to a feeling of common bond underlying their activities and minds. 

A feeling, being different from other groups on account of differences in callings, problems and difficulties, leads a society to stratification, which decentralizes authority and resources, makes management within each unit effective and organizes human and social behavior in tune with the objectives of the society.  Therefore, some sort of classification or stratification is natural and necessary for every society, be it ancient or modern.[ii]  

Ideas of purity and pollution exists elsewhere also – Explicit ideas of purity and pollution, and practices dealing with impurity, are also found in other world religions, most notably in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. According to 19th century writers like W. Robertson Smith and James G. Frazer uncleanliness characterized ideas and practices of primitive people.

Everywhere in the world, people attach physical stigma to certain unclean and un-hygienic jobs like garbage collection, profession of fishers, butchers, shoemakers, morgues etc. and keep a distance from the persons engaged in such profession. But nowhere in the world, it is criticized in a way as it is done for Hindu’s concept of Purity and pollution.

Purity and impurity are central religious categories in Judaism. It  delineates space, objects and people –

  1. They divide the sacred and profane,
  2. Permitted from forbidden,
  3. Moral from immoral,
  4. Attractive from repulsive and
  5. The Jew from gentile.(

What makes the difference? – For translating Indian terminology ‘shudh’ and ‘ashudh’ in English, the nearest terms are ‘Purity and Impurity’. Instead of using it, modern Sociologists and Anthropologists prefer to use the word ‘Pollution’ instead of ‘Impure/impurity’ as earlier it suited better to the vested interests of the British rulers. Synonyms of Impurity are imperfect or tainted.

Following their example, a group of intelligentsia, thinkers sociologists and Anthropologists in India, deeply influenced by Western perception of the idea of Purity  and Impurity use the word pollution instead of impurity. And that has made all the difference.

Idea of Purity and impurity in Sociology and Anthropology – Renewed interest has been shown by sociologists ang anthropologists since sociology and anthropology are being studied as separate subjects. Sociology and Anthropology was introduced in India as a distinct discipline around 1920s (teaching of sociology started in Bombay University in 1914), when India was under British rule.

Nineteenth century writers, W. Robertson Smith and James Frazer paid considerable attention to pollution ideas as well as taboos and concepts. It plays a crucial role in maintaining the required distance between different social groups/castes.

Some of Anthropologists and a group of Indian intelligentsia deeply influenced by the Western perception are discussing superficially the notion of Purity and Pollution in relation to systems of social, symbolic and biological classification, without going into the depth of the subject.

Dumont (1970), Marriot and Inden (1977), Marglin (1977), or (Ryon (1980) hold the notion of Purity and Pollution interlinked with caste system and untouchability. The hierarchy of caste is decided according to the degree of purity and pollution. The two main characteristic features of caste system are ‘Purity and Pollution’ and ‘endogamy’ (marriage within caste). Marriage outside the caste is prohibited in Indian society. They say that concept of purity and pollution is associated with religion also.   

Showing his occidental irritation, British thinkers like Kitts criticized Indian values and systems, as lacking all rational arrangements. Many of them held them responsible for all social evils and practices, feudal attitude, backward thinking, belief in dogmas and superstitions sustained by a unique set of rituals, beliefs and whimsical concept of purity and pollution.

Why understanding Indian scenario a difficult task for Europeans – For many Europeans and British, it was a difficult task to understand and appreciate the values and systems in totality.  They are mystified by the amazing pluralities and unique social structure, because of its being an indigenous system, conceptualized, developed and practiced exclusively in India.  Its complete localization and unfamiliarity with the rest of world made the task more difficult.

Deep influence of them on Indian youth – The modern Indian youth, who are born and brought up after the independence know, only what they have read or taught in private schools deeply influenced by Western perception that Practices and values especially of Purity and Pollution have been seen responsible for exploitation of weaker and lower strata of society by upper castes. The effect of their criticism is so dense on the Indian mind, that many educated Indians considered Indian the concept of Purity and Impurity as indefensible.

According to them the ideation of purity and pollution is –

  1. A major aspect of understanding the hierarchy process of the caste system.
  2.  Purity and pollution is also known as the basis of untouchability practice.
  3. It plays a very crucial role in maintaining required distance between different castes.
  4. It is said that the purity of a person can be measured from his/her caste.
  5. Concept of Purity and pollution has caused the existing disparities of power, wealth and culture.
  6. Such practices are mainly responsible for the disintegration of Indian society.

