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गरीबी क्यों—गरीबी उन्मूलन कैसे ?

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                                                      न्यायमूर्ति अशोक कुमार श्रीवास्तव

                                              पूर्व न्यायाधीश इलाहबाद और (Delhi High Court)

गरीबी क्यों ? – सीधा उत्तर है कि देश तथा प्रदेशों के सारे कर्णधार चाहे वे विधायिका या कार्यपालिका या न्यायपालिका में हों, गरीब नहीं हैं और गरीबी क्या होती है उसे जानते ही नहीं |

विडम्बना? – मगर विडम्बना यह है जब से भारतवर्ष को स्वंत्रतता मिली है सभी राजनैतिक दल वोट बटोरने के लिए भारतवर्ष के गरीबों और किसानो की हिमायत करते नज़र आते हैं | गरीबी हटाओ का नारा लगाते हैं मगर गरीबी वहीं की वहीँ रहती है | हाँ जो भी चुन कर आये वे अवश्य ही बहुत अमीर हो जाते हैं और बड़े मकान, फार्म हाउस, महंगी कारें, कम्पनियों, शिक्षण संस्थाओं, नर्सिंग होम, सिनेमा हाउस, कोल्ड स्टोरेज, होटल, हीरे जवाहरात इत्यादि के वे मालिक हो गएँ हैं | बहुतों के तो आधे पैर भारत में रहतें है और आधे विदेश में | वातानुकूलित पांच सितारा सुख जीवन उनकी जीवन शैली है | गरीबी क्या होती है उसका उन्हें किंचित भी बोध नहीं है | गरीबों के संग थोड़ी देर रहने में ही वे परेशान हो जाते हैं और किसी तरह मजबूरी में समय काट कर पांच सितारा व्यवस्था की ओर कूच कर जाते हैं | उनका ऐसा करना कदाचित गलत नहीं है क्योंकि उन्हें अगली बार टिकट मिलने की कोई गारंटी नहीं होती और अब तो यह भी पक्का नहीं रहता कि उनकी पार्टी दोबारा चुनाव जीतेगी | गरीबों से तो वे सिर्फ चुनाव के समय ही मिलते है और उनकी गरीबी को मिटाने का फिर से पूरा घडियाली आश्वासन देते हैं |एक विधायक जब पहली बार चुना गया तब उसके पास कुछ नहीं था परन्तु तीन टर्म करने के बाद उसने अपनी चल अचल संपत्ति २०० करोड़ घोषित की | ८० फीसदी वोटर उनके जाल में फिर फँस जाते है |

चुनाव-आधार जाति और वर्ग  –  चुनाव जाति और वर्ग के आधार पर लड़ा जाता है | वर्ग तथा जाति के कितने वोट है उस पर टिकट दिए जाते हैं और हार जीत होती है | इसलिए हर राजनैतिक दल तथा प्रत्याशी की कोशिश यही रहती है कि उनकी जाति एवं वर्ग की संख्या में बढ़त हो जिससे उतने ही उसके वोट बढ़ें | मूर्ख लोग बगैर सोचे समझे कि इससे उन्हें क्या लाभ है, बच्चे पर बच्चे पैदा करते रहतें हैं, वोटर संख्या बढ़ाते रहते हैं और साथ ही साथ उसी अनुपात में अपनी गरीबी भी | अगर कोई उन्हें समझाता है तो वे समझना नहीं चाहते है क्योंकि उनकी जाति के नेताओं ने तो उन्हें यह सपने दिखाए हुए हैं कि उनका उद्धार केवल उनकी जाति के नेता ही कर सकते हैं | इसलिए वे वोट अपने नेताओं को ही देते हैं और उस विशेष जाति के वोटरों की गिनती बढ़ाते रहते हैं |

चूंकि राजनैतिक दल अपनी आय का ब्यौरा देने में कतरा रहें है और सूचना अधिकार अधिनियम के दायरे में होते हुए भी उस अधिनियम के तहत सूचना नहीं दे रहे हैं, इसलिए अनुमान यही किया जाना चाहिए कि राजनीतिक दलों के पास भी बहुत धन है | कहाँ से है, कोई नहीं पूछता |

कार्यपालिका तो विधायिका द्वारा लिए गए निर्णयों को लागू करती है | वह गरीबी उन्मूलन की स्वयं कोई रूप रेखा नहीं बना सकती | न्यायपालिका को गरीबों की ओर सहानुभूति अवश्य होती है मगर गरीबी उन्मूलन उनके कार्यक्षेत्र में नहीं आता है |

भारतवर्ष में अमीर लगभग २ प्रतिशत – भारतवर्ष में लगभग २ प्रतिशत लोग ऐसे हैं जो इतने अमीर हैं कि उनका मुकाबला विश्व के बड़े से बड़े धनाडय ही कर सकते हैं | लगभग १८ प्रतिशत ऐसे अमीर हैं कि दुनिया की हर वस्तु और हर सुख के साधन उन्हें उपलब्ध है | इन २० प्रतिशत के लिए पांच सितारा होटल, पांच सितारा अस्पताल, पांच सितारा स्कूल इत्यादि सब उपलब्ध हैं | सिवाय इश्वर के उन्हें कोई छू नहीं सकता | सरकारी तंत्र भी उनके ही इशारे पर चलता है | वे राजनीतिज्ञों से मिल कर देश में ऐसी योजनायें बनवाते हैं जिससे उन्ही का कल्याण हो | उन्हें गरीबों से कोई वास्ता नहीं होता | अगर वे अपराध करते हैं तो अपने धन के प्रभाव से सबको हिला देते हैं | बहुत मुश्किल से वे जेल जाते हैं परन्तु जुगाड़ से वहां भी शाही जीवन व्यतीत करते हैं | भारत की बढ़ी जी डी पी का पूर्ण लाभ इन्ही २० प्रतिशत लोगों को मिलता है |

लगभग ४० प्रतिशत ऐसे हैं जो मिडिल क्लास के उच्च, मध्यम और तृतीय श्रेणी में आते हैं | वे गरीब नहीं हैं और साधारण सुख की ज़िन्दगी व्यतीत करते हैं | इनमें से कुछ भ्रष्टाचार के माध्यम से उपरोक्त १८ प्रतिशत लोगों की आय का मुकाबला करने में लगे हैं और सारी मौज मस्ती का आनंद लेते हैं | इनमें से जो तृतीय श्रेणी वाले हैं वे अपना जीवन बस व्यतीत कर रहे हैं | बड़ी बीमारी हो गयी तो गरीब हो जाते हैं |

बचे लगभग ४० प्रतिशत | इनमें बहुत गरीब हैं जो गाँवों में रहते हैं या मजदूरी के लिए शहर में आ जाते हैं | इनमे अधिकांश के पास खेती नहीं है और जिनके पास है वह नाममात्र की है | विश्व बैंक के आंकड़े बताते है कि दक्षिण एशिया और अफ्रीका के कुछ भाग में विश्व के अधिकतम गरीब रहते हैं और पश्चिमी देशों में यदि औसतन जीवन स्तर १० पॉइंट है तो भारत में वह २.५. पॉइंट है | भारत में शहर के गरीबों का हाल गाँव के गरीबों से भी बुरा है | नेशनल सैंपल सर्वे आर्गेनाइजेशन की ताजा रिपोर्ट के अनुसार ग्रामीण क्षेत्रों में प्रत्येक परिवार के पास औसतन १० लाख रुपये तथा शहरों में २३ लाख रुपये की संपत्ति है | मगर गरीब परिवारों के पास इससे बहुत कम संपत्ति है | शहरों में १० % परिवार ऐसे हैं जिनके पास औसतन २९१ रुपये की संपत्ति है | ऐसे परिवारों के पास न घर है न जमीन | इसके विपरीत गाँव में १० % गरीबों के पास औसतन २५० रुपये की संपत्ति है | गाँव में अमीर और गरीब के बीच खायी उतनी नहीं है जितनी शहरों में है | शहरों में जहाँ यह खाई ५०००० गुना अधिक है वहीँ गाँव में यह खाई केवल २२६ गुना ज्यादा है |

४०% लोग भारतवर्ष के गरीब की निर्धनता के कारण – मेरी नज़र में यही ४०% लोग भारतवर्ष के वे गरीब हैं जिनके बारे में विचार करना आवश्यक बनता है | उनकी निर्धनता के कई कारण हैं |