Whatever many Anthropologists, Sociologists or media deeply influenced by Western perception of the concept say is only a half-truth. They keep silent about the another half. While launching an ideological attack on Indian values and  systems, they paid little attention to the explication of the content and structure of these concepts.

  • Perception of Indians about the ideation of purity and impurity It is true that before British rule in India, the Indian society was classified into: –
  • Shudras: labours and service providers, It is said that they have faced prejudice and exclusion from Indian society. Over time some castes were placed below Shudras. They were despised and supposed to be engaged in unclean and unhygienic jobs like sweeper, scavengers, gutter cleaners or curers of hides and skin.
  • Vaishyas: agriculturists and merchants,
  • Kshatriyas: rulers, warriors and administrators, and
  • Brahmins: Priests, scholars and teachers.
  • It is also true that Hindus believe in a duality of Purity and Impurity. Both plays an important role in Hindu culture. When born, all persons are pure  with divine qualities in its natural state. Purity is pristine and is a natural state of soul. Later on a person can become pure or impure because the family background, upbringing and influence of others on h/h activities. Therefore one must try the best to avoid impurities in life as much as possible.
  • Hindus give importance to Purity/cleanliness of Mansa (Positive thoughts), Vacha (Speech) and Karmana (Deeds) in life .  For them, Purity means cleanliness of body, mind, activities.
  • Shudhh Vichaar/positive thinking – It is necessary for mental growth and spiritual well-being;
  • Speech –It is advised never to use harsh, angered or indecent language and suggests everyone to behave decently.
  • Cleanliness – Keeping a clean and healthy physical body.

Freedom of all forms of impurity is a key to Hindu spirituality. All the three  necessary for physical, mental and spiritual health of human beings.

  • Physical cleanliness – Physical purity requires a clean and well-ordered environment and frequent cleansing with water. Along with it, Purity also means social, ceremonial, mental, emotional, psychic and spiritual contamination.
  • Mental purity – Mental purity can be achieved through meditation, right living and right thinking.
  • Emotional purity depends on control of mind, clearing the sub-conscious and keeping good company.
  • Ritual purity in Aahar (food habits – No Junk food for good health). Hindus were very particular about eating habits like boiled rice pulse or chappaties (dressed food) stale very quickly, so from the point of view of hygiene and cleanliness, there are some instruction which are supposed to be followed strictly, like what to eat, when to eat, where to eat, washing hands carefully before and after taking food. Fried food or fruits were regarded pure, whatever hands it came from. Earlier people thought it whimsical, but Kovid 19 of 2020 has taught people that there is some sense in observing such rules.
  • Transparency in Vyvhaar/good mannerisn – It includes good behaviour, use of sophisticated language.
  • Spiritual purity is maintained through self-discipline, study of Vedas and other scriptures, meditation and following the path of Truth and Ahimsa.

What Critics forget – Critics of Indian values and systems tell only a part of truth and remain silent about the following facts –  