  1. पहला कारण, जो सबसे बड़ा है, वह है इश्वर की लीला जो पूर्व जन्म में किये कर्मों का परिणाम है | उसे प्रारब्ध कहते हैं | ऐसा न हो तो क्यों कोई टाटा बिडला अम्बानी अदानी के यहाँ जन्म लेता और कोई कलुआ भुर्जी के घर | कुत्ते की योनि निकृष्ट मानी जाती है परन्तु पिछले जन्म के कर्म के अनुसार एक कुत्ता अमीर के घर में शान से और सारी सुख सुविधा के साथ रहता है और दूसरा गर्मी में खाज की बीमारी से सडकों पर तड़पता रहता है | यह तो हुआ प्रारब्ध परन्तु जन्म से गरीब को अपने इस जन्म में कर्म से गरीबी हटाने का अवसर सदैव प्राप्त है | कर्म और विवेक से वह अपनी गरीबी हटा सकता है और अमीर भी बन सकता है | हजारों क्या लाखों ऐसे उदाहरण मौजूद हैं | मगर बहुत से गरीब तो इतने निराशावादी होते हैं कि वे अपने उत्थान के बारे में सोचते तक नहीं हैं | वे जिस हाल में हैं उसी में पड़े रहना पसंद करते हैं
  2. दूसरा कारण अशिक्षा है | गाँव में शिक्षा के साधन नगण्य हैं | यदि स्कूल हैं तो उनका स्तर निम्न कोटि का है और जो शिक्षा वहां मिल रही है वह सही मार्गदर्शन नहीं देती है |
  3. तीसरा कारण बार बार की बीमारी है | कुपोषण के कारण वे जल्दी जल्दी बीमार पड़ते हैं | गाँव में तो झोला छाप डॉक्टर ही होते हैं जो बिना जानकारी अगड़म बगड़म इलाज और उलटी सीधी दवाएं देते रहते हैं | अगर मर्ज़ बढ़ गया तो आनन फानन शहर भागना पड़ता है और प्राइवेट नर्सिंग होम में लूटे जाते हैं | कर्जा चढ़ जाता है जिसको चुकाने में और भी गरीब हो जाते हैं |
  4. चौथा है मुकदमेबाजी | आपसी रंजिश हुयी तो कुछ ऐसे नासमझ है कि वे गाली गलौज और मार पीट करते हैं जिसमे क़त्ल भी हो जाते हैं | यह प्रायः देखा गया है कि वे गुस्सा या भावावेश में क़त्ल कर देते है और तब जेल का भी डर नहीं रहता है | यदि जेल गए, फिर तो अगर जमीन है तो वह बिक जाती है और अगर जमीन नहीं है तो उधारी हो जाती है जिसे चुकाने में पूरी जिंदगी बर्बाद हो जाती है | सेशन और मजिस्ट्रेट की अदालतों में फौजदारी मुक़दमे अधिकतर गाँव के ही होते हैं | जिले के फौजदारी वकीलों की आमदनी अधिकतर गाँव के ऐसे गरीबों से ही है |
  5. पांचवीं वजह देशी शराब है जो अब गाँव में बहुत पी जाती है | आये दिन छपता है कि ज़हरीली शराब पीकर कई मर गए | गाँव का जवान वर्ग बर्बाद हो गया है | अक्सर सुर्खियाँ रहती है कि चार पांच लड़कों ने शराब पीकर किसी लड़की को उठा लिया और उसका बलात्कार करके उसे मार डाला और लाश खेत में फ़ेंक दी | पकडे जाते हैं तो फिर कोर्ट कचहरी का चक्कर और पैसे की बर्बादी | वैसे भी शराब की इतनी लत पड़ जाती है कि खाना मिले न मिले शराब तो पीनी ही है | कुपोषण यदि है तो शराब ज़हर हो जाती है जो गंभीर बीमारियों को जन्म देती है | इस प्रकार आमदनी का बड़ा हिस्सा शराब की लत और उससे हुई शारीरिक बीमारी के इलाज में ही निकल जाता है |
  6. छठा कारण गाँव में रोज़गार के साधन का न होना है | खेतों में मजदूरी ही एक साधन होता है जिसमे बहुत सीमित आमदनी होती है | खेती भी बट जाती है जिसमें पूरे परिवार का पोषण नहीं हो पाता है | कुछ फैक्ट्री में चले जातें हैं, कुछ शहर में आकर मजदूरी करते है, कुछ रिक्शा चलाते हैं आदि | शहर में न उनके पास रहने की जगह होती है न ही उन्हें शुद्ध वातावरण मिलता है जिससे वह बीमार पड़ते हैं और कमाई अस्पताल और दवा में ही घुस जाती है | शाम को चूँकि कोई मनोरंजन का साधन नहीं होता है तो शराब पीकर मन हल्का करतें हैं | बगैर पुष्ट भोजन के शराब स्वास्थ्य के लिए अति घातक हो जाती है और खर्चा कराती है | कभी कभी वेश्याओं पर कमाई न्योछावर करते रहते हैं |
  7. अब एक नया ट्रेंड दिखने में आ रहां है कि गाँव के अधिकतर युवा श्रम करना ही नहीं चाहते | वे तो लूट पाट और डकैती इत्यादि में पड़ गएँ है जोकि समाज, क़स्बा, तहसील, शहर, प्रदेश और देश के लिए बहुत घातक है | पंचायती राज की राजनीति ऐसे युवाओं के लिए उर्वराशक्ति का काम करती है |

गरीबी उन्मूलन कैसे हो?

मेरे मत में गरीबी का पूर्ण उन्मूलन तो असंभव है, केवल गरीबी में कमी संभव है | चूँकि सब तो अमीर नहीं हो सकते इसलिए विचार यह होना चाहिए कि गरीबी कैसे कम की जा सके जिससे सभी का जीवन स्तर गरीबी रेखा के ऊपर आ जाय और वे एक सामान्य जीवन व्यतीत कर सकें | मेरे सुझाव निम्नवत है |

  • भारतवर्ष में लोकतंत्र है | केंद्रीय और प्रदेशीय सरकारें चुन कर आती हैं | चूँकि हमारी संवैधानिक व्यवस्था के तहत सरकार जनता के हित के लिए होती है, इसलिए सरकार का कर्त्तव्य है कि वह सामाजिक न्याय दे, देश के धन का न्यायिक वितरण करे, अमीरी और गरीबी के अंतर को कम करे, सबको शिक्षा का अवसर दे और सबके लिए उपयुक्त रोज़गार मुहैया करे | परन्तु देखा जा रहा है सब कुछ इसके विपरीत ही हो रहा है | जिस अनुपात में अमीरी बढ़ रही है उसी अनुपात में गरीबी भी बढ़ रही है | बेरोज़गारी दिन प्रतिदिन बढ़ रही है| सामाजिक न्याय तो कहीं दिखता नहीं है | केवल वोट बटोरने के लिए सरकारी खजाने से धन लुटाया जा रहा है जिसका अधिकांश हिस्सा राजनीतिज्ञों और सरकारी सेवकों की जेब में जाता है | कुछ हिस्सा निकम्मों के हाथ भी लग जाता है जो उनको और निकम्मा बना देता है | मुफ्त में मछली बांटी जा रही है बजाय इसके कि लोगों को मछली मारना सिखाया जाय जिससे वे जीविकोपार्जन स्वयं कर सकें | हमारे यहाँ चींटी और ग्रास हापर का किस्सा बिलकुल सटीक बैठ रहा है | चींटी दिन रात काम कर के बुरे वख्त के लिए घर बनाती है और उसमें खाने की सामग्री रखती है | ग्रास हापर महोदय कुछ नहीं करते केवल मस्त घूमते रहते है | जब बरसात आती है तो भीगने लगते है, खाने को कुछ नहीं मिलता और भूखे सोना पड़ता है | आज के सामाजिक न्याय देने वालों को बहुत गुस्सा आता है कि यह क्या कि एक तो पेट भर खाना खाकर घर में आराम से सोये और दूसरा भूखा रहे और भीगे | वे सामाजिक न्याय के आधार पर चींटी को आदेश देते हैं कि बाहर आओ, ग्रास हापर को पेट भर भोजन दो और घर में सोने दो | ग्रास हापर से नहीं पूछते कि उसने श्रम करके भोजन क्यों नहीं इकठ्ठा किया और छप्पर क्यों नहीं बनाया | अगले साल फिर वही होता है | चींटी देश छोड़कर अमरीका के सिलिकॉन सिटी में जा बसी और वहां आराम से रह रही है | ग्रास हापर महोदय हर साल बरसात में भीगते हैं और भूखे सोते हैं |
  • मेरे मत में यदि गरीबी कम करनी है तो चुनी गयी सरकारें राजनैतिक, सामाजिक और आर्थिक नीतियाँ बनाते समय ऊपर के चींटी और हापर के किस्से से सीख लें, सामाजिक न्याय सही दिशा में दें और निकम्मों को और निकम्मा न बनायें | यह सबको विदित है कि वर्तमान की सामाजिक न्याय देने वाली योजनाओं ने भला तो कुछ नहीं किया बल्कि युवा वर्ग को निकम्मा ही बनाया है और भ्रष्टाचार को बढ़ावा दिया है | इसलिए ऐसी स्कीमों के बजाय सबसे पहले तो समय समय पर गाँव में कैंप लगाये जाएँ जिनके माध्यम से उन्हें स्वावलम्बी बनने की नसीहत दी जाय | उनमे आत्म गौरव जगाएं और खुद्दारी की भावना जाग्रत करें | उनको कोई धन इत्यादि बगैर मेहनत के न दें और उनके परिश्रम में अवश्य मदद करें | उनकी शिक्षा प्रणाली ऐसी होनी चाहिए कि वे किसी पर निर्भर न रहे और अपने पौरुष से ही अपना जीविकोपार्जन करने की प्रवृत्ति उनमे बढ़े | किसी के आसरे रहने की प्रवृत्ति को कम किया जाय | उनके स्वास्थय के लिए व्यवस्था गाँव में ही हो और उन्हें छोटी बीमारी के लिए शहर न आना पड़े |
  • गाँवों को इतना समृद्ध बनाया जाये कि गाँव वाले जब तक कोई मजबूरी न हो शहर की ओर न देखें | शहर वालों को यदि उनकी आवश्यकता हो तो वे गाँव जाएँ जैसे सॉफ्टवेर के लिए पश्चिमी देश भारत आ रहें हैं | गाँव में आज के दिन उपयुक्त स्कूल नहीं हैं, उचित अस्पताल नहीं हैं, उद्योग नहीं हैं, टेकनोलोजी नहीं है, बिजली नहीं है, उपयुक्त पानी के साधन नहीं हैं, उपयुक्त सड़कें नहीं हैं इत्यादि | यह सब मोहैया किये जाएँ | वर्ष २०१४ में केन्द्र में नयी सरकार आई, सारे सांसदों से अपेक्षा की गयी कि गाँव के उत्थान के लिए वे अपने अपने क्षेत्र में एक एक गाँव को गोद लें और उनका उत्थान करें परन्तु देखने में कुछ नहीं आ रहा है | यह तो सही है कि सब गाँव वाले टाटा बिडला अम्बानी अदानी नहीं बन सकते परन्तु लोअर मिडिल क्लास के अनुरूप जीवन तो व्यतीत कर ही सकते हैं यदि उनके लिए उपरोक्त साधन उपलब्ध किये जाएँ | मगर यह तभी हो सकेगा जब राजनैतिक इच्छा शक्ति हो | यदि राजनीतिज्ञ गाँव वालों को बंधक वोटर ही बनाकर रखना चाहते हैं तो कुछ नहीं हो सकता |
  • आज की परिस्थितियों में जब तक उपरोक्त व्यवस्थाएं नहीं हो सकें तब तक इतना तो किया जा सकता है कि गाँव गाँव में मोबाइल स्कूल भेजे जाएँ जिसमें उत्कृष्ट अध्यापक हों जो गाँव के बच्चों को सही शिक्षा दें, उनका चरित्र निर्माण करें, उन्हें सही और गलत में भेद करना सिखाएं और पाप एवं पुण्य का संज्ञान कराएँ | साथ ही साथ देश में क्या हो रहा है उसका भी उन्हें बोध कराएँ, टेकनोलोजी सिखाएं और व्यवसाय की सूझ बूझ दें | उनके कौशल का उत्थान करें और उन्हें एक अछा नागरिक बनने की प्रेरणा दें | उनमें राष्ट्रभावना उत्पन्न की जाय | चिकित्सा के लिए गाँव गाँव में निश्चित दिन मोबाइल मेडिकल वेन भेजे जाएँ जो पूर्ण रूप से सुसज्जित हों और जिसमें कुशल डॉक्टर हों | जब हमारी कार की पूरी सर्विसिंग हमारे घर में हो जाती है तो मोबाइल मेडिकल वेन गाँव क्यों नहीं भेजे जा सकते? केवल सोच और लगन की आवश्यकता है | हम नहीं कहते कि गाँव में यूनिवर्सिटी, डिग्री कॉलेज, मेडिकल कॉलेज, एन्जिनियरिंग कालेज इत्यादि खोले जाएँ | मेरा केवल यह मानना है कि गाँव में ही टेक्निकल इंस्टिट्यूट खोले जाएँ जिनमे वोकेशनल ट्रेनिंग दी जाय जिससे गाँव के बच्चों को ऐसी शिक्षा के लिए शहर न जाना पड़े | एक तो गाँव वाले शहरी खर्चा उठा नहीं पाते हैं और दूसरी ओर शहर में जाकर बच्चों के बिगड़ने की संभावना बढ़ जाती है | इसके आलावा शहरीकरण भी कम होगा और शहरों की पर्यावरण इत्यादि की समस्याएं भी कम होंगी | गाँव में छोटे छोटे उद्योग खोले जाएँ जिससे गाँव वालों को गाँव में ही जीविकोपार्जन का साधन मिले |
  • शहर में जो गरीब हैं उनके लिए आवास योजना बने जिससे वे स्वच्छ वातावरण में रह सकें और बीमार कम पड़ें | उनकी न्यूनतम मजदूरी इतनी निर्धारित की जाय जिससे वे गरीबी रेखा से ऊपर रह सकें | ये न्यूनतम मजदूरी समय समय पर उसी अनुपात में बढे जिस अनुपात में मंहगाई बढती है और सरकारी कर्चारिओं का मंहगाई भत्ता बढ़ता है | इनके कल्याण के लिए एक कल्याण निधि बनायीं जाय जिससे इन्हें बीमारी में इलाज और इनकी बीमारी के दौरान इनके परिवार को भत्ता मिले | यदि अधिवक्ता कल्याण निधि बन सकती है जिसमे सरकार करोड़ों रुपये का अनुदान देती है तो गरीबों के लिए शहरों के उन मजदूरों के लिए जो किसी अधिनियम में मजदूर की संज्ञा में नहीं आते, कोई कल्याण निधि क्यों न बनायीं जाय | हांलाकि हर कंस्ट्रक्शन कॉन्ट्रैक्ट से मजदूर सेस वसूला जाता है जो मजदूर के कल्याण पर खर्चा जाता है, मगर सारे मजदूर कंस्ट्रक्शन कॉन्ट्रैक्ट में ही काम नहीं करते हैं | वे अन्य जगह भी काम करते हैं |