  • The critics conveniently forget about the importance the emphasis, the doctrine of Purity and Impurity lays on ‘simple living and high thinking’,  ‘Self-discipline, self-restraint or self-reliance’. Every caste was supposed to lead a self-restraint and self-disciplined life in all respect, be it in the matter of daily routine, occupation or inter caste relationship.  The system of each caste having a specific position in the society and a specific work to do with its rights and duties boosted the morale of the people and promoted social equilibrium and solidarity.
  • The ranking of different castes was dependent on their relative purity, morality, knowledge and spiritual standards. Considerations of self-discipline, hygiene and cleanliness on the basis of climatic conditions of the region have been given importance.
  • They while stratifying the Indian society, Varna/caste system gives importance to the factors like social relevance of their work, real contribution of their activities for social subsistence, and, discipline and training required to perform their duties well.
  • The ranking of different castes was dependent on their relative purity, morality, knowledge and spiritual standards. Considerations of self-discipline, hygiene and cleanliness on the basis of climatic conditions of the region were given importance.
  • For over 2000 years, the order in precedence of Varna remains the same.[iii] Pr. Shah says, The scheme of life practiced in India for more than 2000 years showed a comprehensive and coordinated planning, which has yet to be correspondingly conceived of or similarly attained in any other part of the world.[iv]
  • As far as castes are concerned, they rise and fall in their social order, some die out and new ones are formed from time to time.  Castes have its ethnic roots as denoted by Jati, and a ritualistic and symbolic significance in its Varna aspect.
  • Brahmins, occupying the highest place in the society, were put under maximum restrictions and were denied accumulation of wealth.  They were directed to lead a simple life, devoted to the spiritual and intellectual pursuits. 
  • Varna system was so conceived by the genius sages that there was hardly any room for any Varna to consider itself, as being placed in greater or lesser disadvantageous position with reference to another.  The higher the caste within a Varna, the purer it was considered, and greater were the self-restrictions on its behavior through rituals. 
  • Every caste was supposed to lead a self-restraint and self-disciplined life in all respect, be it in the matter of daily routine, occupation or inter caste relationship. 
  • Different castes find their place under a Varna on the basis of their being ritually clean or unclean, nature of work and amount of self-discipline they exercised.
  • According to Principle of Dharma, all individuals are independent, yet their roles complimentary.  Dharma specified duties, privileges and restrictions of each role separately and their relationship with each other.  There is a common Dharma, a general norm of conduct, which is applicable to everyone. It was nothing, but the norms and values of good conduct, leading individuals to the path of righteousness.
  • Separate Dharma for different communities has been based on inherent qualities, aptitude and potentialities of its members. The Dharma of Brahmin was not that of a Shudra, or the Dharma of a student not that of an old man.  The separate rules of conduct were aimed to inspire everyone to perform one’s own duties and obligations, giving everybody opportunities- social, economic physical and spiritual – to do their jobs well and preserve the tradition and lifestyle of all communities.
  • Each Varna/caste has a specific position in the society and a specific role to play with its rights and duties. Clarity about  one’s rights and duties boost up the morale of the people and promote social equilibrium and solidarity.
  • Smritis have taught the people to follow ten principles of steadiness, forgiveness, self-control, abstention from appropriating anything belonging to others, purity, control, correct discernment, knowledge, truthfulness and absence from anger.[v]
  • Kautilya has listed harmlessness, truthfulness, purity, absence of spite, abstinence from cruelty and forgiveness as common duties of all persons as members of an organized society.[vi] He advised people to abandon lust, anger, greed, vanity, conceit, and overjoy.[vii]
  • Manusmriti guides people to control the five faculties of sense and five organs of actions.[viii] According to him desires fulfilled, never extinguished, but grew stronger.  Therefore, desires should be directed in proper manner towards proper objectives.[ix] The purpose of education and learning should be to train the faculties of a person to channelize his/her energies towards right activities.[x]
  • Brahmins have been given the highest place of honour were not because of their material success, but for having intellectual and spiritual qualities, for keeping themselves away from ignorance, illusions and lust.  Earlier they were put under maximum restrictions and were denied accumulation of wealth.  They were debarred from indulging in the pleasures of material world. They were directed to lead a simple life, devoted to the spiritual and intellectual pursuits.  Their duty was learning, pursuit of knowledge and setting norms for common man, so that the whole society could benefit from their knowledge.  Molding their life accordingly was not an easy task.  It required tremendous will power and a strong character.
  • Untouchables, though given a lower status, have always been an integral part of the society. They also perform essential social and economic tasks for the community and work in agriculture and keeping the whole environment neat and clean.
  • Social distancing or isolation or segregation of untouchables is not based on economic status or their doing menial work, but on cultural grounds – unclean habits, immorality, undisciplined  life style, speaking foul and abusive language etc.
  • Before Census operations done by British rulers, Varna/caste system caste system had the seeds of liberalism. It provided the right and opportunity to get to the top from the humblest origin and earn the respect of the whole society. For example, Vashishtha, the principal of the conservative school of Brahmanism, was the son of Uravshi, a prostitute. Vishwamitra, the maker of the very Gayatri Mantra, the quintessence of the Vedic Brahmanism, was a Kshatriya. Aitreya, after whom the sacramental part of Rig-Veda is named as Aitreya Brahamana, was the son from a non-Aryan wife of a Brahman sage. Vyasa of Mahabharata fame was the son of a fish-woman and he was not ashamed of his origin. Balmiki, an untouchable according to present standards, the original author of Ramayana, is highly respected all over India.
  • In the north, usually individuals or groups, clinging to the practices, which are not considered respectable or persons born illegitimately, are treated as untouchables.  However, in the past, in the South conquered groups had been treated as outcastes or untouchables and were put at the bottom of the social structure. They are still treated very badly.
  • Earlier there was not much disparity between different forward or lower castes.  The tropical climate of the country compelled the people to the distribution of surplus, as it was difficult to store anything for long.
  • To make religion and worship of god accessible to everyone, traditionally three ways are sanctioned by Hinduism  – Jnana Marg (Path of wisdom, search for truth and meditation), Karma Marg (Path of rituals, activities and good deeds) and Bhakti Marg (Path of love and devotion).
  • Principle of Karma inspires people to do their duties sincerely and to try for action par excellence. It suggests people earn their living according to their aptitude and capability. Principle of Karma teaches people that Work is Worship.  All types of work are worth pursuing and respectable.  Any work done in its true spirit can never be derogatory or a waste.  A work is not so much valued for its external reward, as for the intrinsic satisfaction towards realization of Swadharma.
  • Principles of Dharma and Karma guides people to lead a disciplined life – to do one’s own work assigned to them by the society and not to interfere in other’s work. And it also prevent people from blaming others for their failures, miseries, or being revengeful, as everybody had to face the inexorable consequences of one’s doings.
  • There has always been a close association of Varna with occupation. Varna/ Caste system transmitted the tricks of a trade, hidden intricacies, solutions of their occupational problems, intelligence, abilities, experiences, values and skills from one generation to another in a natural way. They learned it while growing up, informally from their elders. It gave them confidence and saved them from confusion or unhealthy competition.  Being in constant contact with the family occupation, it was natural for the people to learn maximum about their traditional occupations. The system gave Natural training without investment.
  • In fact, relations between various social groups were expressed in terms of the idea of hygiene, cleanliness and purity.[xi] Caste Hindus were very particular about eating dressed food, because it became stale very quickly. Undressed food or fruits were regarded pure, whatever hands it came from.
  • Every caste was supposed to lead a self-restraint and self-disciplined life in all respect, be it in the matter of daily routine, occupation or inter caste relationship.  The system of each caste having a specific position in the society and a specific work to do with its rights and duties boosted the morale of the people and promoted social equilibrium and solidarity.
  • In India, ranking was not based on wealth or material gains, but on intellectual and spiritual attainments and on self-discipline. The ranking of different Social Groups/castes was dependent on their relative purity, morality, knowledge and spiritual standards. Considerations of self-discipline, hygiene and cleanliness on the basis of climatic conditions of the region were given importance. Brahmins, occupying the highest place in the society, were put under maximum restrictions and were denied accumulation of wealth.  They were directed to lead a simple life, devoted to the spiritual and intellectual pursuits. 
  • Gradation of professions was based on its being clean or unclean. Unclean occupations were given lower status. Brahmins,  associated with unclean jobs like, Mahabrahmins performing last rites, were assigned  Shudras status.  They did not command respect of the society.  It was only the learned Brahmins, who commanded the respect and their stronghold was the centers of learning. 
  • In Orissa, Brahmin influence remained confined to small areas around the royal palaces.  Here warrior kings of Shudra and tribal origin sought Brahmins help to acquire Kshatriyas status. 
  • Bengal was among the last areas to come into contact with Brahminical Hinduism.  It was only during the reign of Sen Guptas, that Kanyakubja Brahmins from Varanasi were invited to settle in Bengal. Brahmins never acquired status of dominant group there and remained just yet another Jati.
  • In Bihar, around Darbhanga region, Maithili Brahmins held political control, though they also continued their traditional occupations as priests and scholars of Sanskrit.