 

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September 3, 2016 Posted by | Uncategorized | 4 Comments

Teachings of Srimad Bhagwat Gita

Introduction

Mahabharata and Ramayana are the two great epics of India. ‘Srimad Bhagwat Geeta’ is a part of Mahabharata – the 25th to 42nd chapters of Bhishma Parva of Mahabharata. In the entire Bhagwat Geeta, there are seven hundred stanzas and 18 chapters. The aim of Lord Krishna’s preaching was to pull out Arjuna from his dejection and despondency. In short, Krishna explains to Arjuna the principles of Reincarnation followed by Immorality. Immorality can be obtained by Karma. Stress is on Detachment and Equanimity. For achieving detachment or renunciation, Knowledge and intellect play an important role.

‘s

A Summary Of Bhagvat Gita

     By

           Justice Shanker Dayal Khare (Retd), Allahabad, 28.10.1975

INTRODUCTION

We seek happiness. We desire that happiness we sometimes feel may last for ever. Do we succeed? Do we get peace of mind?

Gita throws light on these subjects. We may find its philosophy interesting and useful. There is no harm in giving exercise to our minds in the same manner as we give yogic exercises to our bodies.

Philosophy is simple: – ‘Rely on (your own) Laws and Traditions. Keep on doing deeds as you have been doing them. Do your deeds without hesitation and with complete devotion towards God, and achieve what is generally achieved by such deeds.

Detachment is the doorway to self-realization and to have control over restless mind. If you want peace of mind try not to feel elated with the feeling that you are the doer of the deeds. Dedicate the results of all your deeds to God. Then you should not have any attachment towards the results of your deeds.

In that manner you should reach beyond the scope of the three qualities – (saintly, worldly lethargic).

Have complete faith in the Creator and He will help you in establishing such faith in Himself.

I shall feel happy if some people, like me, find this summary useful.

Allahabad                                                                                         S.D.Khare

28-10-75

                                                           CHAPTER ONE

                                                          DESPONDENCY

         After both the parties had drawn themselves up in battle array, Arjun, accompanied by Lord Krishna, went to the battle field to see those who have come to oppose the Pandavas (party with just cause) and to support Kaurvas (party with an unjust cause). For Arjun it was most disheartening to see that even his own kith and kin, and very near relations were supporting the unjust cause and opposing the just cause. Was it proper for him to fight all those people, who had come to oppose him? Arjun, in retrospect, said, “NO”. He observed that in such circumstances it was better to be killed than be the killer. The situation being very confusing Arjun asked for the advice of Lord Krishna.

                                                   CHAPTER TWO

                                         PROCESS OF REASONING

      Arjun was advised to put up a fight, because –

  1. Being a member of the fighting community it was his duty to fight for the right cause. In such a fight death secured Heaven and survival the pleasures of this world.
  2.  It was foolish to think of destroying others in the process. Soul is indestructible. None of the five elements (fire, air, water, earth or sky) is capable of destroying it. Body is, no doubt, destructible. This body, however, does not retain its original form or shape even during one life time. It keeps on changing from childhood to young age and from young age to old age. Death merely changes the form of the body.
  3. People regard you invincible. You shall fall in their estimates in case you refuse to fight. They shall call you a coward. That shall be worse than death.
  4. Why worry about the result of the fight? How can the result of any deed be controlled? It is always the best to do a deed and leave the result of the deed to God. That is a well recognized method (of doing deeds without feeling attached to them). It is par excellent. The practice of this method shall lead one to detachment and to the attainment of Salvation. Such deeds bear no fruits, piety or sin

       Arjun asked: – “Can a person firmly established in this method of doing deeds be spotted out?”

         Lord Krishna replied: – “Yes! Such a person is always fully satisfied with his own soul. Pleasure nor pain, good luck nor bad luck, can ever perturb him. He withdraws his senses from all objects of pleasure and is without any feeling of attachment, fear and anger. Control over mind and practice lead to such a state. Such person devotes himself fully towards God.”

 CHAPTER THREE

                                                      PROCESS OF DEEDS

       Arjun asked again: – “When acquisition of wisdom is supreme why should one do deeds, the results of some of which might be dreadful?”

        Lord Krishna replied: – The universe and the deeds were created at one and the same time. Everything has to be achieved through deeds. One’s quality determines the nature of one’s deeds. One’s existence even for a moment, is not possible without doing deeds.

      One should do only the natural and the prescribed deeds, that should keep him free from the feeling of attachment and envy.

       Arjun thereupon asked: – When people do deeds perforce (according their quality) why should those deeds saddle them with sins?”

       Lord Krishna replied: – Attachment and envy, born of worldly quality, lead people to partake in sin. Attachment has its abode in senses, mind and intellect. Attachment, with the help of all these three, eclipses wisdom. Senses are strong, mind is stronger and the intellect is strongest of the three. Soul is even more powerful than intellect.

          Concentrating on soul, taking the help of one’s intellect and controlling one’s mind and senses, one can destroy ATTACHMENT, which is the supreme enemy.

 CHAPTER FOUR

                                                           TRUE WISDOM

         “I had told about this method (of doing deeds without any feeling of attachment towards them) to Sun when the Universe started. Sun passed on that knowledge to some of his descendants. However for a very long time that method had been forgotten. The same method is repeats to you, my devotee.”

         Arjun asked how Lord Krishna could be there at the time the universe started. The reply of Lord Krishna was: –

         “God and soul have always existed. God, however, revealed himself only in each era to give relief to the pious minded and destroy the evil-minded. The apparent birth and deeds of God Almighty are most unusual.

           Four classifications have been made for the doers of all sorts of deeds. The scriptures (Vedas) contain a description of different kinds of deeds. The attainment of True Knowledge is the ultimate aim of all such deeds. True knowledge can be attained only by devotion service and honest questioning. Those who have already acquired true knowledge must guide others. True knowledge is like a huge ball of fire. It destroys the feeling of attachment and burns out all sins, which are merely the results of attachment. The soul which has acquired True Knowledge gets absolute peace and qualifies for God realization.

               After being free from the feeling of attachment and envy, one should remain content with whatever comes in stride. Happiness or unhappiness, or attainment or nonattainmentof his objects should not stir him in the least.Ultimately he is bound to get absolute peace.

CHAPTER FIVE

                            OF DOING DEEDS WITHOUT ATTACHMENT

              Asked Arjun: – Which of the two is better – the Process of Reasoning or the Process of Deeds?”

             The reply was: – Both are equally good and lead to the same result. However the Process of Deeds may be said to be the better of the two. True Knowledge can also be acquired by means of Deeds done without any feeling of attachment. When a person has full control over his mind and body, when his soul has become pure and when he is totally bereft of ego and remains unattached while doing deeds, he can not be bound down to the fruits of his deeds and can never commit any sin. He attains peace.

             The doer of deeds without any feeling of attachment keeps on doing deeds for the purification of his soul, but all the time his senses, mind, body and intellect remain free from attachment.

           One must consider everybody alike and remain moderate inhabit and behavior. He must remain firm in his belief and strive hard to attain True Knowledge.

         The attainment of salvation leads to unending peace and happiness. The quest for worldly pleasures is futile. Worldly pleasures are innumerable, perishable and in themselves sourses of unhappiness. Only those persons can attain peace who are free from the feeling of attachment and envy and who have control over their senses, mind, body and intellect.

CHAPTER SIX

                                                  UPLIFTING OF SOUL

               Lord Krishna said: – A person who does deeds without any feeling of attachment is both a Renouncer and a Doer of Deeds. A person, who has control over his senses, mind, body and intellect has no real interest in preserving or amassing wealth. His continuous effort is only to uplift the Soul.

               For purification of Soul practice has to be done in a proper manner. Everything (eating, sleeping. Rest) should be done in moderation. One’s state of mind should be that of a lamp kept at a place where there is no breeze. One must always have faith in his belief and should never feel bored. He is bound to discern the existence of the Supreme Being in all the objects.”

             Arjun observed: – “It is not easy to control one’s mind. To attain mastery in such practice must, therefore, be very very difficult”.

           The reply was: – “Yes! That is so. But by constant practice one may master it.”

             Asked Arjuna: – “That being a long and drawn out process, will not a person engaged in such practice get lost and annihilated in the same manner as a cloud, which disintegrates into nothing?”

            Lord Krishna replied: – “No. Each stage reached by constant practice, remains secure. One starts from that stage in the next birth.”

                                                         CHAPTER SEVEN

KNOWLEDGE DIVINE

             “The acquisition of no other knowledge can be compared to the attainment of Divine Knowledge. It is something grand. One should know what God is.

             Every person has two components – the body and the soul. The body is made up of eight elements (earth, water, air, sky, fire, mind, intellect and ego). The other component, which gives life to the system is different.

             God is the Creator and the Destroyer of the entire universe. God is present in all the objects. Even the feelings, which beget the three qualities (Saintly, worldly and lethargic) are created by God. A grand illusion is the result of the interplay of these qualities. No one can escape that illusion unless he worships God continuously. One, whose wisdom is eclipsed by illusion, does not worship God.

             Four kinds of people worship God. These are of: –

  1. People in quest of worldly objects,
  2. People anxious to avert unhappy events,
  3. People desirous of knowing God, and
  4. People whose every deed is dedicated to God.

Out of them the fourth class is the best.

                People desirous of getting rid of the pangs of rebirth and death must depend only on God.Their faith in Him must be firm.Such a person is not likely to forget God even at the time of his death.

CHAPTER EIGHT

                                                COMMUNION WITH GOD

             “A person, who can manage to remember God even at the time of his death, attain salvation. What one thinks during the last moments of his life, determines his status after death. A person, who can restrain his senses from drifting towards the objects of pleasure, who stations his mind firmly in his heart, and his life force in his forehead, who remains firmly established in such practice, thinks of God only and, at the time of his death pronounce His name (OM) is bound to attain Salvation.

           The doer of deeds with feeling of attachment towards them can go upto heaven only. He returns to earth after the effect of his pious deeds is over. But one who attains Salvation is not born again. The stage of salvation can be reached only by continuous practice and devotion.

             What is time? One day of Supreme Being is equivalent to one thousand eras. Similarly one night of the Supreme Being is also equal to one thousand eras. The Universe was created when the day of the Supreme Being started. It shall get annihilated when the night of Supreme Being starts. The process shall keep on repeating. The Supreme Being alone is undestructable.

               There are two clear-cut paths – one leading to God and other leading to ancestors. A doer of deeds, without any feeling of attachment, takes the first path and does not come back to earth. A doer of deeds with a feeling of attachment takes to the second path and comes back to the earth.

               A person, who fully knows all this, does not get attached to the results of his deeds. He continuously exercises his mind for the attainment of God. The attainment of this True Knowledge is far Superior to the knowledge of the Sacred Scripts and the doing of penance and charity.”

CHAPTER NINE

                                   SUPREME FAITH… MOST SACRED

               “The Supreme faith is the king of all other faiths. It is most sacred, very pure, very nice, consistent with everybody’s code of conduct, easy to follow, good for all times and capable of yielding quick results.

                 The entire universe is full of the Supreme Being in the same manner as ice is full of water. However, neither the Supreme Being is stationed in worldly objects nor are the worldly objects stationed in the Supreme Being.

                 The Supreme Being is the creator of all worldly objects. It holds them and feeds them. But the Supreme Being is not Stationed in them. To affirm that all the objects are stationed in the Supreme Being is tantamount to affirming that air is stationed in the sky.

                 The grand illusion, which is the creation of the inter-ply of the three qualities (saintly, worldly and lethargic), coupled with the Grace of God create all worldly objects.

                   Foolish people, relying on vain hopes, indulging in vain deeds, and attaining vain knowledge, acquire the quality of the demons. They feel attracted by those qualities and adopt them. But saintly people, being of saintly quality, do not do so. On the other hand they worship God with full faith and devotion – either with the feeling of oneness with God, or with a variety of other feelins, such as of master and servant or of the lover and the beloved.

                   The doer of deeds with a feeling of attachment towards the deeds worships god of his choice and attains his object soon. He can even reach heaven. Ultimately he must return to earth. One worshipping god with full faith attains Salvation. God helps him in establishing his faith in Him.

                   Faith and continuous devotion turn one into perfect saint. Even a worst sinner may hope to become a saint.”

CHAPTER TEN

                                                         GOD’S GLORY

                     “God is the creator of all and, therefore, no one can know about the origin of God. It was as a result of a resolve of God that the seven Rishis, the four Sankads and the fourteen Manus, all who control this world, were created. Even the feelings such as wisdom, forgiveness, happiness, power of control over senses and contentment have been created by God.

                       It is only with the help of one’s own soul stationed in his own heart that he may realize God. God is the beginning, the middle and the end of all. One may realize God by looking at things that are remarkable, full of glory and full of power. All such objects have been created by a fragment of God’s glory. The grand illusion created by him holds the entire universe.

                               Thus one may reaize the glory of God by thinking of Varun amongst the sons of Aditya, of Sun amongst astrologers, of Shanker amongst the eleven Rudras, of fire amongst the eight Vasus, of sea amongst water, of king amongst men and so on.

                       The act of continuously repeating the name of God is the king of all the deeds.

CHAPTER ELEVEN

                                                     GOD REALIZATION

Asked Arjun: – Is it possible that I may see you in your true form with all your power, grace and Glory?”

The reply was: – “Yes. But not with the mortal eyes. You can see Me with the divine eyes bestowed by Me.”

The Form then revealed to Arjun had many faces and many eyes. It consisted of a variety of strange forms, all dressed in divine apparels, fully decorated and armed with all sorts of weapons. The entire form looked strange and Limitless. All over it was divine perfume. The brilliance of one thousand suns put together could hardly equal its brilliance. All parts of the universe could be seen in that Form. The Supreme Being, the Rishis and the divine serpants were also in that Form. One could neither see nor perceive its beginning, its middle and its end. Arjun described it thus: –

“I cannot see its beginning, its middle or its end. Eyes are like Sun and Moon. Mouths are like burning fires. It contains the Earth, the Heaven, the intervening sky and all the directions. Everybody is getting afraid after seeing this Limitless Form. It has many facets, is very bright and touches the sky. All that can be seen around is annihilation. All the known warriors are seen entering its fierce mouths and getting perished therein. Who are you?” asked Arjun.

The reply was: – “I am Time (the destroyer) and am here to annihilate this world. All these warriors are bound to be killed. Be the means, attain victory and rule your kingdom.”

Arjun told Lord Krishna that like others he too had lost his bearings and was not finding peace and solace. He requested him to show his Chaturbhuj (Human with four hands) Form.

Lord Krishna revealed to him his Chaturbhuj Form also and told him that none had seen it before and none of two forms could be seen by Penance, Charity, practice or knowledge of scriptures.

CHAPTER TWELVE

                                                     PERFECT DEVOTION

Arjun asked: – “What is better … worship of the abstract or the worship of God after ascribing him a Form?”

The reply was: – “The first is more advanced form of meditation andtherefore, more difficult. People, who themselves have forms, find it easier to worship God after ascribing to Him a Form. Otherwise both the methods are correct.

There is yet another method which is simpler and easier. Have perfect faith in God, devote yourself to God and dedicate all your deeds to God. Very soon you will be relieved from this turmoil of the sea of death.

Try to have perfect devotion with the aid of Mind and intellect. Mind should be applied towards devotion by continuous practice. If that process is difficult try to do all your deeds for the sake of God only. If you find that process also difficult try to feel no attachment towards the results of the deeds. That, by itself, will result in the attainment of peace.

Do not think ill of others. Have love for others without regard of personal gain. There should be no ego. Happiness and unhappiness should be considered alike. Try to forgive even your enemy. Be content. Have control over senses, mind and body.Have absolute faith in God and fully devote your mind and intellect to Him.

Do not stir commotion in others. Do not permit others to stir any commotion in you. Be free from ambition and grief. Do not take sides. Complete the work for which you are destined.

Avoid feeling exceedingly happy about anything. Avoid feeling envious. Have no desire. Never repent. Leave the fruits… good or bad … of all your deeds to God.

Remain steady whether you be among friends or amongst enemies. Regard honour or dishonor alike. Have no craving for heat or cold, happiness or unhappiness. Be free from attachment. Regard praise and abuse alike. Remain content. Have a steady mind. That should be your code of conduct.”

CHAPTER THIRTEEN

                                   BODY AND SOUL…. DIFFERENCE

                             “So many questions crop up. What are you? Are you the body or are you the soul? Is your body part of something bigger, brighter and better? Why has it been separated from bigger body? Where in lies the salvation of soul?

                             What is body? What is soul? How body and soul get together? What is the cause of rebirth?

                               True knowledge is to know the answers of these questions.                                 The body consists of five elements (earth, water, fire, air and sky), ego plus intellect plus the illusion created by the interplay of the three qualities (Saintly. Worldly and Lethargic), plus ten organs (skin, smell, taste, speech, ears, eyes, hands, feet, genital organs and anus), plus the feelings (desire, jealousy, happiness, unhappiness, awareness and aim), plus rest of the body. The forms may be different, but these component parts in each body are the same.

                                It is the Supreme Being, who puts life into the body. The Supreme Being has no beginning and no end and is beyond the scope of three qualities and the ten senses enumerated above. But He knows their working. The Supreme Being is all pervading but without any (feeling of) attachment. It is all pervading like the sky or the rays of the sun.

                               Life is created when the Supreme Being comes into contact with body. The part of the Supreme Being that enters body, gets attached to the body by means of the three qualities (saintly, worldly, Lethargic) to which it has become firmly attached.

                             The Supreme Being is beyond the scope and the influence of the aforesaid three qualities. The separate flame of life (soul) in order to be one with the Supreme Being, has to attain similar status – it has also to reach beyond the scope of three qualities. Then only the Salvation is possible.

CHAPTER FOURTEEN

                                  DIVISION INTO THREE QUALITIES

                            “What is your aim?” True wisdom or right course of action? If that be so follow the course of saintly quality and all that it implies. It will lead you to contentment and wisdom. After death you shall attain Heaven and coming back to this earth you shall be born in good family.

                               In case your aim is to attain worldly objects follow the course of ‘Worldly’ quality and attain all it implies. It will create greed in you, make you work hard for the attainment of your objects. Take you through the illusion of success and ultimately leave you unhappy. After death you eill be born amongst the people of the same quality.

                               In case you cannot raise yourself beyond useless efforts and seek lethargic or idle pleasure, follow the course of ‘Lethargic’ quality and all that it implies. If you die in that stage, you may be born low, even as an insect or a cattle.

                               By making effort you can change over from one quality to another. Suppress ‘worldly’ quality and ‘Lethargic quality in yourself and you will attain ‘Saintly’ quality in abundance. Similarly if you suppress the ‘saintly” quality and the ‘Lethargic’ quality in yourself, you will get the ‘worldly quality in abundance. Suppress both the ‘saintly’ quality and the ‘worldly’ quality in yourself and much of what would be left in you would be the ‘Lethargic’ quality.