As portrayed by many Westerners or present day politicians with vested interests, Indian society or Hinduism never prevented Shudras or others to rise in the scale of society or to earn the respect of society. Lord Rama, a king, ate half-eaten berries of Shabri – an untouchable. Lord Krishna’s foster parents Nand and Yashoda, who in today’s classification would be called OBC, got more respect than his real Kshatriya parents from Hindu society. In middle ages, Sant Ravidas, Namdev, Tukaram, Malika, Sunderdas and several other saints, belonging to lower ranks, earned the same respect as any higher caste saint. There had been instances of people of lower ranks becoming kings.

It was much before the rise of Naikars, Ambedkars or Periars in the Indian scene, that reformists, mostly belonging to caste Hindus tried to ameliorate the condition of the disadvantaged, be it women, untouchables or poor living in abject poverty.  They taught the people to leave the meaningless rituals and rigidities, which had tended them to treat disadvantaged as lesser human beings. They advised to people to treat a human being humanly.

By 1909, the lower strata of backward section of society got a distinct identity under the banner of untouchability. Dr. Ambedkar, the first undisputed leader of untouchables. They should not be confused with the Backward Classes. He believed that only untouchables were educationally, economically and socially backward. Therefore, untouchables should come under DC category.[xii]  

Before the independence, the untouchables were denied access of public facilities. There were restriction on their entry to temples. They did only menial work or work without remuneration. They were low in social and ritual standing. They were victims of discrimination, untouchability, poverty, illiteracy, ignorance and consequential disabilities.