                               If your aim is to achieve Supreme Nectar, Supreme righteousness and the everlasting Bliss, try to be one with God. For that you have got to leave the feeling of attachment behind and go beyond the ambit of the three qualities. One need not hate or despise any of these three qualities. However, to be one with God and attain everlasting Bliss, one has just to leave them behind.

CHAPTER FIFTEEN

                              TO BE ONE WITH THE SUPREME BEING

                     “If you have a look at the tree of life, you will find everything tipsy tarvy. The roots are above and the branches are below. Down below, the growth is luxurious and it spreads in all directions. But there is no firmness in the branches.

                     The root is the Supreme Being. The branches, spreading downwards, are watered by the three qualities and their growth reaches all directions.

                     The main branches are of saintly people, of worldly people and of Lethargic people, Desire, attachment and ego keep the people of each branch fastened to their own branch, and its subsidiary growths. The directions of these growths is determined by the deeds of the people. Mind and senses are the feeders of these branches.

                   One should never forget his main root and keep on thinking what is best for him. He should prune all the unnecessary growths. For that the only weapon available is the feeling of non attachment. After having finished the pruning you shall be able to concentrate on the main root.

                 Soul is eternal. Body is perishable. God alone is worth knowing. Take the help of scriptures, purify yourself and make further effort. It is only then that you can attain True Knowledge. Without purifying oneself it is not possible to attain True Knowledge. Effort otherwise is useless.

                       After one has got away from the unrealities of life and become one with the Supreme Being, there can be no rebirth.”

CHAPTER SIXTEEN

                               NATURE …DIVINE AND DEMONLIKE

“One should always act according to Laws and Traditions, and take their guidance, otherwise nothing shall be achieved. The feelings of attachment, greed and anger are tree doors that lead to Hell. Avoid them.

                         The saintly nature consists of :- (1) Fearlessness, (2) Cleanliness of mind and body, (3) Devotion towards God, (4) Acquisition of true knowledge, (5) Suppression of the senses, (6) Study of scriptures, (7) Recitation of God’s name, (8) Taking pain in following one’s own code of conduct, (9) Simplicity of mind, inner self and senses, (10)Non-violence in all its forms, (11) Speaking Truth in a pleasant manner, (12) Absense of anger, (13) Non attachment, (14) Peace of mind, (15) Not speaking ill of others, (16) Kindness towards all, (17) Forgiveness, (18) Patience, (19) Lack of ego and (20) Feeling ashamed while doing something against Laws or Traditions.

                     The demon-like nature manifests itself in (1) the show off, (2) pride, (3) ego, (4) anger, (5) harsh words, (6) lack of knowledge and (7) falsehood.

                     People having the nature of demons think that there is no one on whom they can rely, that the world is without any Truth and without any Supreme Being, that the main object of life is to enjoy, and it is because men and women get together that children are born. The acquisition of wealth is their main aim and they are unmindful of the means, which may be fair or foul. They remain very attached towards the results of their deeds. They remain tied down to the ropes of vain hopes. They seek happiness but in its place they get worry and restlessness. They feel that they are strong and shall be able to subjugate their enemies. They consider themselves superior to others. They act even against Laws and traditions. They are sinful and cruel towards others. They are the cause of their own degradation and go down towards dirty Hell.

                   Saintly Nature leads to Salvation and demon like nature to bondage.

CHAPTER SEVENTEEN

                                                 THREE KINDS OF FAITH

                   Arjun asked, “Why is it that one should act according to Laws and Traditions? Is perfect faith and devotion not quite enough? What is the quality of a person having perfect faith and devotion?

                   Lord Krishna replied: – Perfect faith (confidence) or devotion (sincerity) is a must for the achievement of any object…be it for this world or for the next. It is better if it is of saintly quality. The quality of a person determines also the nature of his faith and devotion. A saintly person, while doing deeds according to his own code of conduct, follows Laws and Traditions.

                Food habits and deeds of persons of three different qualities are of three different kinds. A saintly person will eat person will eat saintly food, do saintly deeds, penance and charity and have saintly faith and devotion. A worldly quality will eat worldly food, do worldly deeds, penance and charity, and have worldly faith and devotion. A person of Lethargic quality will prefer food creating lethargy, do lethargic deeds, penance and charity and lethargic faith and devotion. Thus the faith and devotion of persons of each class will differ materially from the faith and devotion of other two classes. In each sphere a member of any particular class will follow the pattern of his own quality.

                 The Supreme Being is called by three names. When a good deed is started in His name, He is called “Om”. When one dedicates his deeds to God, he calls Him by the name “Tat”. In ultimate analysis, the name of the Supreme Being is “Sat” (Truth).

CHAPTER EIGHTEEN

                                        SALVATION BY RENUNCIATION

                  “There need not be renunciation of deeds. It is enough if renunciation is of the feeling (1) that one himself is the door of the deeds and (2) of attachment towards the results of the deeds. This latter kind of renunciation is excellent and most desirable.

                   Penance and Charity, being good acts, need not be given up. Such acts, if done in a saintly manner, purify the inner self. Other deeds may have defects. But they too need not be given up. It is enough if the feeling of attachment towards the results of those deeds is given up. And renounced. There after those deeds become non-deeds and yield no result – nether piety nor sin.

                   Even the renunciation of the feeling of attachment towards the results of the deeds is of three kinds. Similarly the deeds, the doer, the intellect, the aim and the happiness are of three kinds each.

                   If doing a saintly deed, there is no pride in the doer, and there is no wish for the results of the deeds. It is done without any feeling of attachment and without any anger.

                     The effect of these three qualities on the Society has been to divide it into four classes – the intelligentsia, the warrior class, the traders and the doers of rough work. The work of each class is different, but in itself, it is neither good nor bad. Any person, to whatever classification, he belongs, may attain salvation while doing deeds according to his own code of conduct. The method, which shall have to be adopted, is to convert deeds into non-deeds by giving up the feeling of attachment towards the results of his deeds. When that stage is reached, the deed of that person will turn into a big zero resulting for him neither in piety nor in sin.

                         As long as one confines himself to deeds strictly in accordance with his own code of conduct, he cannot commit any sin. However, if he tries to deeds according to the code of conduct meant for others, all that he will experience is fear. One should follow well his own code of conduct. That is the easiest method of achieving salvation.

                       Remain unattached and thereby convert all your deeds into non deeds, acquire pure wisdom, lead quiet and healthy life, eat light food, be the master of your mind, body and speech, give up anger, control the inner-self and devote yourself to God. Give up pride, reliance on body force, ego, desire and anger. Thus, even while doing all sorts of deeds according to your own code of conduct, you shall attain inner peace and ultimately salvation.”

                       Closing the sermon, Lord Krishna asked: – “Have you got rid of your false notions? You will not be able to rise above your inherent quality because of these false notions. You are of warrior class and that quality of yours will assert itself and lead you to war.

                         Listen to my teachings once again. Think of me alone. Have faith only in Me. Have respect for Me always. I love you, I promise that ultimately you shall attain salvation.”

                         Arjun replied: – “All my false notions are gone. I have become wise. I shall act as directed by you.”

…………….

Note 1 – Karma Yog leads to Yoga Budhhi (True intellect) and Yoga Budhhi to Sankhya Budhhi (Salvation). Karma Yog includes in itself – (1) Balanced mind (Samatva Budhhi), (2) Path of righteousness (Sva-dharma Buddhi), (3) Devotion (Samarpan Budhhi), work not to satisfy ones own ego or anybody else’s, (4) Detatchment (Asang Budhhi) and (5) Whatever comes, accept it (Prasaad Buddhi).

Note 2 –  Gita prescribes for ‘action’/’deed’ combined with intellect. There are choices before human beings – take action with developed mind/intellect or action with weak mind, bridled with desire, based on emotion, impulse, hatred, greed and selfishness. It quite often leads to agitation/aggression and discontent. Intellect needs to be developed to make mind rational. A mind governed by intellect makes a person calm and content.

Note 3 – Dr. K. V. Swaminathan, an eminent Scientist, Engineer, Technocrat engaged in Technology transfer and above all a man well-versed in the knowledge of the Holy book of Hindus, ‘Bhagwat Gita’ has analyzed and synthesized Gita in just 37 verses. These are grouped in three parts.

A set of nine principles can be chosen, each explaining a principle to be learnt from Gita, are put in the pack of 27 stanzas selected from the 573 stanzas from Gita. These nine principles are inherent in Hindu philosophy. The foundation is laid for doing one’s duty. In each segment, the three stanzas selected come from different chapters of Gita. The principle in the first stanza of each segment is reinforced by the following two stanzas –

  • Devotion
  • Recognition of the greatness
  • Reincarnation
  • Immortality
  • Action/Karma
  • Detachment
  • Equanimity
  • Knowledge
  • Intellect

It tells that senses are superior to the body, mind is superior to the senses and knowledge or intellect is superior to the mind. It tells : Knowledge is better than ‘abhyas’ (practice) meditation is  better than knowledge and renunciation of the fruits of action is still better than meditation because peace immediately follows.

The first part consists of 7 stanzas, which he called ‘Sapta Sloka Bhagwad Gita’. These are the first stanzas of Dhritrashtra (pronounces only one stanza in the entire Gita of 700 stanzas), Sanjaya, Arjun and Lord Krishna together with the last stanzas of Lord Krishna, Arjuna and Sanjaya.

These seven stanzas briefly states : Dritrashtra asks Sanjay to report what is happening at the battle field; Sanjay immediately starts reporting; Arjuna asks to place his chariot in the middle of the battlefield and on seeing those arrayed Arjuna is choked with emotion and refuses to fight; Lord Krishna admonishes him for his feebleness and advises him in great length about his duties; Lord then asks him whether he has understood what he had advised him. Arjuna responds that he has recovered from his delusion and is now ready to fight; ans Sanjay concludes predicting victory where Lord Krishna will be there.

The principal lessons to be learnt from Bhagwad Gita and come out of delusion are a set of nine principles as following –

  1. Principle of non-duality – The ‘Creator’ (God) and the ‘Creation (every living thing in this world) is an integral part of the same ‘Parmatma’/God/Creator, therefore inter-linked.
  2. Reincarnation – (described in stanzas – 22nd of II Chapter, 43rd of VI Chapter 19th of VII Chapter) After several births and deaths of body, one can reach a state of immortality. A person is reborn depending on his deeds of previous birth.
  3. Immortality/Salvation – (Stanza 9 of Chapter IV, Stanza 13 of Chapter VIII and Stanza 12 of Chapter XIII) The final objective of all humans is to reach to the state of ‘Moksha’ or immortality – getting free from the cycle of multiple rebirths and deaths. In order to reach that status, one should do one’s duties.
  4. Karma –  (Stanza 47 of II Chapter, 11 of V chapter and 47 of XVII Chapter) This is perhaps the centre piece of Bhagwat Gita. Everyone has a role to play in ones life as per one’s karmas and destiny. One must know truth about action,  inaction and wrong action. Actions should be free from desire.While performing one’s duty/action, one should develop detachment – indicating, one should not bother for fruits of Action.
  5. Detachment – (Stanza 62 of Chapter II, Stanza 19 of Chapter III, and Stanza 22 of Chapter V) – Association with sense object breeds attachment, attachment begets desire and desire covers knowledge by passion and generates anger. Men are mislead or indulge themselves in wrong actions when their knowledge is covered by ignorance. By conquering mind, one can do his duties. Therefore he should constantly use his mind and intellect and keep himself free from desires or expect fruits of action.
  6. Equanimity – (Stanza 14 of Chapter II, Stanza 22 of Chapter IV and Stanza 7 of chapter IV) Contact of senses with objects create feelings like cold and heat, pain or pleasures. These feelings are temporary in  nature. By conquering the Mind One should try to be equanimous by overcoming the influence of the “pair of opposites” like heat or cold; pleasure or pain and honor or dishonor. A person who is satisfied with what naturally comes by, can remain cool to success and failure of his action. A self-controlled person can overcome and remain unaffected by all pairs of opposites – pain and pleasure; or praise ridicule.
  7. Knowledge – (Stanza 42 of Chapter III, Stanza 35 of of Chapter IV and Stanza 16 of Chapter V) Desire is the enemy. It covers mind with passion. Passion is seated in sense organs, mind and even intellect. Therefore, one should first contrl the senses and all sinful passions. As per Gita, senses are superior to the body, mind is superior to the senses and knowledge or intellect is superior to the mind. (Stanza 42 of Chapter III)
  8. Renunciation – (Stanza 21 of Chapter IV, Stanza 13 of Chapter V and Stanza 12 of Chapter XII) Normally people worship God wishing for rewards. One should not seek fruits for actions. Wise persons know truth about action, inaction and wrong action. They conquer their minds and do not care for material objects, pleasures and desires. They do their duties and do not seek fruits for their actions. Gita tells: knowledge is better than abhyas (practice), meditation is better than knowledge and renunciation of the fruits of action is still better than meditation as peace immediately follows such renunciation. (Stanza 12 of Chapter XII)
  9. Four stages in life  – For living life fully and fruitfully and aging gracefully, everyone one has to pass through four stages of life and perform different duties in different stages of life – before marriage learning; married life raising a family as householder; delegation of authority to next generation and spending time in contemplation; and after fulfilling familial liabilities, complete detachment and renunciation of worldly pleasures. Detachment frees an individual from the fear of birth and death.
  10. Tolerance and acceptance/interdependence – Hindu philosophy values interdependence, acceptance and tolerance as – (a) It accepts that there are different paths leading to God and be humane; (b)It gives complete liberty to worship any god or goddess of their choice, as well as use their own methods of worship; (c)It does not impose its own codes of conduct on other faiths; (d) It is liberal enough to see atheism as a legitimate pursuit.
  11. Avatars – The Supreme power visits earth from time to time in some form to make human-beings free from evil and tend them follow virtue. So far, according to Hindu mythology human evolution began with Matsyavatar (fish), then to Kurma (tortoise));Varaha (wild boar); Narsimha (half animal half mam); Vamana (dwarf); Parushrama with axe (tool); Rama the Maryadapurusha; Krishna the playful and serious avatar; and ninth, Budha the enlightened one. It is now expecting 10th avatar in the form of Kalki, a genetically supreme bionic man. (Quoted from ‘Know your religion through its philosophy by Prakash Shesh, the Speaking tree, TOI, p. 20)

July 14, 2016 Posted by | Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Summary of ‘Bhagwat-Gita’

A Summary Of Bhagvat Gita

     By

           Justice Shanker Dayal Khare (Retd), Allahabad, 28.10.1975

INTRODUCTION

We seek happiness. We desire that happiness we sometimes feel may last for ever. Do we succeed? Do we get peace of mind?

Gita throws light on these subjects. We may find its philosophy interesting and useful. There is no harm in giving exercise to our minds in the same manner as we give yogic exercises to our bodies.

Philosophy is simple: – ‘Rely on (your own) Laws and Traditions. Keep on doing deeds as you have been doing them. Do your deeds without hesitation and with complete devotion towards God, and achieve what is generally achieved by such deeds.

Detachment is the doorway to self-realization and to have control over restless mind. If you want peace of mind try not to feel elated with the feeling that you are the doer of the deeds. Dedicate the results of all your deeds to God. Then you should not have any attachment towards the results of your deeds.

In that manner you should reach beyond the scope of the three qualities – (saintly, worldly lethargic).

Have complete faith in the Creator and He will help you in establishing such faith in Himself.

I shall feel happy if some people, like me, find this summary useful.

Allahabad                                                                                         S.D.Khare

28-10-75

                                                           CHAPTER ONE

                                                          DESPONDENCY

         After both the parties had drawn themselves up in battle array, Arjun, accompanied by Lord Krishna, went to the battle field to see those who have come to oppose the Pandavas (party with just cause) and to support Kaurvas (party with an unjust cause). For Arjun it was most disheartening to see that even his own kith and kin, and very near relations were supporting the unjust cause and opposing the just cause. Was it proper for him to fight all those people, who had come to oppose him? Arjun, in retrospect, said, “NO”. He observed that in such circumstances it was better to be killed than be the killer. The situation being very confusing Arjun asked for the advice of Lord Krishna.

                                                   CHAPTER TWO

                                         PROCESS OF REASONING

      Arjun was advised to put up a fight, because –

  1. Being a member of the fighting community it was his duty to fight for the right cause. In such a fight death secured Heaven and survival the pleasures of this world.
  2.  It was foolish to think of destroying others in the process. Soul is indestructible. None of the five elements (fire, air, water, earth or sky) is capable of destroying it. Body is, no doubt, destructible. This body, however, does not retain its original form or shape even during one life time. It keeps on changing from childhood to young age and from young age to old age. Death merely changes the form of the body.
  3. People regard you invincible. You shall fall in their estimates in case you refuse to fight. They shall call you a coward. That shall be worse than death.
  4. Why worry about the result of the fight? How can the result of any deed be controlled? It is always the best to do a deed and leave the result of the deed to God. That is a well recognized method (of doing deeds without feeling attached to them). It is par excellent. The practice of this method shall lead one to detachment and to the attainment of Salvation. Such deeds bear no fruits, piety or sin

       Arjun asked: – “Can a person firmly established in this method of doing deeds be spotted out?”

         Lord Krishna replied: – “Yes! Such a person is always fully satisfied with his own soul. Pleasure nor pain, good luck nor bad luck, can ever perturb him. He withdraws his senses from all objects of pleasure and is without any feeling of attachment, fear and anger. Control over mind and practice lead to such a state. Such person devotes himself fully towards God.”

 CHAPTER THREE

                                                      PROCESS OF DEEDS

       Arjun asked again: – “When acquisition of wisdom is supreme why should one do deeds, the results of some of which might be dreadful?”

        Lord Krishna replied: – The universe and the deeds were created at one and the same time. Everything has to be achieved through deeds. One’s quality determines the nature of one’s deeds. One’s existence even for a moment, is not possible without doing deeds.

      One should do only the natural and the prescribed deeds, that should keep him free from the feeling of attachment and envy.

       Arjun thereupon asked: – When people do deeds perforce (according their quality) why should those deeds saddle them with sins?”

       Lord Krishna replied: – Attachment and envy, born of worldly quality, lead people to partake in sin. Attachment has its abode in senses, mind and intellect. Attachment, with the help of all these three, eclipses wisdom. Senses are strong, mind is stronger and the intellect is strongest of the three. Soul is even more powerful than intellect.

          Concentrating on soul, taking the help of one’s intellect and controlling one’s mind and senses, one can destroy ATTACHMENT, which is the supreme enemy.

 CHAPTER FOUR

                                                           TRUE WISDOM

         “I had told about this method (of doing deeds without any feeling of attachment towards them) to Sun when the Universe started. Sun passed on that knowledge to some of his descendants. However for a very long time that method had been forgotten. The same method is repeats to you, my devotee.”

         Arjun asked how Lord Krishna could be there at the time the universe started. The reply of Lord Krishna was: –

         “God and soul have always existed. God, however, revealed himself only in each era to give relief to the pious minded and destroy the evil-minded. The apparent birth and deeds of God Almighty are most unusual.

           Four classifications have been made for the doers of all sorts of deeds. The scriptures (Vedas) contain a description of different kinds of deeds. The attainment of True Knowledge is the ultimate aim of all such deeds. True knowledge can be attained only by devotion service and honest questioning. Those who have already acquired true knowledge must guide others. True knowledge is like a huge ball of fire. It destroys the feeling of attachment and burns out all sins, which are merely the results of attachment. The soul which has acquired True Knowledge gets absolute peace and qualifies for God realization.

               After being free from the feeling of attachment and envy, one should remain content with whatever comes in stride. Happiness or unhappiness, or attainment or non-attainment of his objects should not stir him in the least. Ultimately he is bound to get absolute peace.

CHAPTER FIVE

                            OF DOING DEEDS WITHOUT ATTACHMENT

              Asked Arjun: – Which of the two is better – the Process of Reasoning or the Process of Deeds?”

             The reply was: – Both are equally good and lead to the same result. However the Process of Deeds may be said to be the better of the two. True Knowledge can also be acquired by means of Deeds done without any feeling of attachment. When a person has full control over his mind and body, when his soul has become pure and when he is totally bereft of ego and remains unattached while doing deeds, he can not be bound down to the fruits of his deeds and can never commit any sin. He attains peace.

             The doer of deeds without any feeling of attachment keeps on doing deeds for the purification of his soul, but all the time his senses, mind, body and intellect remain free from attachment.

           One must consider everybody alike and remain moderate inhabit and behavior. He must remain firm in his belief and strive hard to attain True Knowledge.

         The attainment of salvation leads to unending peace and happiness. The quest for worldly pleasures is futile. Worldly pleasures are innumerable, perishable and in themselves sourses of unhappiness. Only those persons can attain peace who are free from the feeling of attachment and envy and who have control over their senses, mind, body and intellect.