Since Independence (1947), due to spread of education, process of modernization, industrialization, attempts of reformers and growing awareness of the masses, traditional barriers on Pollution by touch marriage, hereditary occupations and commonality, have started disappearing. Restrictions or interactions between different castes arising due to considerations for purity and pollution are fading away from public life. Society has become less restrictive and rigid.

However, now an average Indian has lost faith in the traditional values and principles. The result is he has lost faith not only in his fellow-beings, but also in himself. Favoritism, in-discipline, violence, corruption, and chase of materialism based on ruthless competition have weakened the social fabric beyond repair.

The erosion of basic moral and human values has turned the life of men, “nasty, brutish and short”. Scientific progress has endowed him with tremendous power both to preserve and destroy. At slightest provocation, he does not hesitate to unleash destructive powers accessible to him.

A few Individuals and groups, with political, money or muscle power control the destiny of millions and have say in almost every walk of national life. They are working day and night to deny justice to ordinary citizens.

Attempts for social changes make a virtue of narrow loyalties of caste and religion, generating sub-cultures like favoritism, lure for easy money, nepotism and, in-discipline in the society. Caste and communal conflicts are increasing day by day. Under-currents of caste and communal politics have made the task of governance difficult and ineffective.

There are sectarian and regional imbalances generating social and psychological tensions also. The work culture has been degenerated. Standard of governance has declined. People are disgusted with the non-performance of government. The administration has become incompetent to solve the burning national issues. It has turned the vision of national development into an empty dream.

Result of careless attitude? – Today the world has developed to an extent, where phones are wireless; cooking is fire-less; cars are key-less; food is fat-less; tyres are tubeless; and tools are cordless. But along with it, Government is useless; Parliament is clueless; leaders are shameless; masses are helpless; youth are jobless; relations are meaningless; feelings are heartless; education is valueless; attitude is careless, and children are manner-less. Modernity has ignited the desire for position, name and possession, which are lifeless things, so not valuable in life as inner happiness. 

The unchecked spread of Carona (Kovid 19) virus since February 2020, all-over the world, is a big blow to Modernity. It has altered global scenario. People have learnt in the face of death that Attend to personal hygiene more vigorously. And true inner happiness does not come from material things of this world. All the success, recognition and wealth gained so far is immaterial. People only get used to it. True inner Lost material things can be found, but one thing can never be found again when it is lost, that is life.

In the face of current pandemic of Carona, people now accept that Cleanliness of body is necessary for physical health. Dirt and disease go together. Disease germs breed and thrive in dirt; and the epidemic diseases which sweep over a country and carry off thousands, are generally the results of the dirty habits and surroundings of the people.

Conclusion – As Churchill had stated ‘Never let a good crisis go waste’. Once again the time has come to change one’s life style. Real cleanliness means cleaning your body, mind and soul. This requires one to tread a spiritual path where you submit oneself to keeping out vices and inviting virtues. By keeping oneself clean externally and internally helps to improve personality of an individual. Cleanliness (body, mind and soul) gives rise to a good character. It is necessary for healthy and peaceful living of human beings.

Moreover, cleanliness of body is also necessary for self-respect. No one can expect to mix with decent society if he is not clean and neat in dress and person. It is an insult to respectable people to meet them with dirty face and hands, and soiled and evil-smelling clothes.

But even more important than cleanliness of body is cleanliness of mind. To call a mind clean or dirty is to use metaphorical language.

[i]     Ellis R.S. The psychology of individual differences – 1930, chapter XVI-Individual differences and social differentiation PP.386-404. Also Anatasi A, Differentials Psychology 1958

[ii]           Mac lver RM, Community P.124-5, Cooley CH, Social Organisation, pt. IV Social Classes

[iii]           Basham, Ibid p 151.

[iv]           Times of India, dated April 10, 1994, p3.

[v]            Manusmriti VI 91, Yajurveda III 66,and vas x 30.

[vi]            Kautilya, Arthshastra, I-III, Translated by Sama Sastry, p 84.

[vii]           Kautilya, Arthshastra, I-III, Translated by Sama Sastry, p 10.

[viii]           Manusmriti, II, 90-92-93.

[ix]            Manusmriti, II, 94.

[x]            Manusmriti, II, 3 and 5.

[xi]           Srinivas, MN,  Social Change in Modren India, 

[xii]          Rajah MC, the Oppressed Hindus PP4-5 1925

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