CHAPTER SIX

                                                  UPLIFTING OF SOUL

               Lord Krishna said: – A person who does deeds without any feeling of attachment is both a Renouncer and a Doer of Deeds. A person, who has control over his senses, mind, body and intellect has no real interest in preserving or amassing wealth. His continuous effort is only to uplift the Soul.

               For purification of Soul practice has to be done in a proper manner. Everything (eating, sleeping. Rest) should be done in moderation. One’s state of mind should be that of a lamp kept at a place where there is no breeze. One must always have faith in his belief and should never feel bored. He is bound to discern the existence of the Supreme Being in all the objects.”

             Arjun observed: – “It is not easy to control one’s mind. To attain mastery in such practice must, therefore, be very very difficult”.

           The reply was: – “Yes! That is so. But by constant practice one may master it.”

             Asked Arjuna: – “That being a long and drawn out process, will not a person engaged in such practice get lost and annihilated in the same manner as a cloud, which disintegrates into nothing?”

            Lord Krishna replied: – “No. Each stage reached by constant practice, remains secure. One starts from that stage in the next birth.”

                                                         CHAPTER SEVEN

KNOWLEDGE DIVINE

             “The acquisition of no other knowledge can be compared to the attainment of Divine Knowledge. It is something grand. One should know what God is.

             Every person has two components – the body and the soul. The body is made up of eight elements (earth, water, air, sky, fire, mind, intellect and ego). The other component, which gives life to the system is different.

             God is the Creator and the Destroyer of the entire universe. God is present in all the objects. Even the feelings, which beget the three qualities (Saintly, worldly and lethargic) are created by God. A grand illusion is the result of the interplay of these qualities. No one can escape that illusion unless he worships God continuously. One, whose wisdom is eclipsed by illusion, does not worship God.

             Four kinds of people worship God. These are of: –

  1. People in quest of worldly objects,
  2. People anxious to avert unhappy events,
  3. People desirous of knowing God, and
  4. People whose every deed is dedicated to God.

Out of them the fourth class is the best.

                People desirous of getting rid of the pangs of rebirth and death must depend only on God. Their faith in Him must be firm. Such a person is not likely to forget God even at the time of his death.

CHAPTER EIGHT

                                                COMMUNION WITH GOD

             “A person, who can manage to remember God even at the time of his death, attain salvation. What one thinks during the last moments of his life, determines his status after death. A person, who can restrain his senses from drifting towards the objects of pleasure, who stations his mind firmly in his heart, and his life force in his forehead, who remains firmly established in such practice, thinks of God only and, at the time of his death pronounce His name (OM) is bound to attain Salvation.

           The doer of deeds with feeling of attachment towards them can go upto heaven only. He returns to earth after the effect of his pious deeds is over. But one who attains Salvation is not born again. The stage of salvation can be reached only by continuous practice and devotion.

             What is time? One day of Supreme Being is equivalent to one thousand eras. Similarly one night of the Supreme Being is also equal to one thousand eras. The Universe was created when the day of the Supreme Being started. It shall get annihilated when the night of Supreme Being starts. The process shall keep on repeating. The Supreme Being alone is un-destructable.

               There are two clear-cut paths – one leading to God and other leading to ancestors. A doer of deeds, without any feeling of attachment, takes the first path and does not come back to earth. A doer of deeds with a feeling of attachment takes to the second path and comes back to the earth.

               A person, who fully knows all this, does not get attached to the results of his deeds. He continuously exercises his mind for the attainment of God. The attainment of this True Knowledge is far Superior to the knowledge of the Sacred Scripts and the doing of penance and charity.”

CHAPTER NINE

                                   SUPREME FAITH… MOST SACRED

               “The Supreme faith is the king of all other faiths. It is most sacred, very pure, very nice, consistent with everybody’s code of conduct, easy to follow, good for all times and capable of yielding quick results.

                 The entire universe is full of the Supreme Being in the same manner as ice is full of water. However, neither the Supreme Being is stationed in worldly objects nor are the worldly objects stationed in the Supreme Being.

                 The Supreme Being is the creator of all worldly objects. It holds them and feeds them. But the Supreme Being is not Stationed in them. To affirm that all the objects are stationed in the Supreme Being is tantamount to affirming that air is stationed in the sky.

                 The grand illusion, which is the creation of the inter-ply of the three qualities (saintly, worldly and lethargic), coupled with the Grace of God create all worldly objects.

                   Foolish people, relying on vain hopes, indulging in vain deeds, and attaining vain knowledge, acquire the quality of the demons. They feel attracted by those qualities and adopt them. But saintly people, being of saintly quality, do not do so. On the other hand they worship God with full faith and devotion – either with the feeling of oneness with God, or with a variety of other feelins, such as of master and servant or of the lover and the beloved.

                   The doer of deeds with a feeling of attachment towards the deeds worships god of his choice and attains his object soon. He can even reach heaven. Ultimately he must return to earth. One worshipping god with full faith attains Salvation. God helps him in establishing his faith in Him.

                   Faith and continuous devotion turn one into perfect saint. Even a worst sinner may hope to become a saint.”

CHAPTER TEN

                                                         GOD’S GLORY

                     “God is the creator of all and, therefore, no one can know about the origin of God. It was as a result of a resolve of God that the seven Rishis, the four Sankads and the fourteen Manus, all who control this world, were created. Even the feelings such as wisdom, forgiveness, happiness, power of control over senses and contentment have been created by God.

                       It is only with the help of one’s own soul stationed in his own heart that he may realize God. God is the beginning, the middle and the end of all. One may realize God by looking at things that are remarkable, full of glory and full of power. All such objects have been created by a fragment of God’s glory. The grand illusion created by him holds the entire universe.

                               Thus one may realize the glory of God by thinking of Varun amongst the sons of Aditya, of Sun amongst astrologers, of Shanker amongst the eleven Rudras, of fire amongst the eight Vasus, of sea amongst water, of king amongst men and so on.

                       The act of continuously repeating the name of God is the king of all the deeds.

CHAPTER ELEVEN

                                                     GOD REALIZATION

Asked Arjun: – Is it possible that I may see you in your true form with all your power, grace and Glory?”

The reply was: – “Yes. But not with the mortal eyes. You can see Me with the divine eyes bestowed by Me.”

The Form then revealed to Arjun had many faces and many eyes. It consisted of a variety of strange forms, all dressed in divine apparels, fully decorated and armed with all sorts of weapons. The entire form looked strange and Limitless. All over it was divine perfume. The brilliance of one thousand suns put together could hardly equal its brilliance. All parts of the universe could be seen in that Form. The Supreme Being, the Rishis and the divine serpents were also in that Form. One could neither see nor perceive its beginning, its middle and its end. Arjun described it thus: –

“I cannot see its beginning, its middle or its end. Eyes are like Sun and Moon. Mouths are like burning fires. It contains the Earth, the Heaven, the intervening sky and all the directions. Everybody is getting afraid after seeing this Limitless Form. It has many facets, is very bright and touches the sky. All that can be seen around is annihilation. All the known warriors are seen entering its fierce mouths and getting perished therein. Who are you?” asked Arjun.

The reply was: – “I am Time (the destroyer) and am here to annihilate this world. All these warriors are bound to be killed. Be the means, attain victory and rule your kingdom.”

Arjun told Lord Krishna that like others he too had lost his bearings and was not finding peace and solace. He requested him to show his Chaturbhuj (Human with four hands) Form.

Lord Krishna revealed to him his Chaturbhuj Form also and told him that none had seen it before and none of two forms could be seen by Penance, Charity, practice or knowledge of scriptures.

CHAPTER TWELVE

                                                     PERFECT DEVOTION

Arjun asked: – “What is better … worship of the abstract or the worship of God after ascribing him a Form?”

The reply was: – “The first is more advanced form of meditation and therefore, more difficult. People, who themselves have forms, find it easier to worship God after ascribing to Him a Form. Otherwise both the methods are correct.

There is yet another method which is simpler and easier. Have perfect faith in God, devote yourself to God and dedicate all your deeds to God. Very soon you will be relieved from this turmoil of the sea of death.

Try to have perfect devotion with the aid of Mind and intellect. Mind should be applied towards devotion by continuous practice. If that process is difficult try to do all your deeds for the sake of God only. If you find that process also difficult try to feel no attachment towards the results of the deeds. That, by itself, will result in the attainment of peace.

Do not think ill of others. Have love for others without regard of personal gain. There should be no ego. Happiness and unhappiness should be considered alike. Try to forgive even your enemy. Be content. Have control over senses, mind and body. Have absolute faith in God and fully devote your mind and intellect to Him.

Do not stir commotion in others. Do not permit others to stir any commotion in you. Be free from ambition and grief. Do not take sides. Complete the work for which you are destined.

Avoid feeling exceedingly happy about anything. Avoid feeling envious. Have no desire. Never repent. Leave the fruits… good or bad … of all your deeds to God.

Remain steady whether you be among friends or amongst enemies. Regard honour or dishonor alike. Have no craving for heat or cold, happiness or unhappiness. Be free from attachment. Regard praise and abuse alike. Remain content. Have a steady mind. That should be your code of conduct.”

CHAPTER THIRTEEN

                                   BODY AND SOUL…. DIFFERENCE

“So many questions crop up. What are you? Are you the body or are you the soul? Is your body part of something bigger, brighter and better? Why has it been separated from bigger body? Where in lies the salvation of soul?

                     What is body? What is soul? How body and soul get together? What is the cause of rebirth? True knowledge is to know the answers of these questions.

                         The body consists of five elements (earth, water, fire, air and sky), ego plus intellect plus the illusion created by the interplay of the three qualities (Saintly. Worldly and Lethargic), plus ten organs (skin, smell, taste, speech, ears, eyes, hands, feet, genital organs and anus), plus the feelings (desire, jealousy, happiness, unhappiness, awareness and aim), plus rest of the body. The forms may be different, but these component parts in each body are the same.

                         It is the Supreme Being, who puts life into the body. The Supreme Being has no beginning and no end and is beyond the scope of three qualities and the ten senses enumerated above. But He knows their working. The Supreme Being is all pervading but without any (feeling of) attachment. It is all pervading like the sky or the rays of the sun.

                        Life is created when the Supreme Being comes into contact with body. The part of the Supreme Being that enters body, gets attached to the body by means of the three qualities (saintly, worldly, Lethargic) to which it has become firmly attached.

                        The Supreme Being is beyond the scope and the influence of the aforesaid three qualities. The separate flame of life (soul) in order to be one with the Supreme Being, has to attain similar status – it has also to reach beyond the scope of three qualities. Then only the Salvation is possible.

CHAPTER FOURTEEN

                                  DIVISION INTO THREE QUALITIES

                            “What is your aim?” True wisdom or right course of action? If that be so follow the course of saintly quality and all that it implies. It will lead you to contentment and wisdom. After death you shall attain Heaven and coming back to this earth you shall be born in good family.

                               In case your aim is to attain worldly objects follow the course of ‘Worldly’ quality and attain all it implies. It will create greed in you, make you work hard for the attainment of your objects. Take you through the illusion of success and ultimately leave you unhappy. After death you eill be born amongst the people of the same quality.

                               In case you cannot raise yourself beyond useless efforts and seek lethargic or idle pleasure, follow the course of ‘Lethargic’ quality and all that it implies. If you die in that stage, you may be born low, even as an insect or a cattle.

                               By making effort you can change over from one quality to another. Suppress ‘worldly’ quality and ‘Lethargic quality in yourself and you will attain ‘Saintly’ quality in abundance. Similarly if you suppress the ‘saintly” quality and the ‘Lethargic’ quality in yourself, you will get the ‘worldly quality in abundance. Suppress both the ‘saintly’ quality and the ‘worldly’ quality in yourself and much of what would be left in you would be the ‘Lethargic’ quality.

                               If your aim is to achieve Supreme Nectar, Supreme righteousness and the everlasting Bliss, try to be one with God. For that you have got to leave the feeling of attachment behind and go beyond the ambit of the three qualities. One need not hate or despise any of these three qualities. However, to be one with God and attain everlasting Bliss, one has just to leave them behind.

CHAPTER FIFTEEN

                              TO BE ONE WITH THE SUPREME BEING

                     “If you have a look at the tree of life, you will find everything tipsy-tarvy. The roots are above and the branches are below. Down below, the growth is luxurious and it spreads in all directions. But there is no firmness in the branches.

                     The root is the Supreme Being. The branches, spreading downwards, are watered by the three qualities and their growth reaches all directions.

                     The main branches are of saintly people, of worldly people and of Lethargic people, Desire, attachment and ego keep the people of each branch fastened to their own branch, and its subsidiary growths. The directions of these growths is determined by the deeds of the people. Mind and senses are the feeders of these branches.

                   One should never forget his main root and keep on thinking what is best for him. He should prune all the unnecessary growths. For that the only weapon available is the feeling of non attachment. After having finished the pruning you shall be able to concentrate on the main root.

                 Soul is eternal. Body is perishable. God alone is worth knowing. Take the help of scriptures, purify yourself and make further effort. It is only then that you can attain True Knowledge. Without purifying oneself it is not possible to attain True Knowledge. Effort otherwise is useless.

                       After one has got away from the unrealities of life and become one with the Supreme Being, there can be no rebirth.”

CHAPTER SIXTEEN

                               NATURE …DIVINE AND DEMONLIKE

“One should always act according to Laws and Traditions, and take their guidance, otherwise nothing shall be achieved. The feelings of attachment, greed and anger are tree doors that lead to Hell. Avoid them.

The saintly nature consists of :- (1) Fearlessness, (2) Cleanliness of mind and body, (3) Devotion towards God, (4) Acquisition of true knowledge, (5) Suppression of the senses, (6) Study of scriptures, (7) Recitation of God’s name, (8) Taking pain in following one’s own code of conduct, (9) Simplicity of mind, inner self and senses, (10)Non-violence in all its forms, (11) Speaking Truth in a pleasant manner, (12) Absence of anger, (13) Non attachment, (14) Peace of mind, (15) Not speaking ill of others, (16) Kindness towards all, (17) Forgiveness, (18) Patience, (19) Lack of ego and (20) Feeling ashamed while doing something against Laws or Traditions.

The demon-like nature manifests itself in (1) the show off, (2) pride, (3) ego, (4) anger, (5) harsh words, (6) lack of knowledge and (7) falsehood.

People having the nature of demons think that there is no one on whom they can rely, that the world is without any Truth and without any Supreme Being, that the main object of life is to enjoy, and it is because men and women get together that children are born. The acquisition of wealth is their main aim and they are unmindful of the means, which may be fair or foul. They remain very attached towards the results of their deeds. They remain tied down to the ropes of vain hopes. They seek happiness but in its place they get worry and restlessness. They feel that they are strong and shall be able to subjugate their enemies. They consider themselves superior to others. They act even against Laws and traditions. They are sinful and cruel towards others. They are the cause of their own degradation and go down towards dirty Hell.

 Saintly Nature leads to Salvation and demon like nature to bondage.

CHAPTER SEVENTEEN

                                                 THREE KINDS OF FAITH

                   Arjun asked, “Why is it that one should act according to Laws and Traditions? Is perfect faith and devotion not quite enough? What is the quality of a person having perfect faith and devotion?

                   Lord Krishna replied: – Perfect faith (confidence) or devotion (sincerity) is a must for the achievement of any object…be it for this world or for the next. It is better if it is of saintly quality. The quality of a person determines also the nature of his faith and devotion. A saintly person, while doing deeds according to his own code of conduct, follows Laws and Traditions.

                Food habits and deeds of persons of three different qualities are of three different kinds. A saintly person will eat person will eat saintly food, do saintly deeds, penance and charity and have saintly faith and devotion. A worldly quality will eat worldly food, do worldly deeds, penance and charity, and have worldly faith and devotion. A person of Lethargic quality will prefer food creating lethargy, do lethargic deeds, penance and charity and lethargic faith and devotion. Thus the faith and devotion of persons of each class will differ materially from the faith and devotion of other two classes. In each sphere a member of any particular class will follow the pattern of his own quality.

                 The Supreme Being is called by three names. When a good deed is started in His name, He is called “Om”. When one dedicates his deeds to God, he calls Him by the name “Tat”. In ultimate analysis, the name of the Supreme Being is “Sat” (Truth).

CHAPTER EIGHTEEN

                                        SALVATION BY RENUNCIATION

                  “There need not be renunciation of deeds. It is enough if renunciation is of the feeling (1) that one himself is the door of the deeds and (2) of attachment towards the results of the deeds. This latter kind of renunciation is excellent and most desirable.

                   Penance and Charity, being good acts, need not be given up. Such acts, if done in a saintly manner, purify the inner self. Other deeds may have defects. But they too need not be given up. It is enough if the feeling of attachment towards the results of those deeds is given up. And renounced. There after those deeds become non-deeds and yield no result – nether piety nor sin.

                   Even the renunciation of the feeling of attachment towards the results of the deeds is of three kinds. Similarly the deeds, the doer, the intellect, the aim and the happiness are of three kinds each.

                   If doing a saintly deed, there is no pride in the doer, and there is no wish for the results of the deeds. It is done without any feeling of attachment and without any anger.

                     The effect of these three qualities on the Society has been to divide it into four classes – the intelligentsia, the warrior class, the traders and the doers of rough work. The work of each class is different, but in itself, it is neither good nor bad. Any person, to whatever classification, he belongs, may attain salvation while doing deeds according to his own code of conduct. The method, which shall have to be adopted, is to convert deeds into non-deeds by giving up the feeling of attachment towards the results of his deeds. When that stage is reached, the deed of that person will turn into a big zero resulting for him neither in piety nor in sin.

                         As long as one confines himself to deeds strictly in accordance with his own code of conduct, he cannot commit any sin. However, if he tries to deeds according to the code of conduct meant for others, all that he will experience is fear. One should follow well his own code of conduct. That is the easiest method of achieving salvation.

                       Remain unattached and thereby convert all your deeds into non deeds, acquire pure wisdom, lead quiet and healthy life, eat light food, be the master of your mind, body and speech, give up anger, control the inner-self and devote yourself to God. Give up pride, reliance on body force, ego, desire and anger. Thus, even while doing all sorts of deeds according to your own code of conduct, you shall attain inner peace and ultimately salvation.”

                       Closing the sermon, Lord Krishna asked: – “Have you got rid of your false notions? You will not be able to rise above your inherent quality because of these false notions. You are of warrior class and that quality of yours will assert itself and lead you to war.

                         Listen to my teachings once again. Think of me alone. Have faith only in Me. Have respect for Me always. I love you, I promise that ultimately you shall attain salvation.”

                         Arjun replied: – “All my false notions are gone. I have become wise. I shall act as directed by you.”

…………….

Note 1 – Karma Yog leads to Yoga Budhhi (True intellect) and Yoga Budhhi to Sankhya Budhhi (Salvation). Karma Yog includes in itself – (1) Balanced mind (Samatva Budhhi), (2) Path of righteousness (Sva-dharma Buddhi), (3) Devotion (Samarpan Budhhi), work not to satisfy ones own ego or anybody else’s, (4) Detatchment (Asang Budhhi) and (5) Whatever comes, accept it (Prasaad Buddhi).

Note 2 –  Gita prescribes for ‘action’/’deed’ combined with intellect. There are choices before human beings – take action with developed mind/intellect or action with weak mind, bridled with desire, based on emotion, impulse, hatred, greed and selfishness. It quite often leads to agitation/aggression and discontent. Intellect needs to be developed to make mind rational. A mind governed by intellect makes a person calm and content.

Note 3 – Dr. K. V. Swaminathan, an eminent Scientist, Engineer, Technocrat engaged in Technology transfer and above all a man well-versed in the knowledge of the Holy book of Hindus, ‘Bhagwat Gita’ has analyzed and synthesized Gita in just 37 verses. These are grouped in three parts.

A set of nine principles can be chosen, each explaining a principle to be learnt from Gita, are put in the pack of 27 stanzas selected from the 573 stanzas from Gita. These nine principles are inherent in Hindu philosophy. The foundation is laid for doing one’s duty. In each segment, the three stanzas selected come from different chapters of Gita. The principle in the first stanza of each segment is reinforced by the following two stanzas –

  • Devotion
  • Recognition of the greatness
  • Reincarnation
  • Immortality
  • Action/Karma
  • Detachment
  • Equanimity
  • Knowledge
  • Intellect

It tells that senses are superior to the body, mind is superior to the senses and knowledge or intellect is superior to the mind. It tells : Knowledge is better than ‘abhyas’ (practice) meditation is  better than knowledge and renunciation of the fruits of action is still better than meditation because peace immediately follows.

The first part consists of 7 stanzas, which he called ‘Sapta Sloka Bhagwad Gita’. These are the first stanzas of Dhritrashtra (pronounces only one stanza in the entire Gita of 700 stanzas), Sanjaya, Arjun and Lord Krishna together with the last stanzas of Lord Krishna, Arjuna and Sanjaya.

These seven stanzas briefly states : Dritrashtra asks Sanjay to report what is happening at the battle field; Sanjay immediately starts reporting; Arjuna asks to place his chariot in the middle of the battlefield and on seeing those arrayed Arjuna is choked with emotion and refuses to fight; Lord Krishna admonishes him for his feebleness and advises him in great length about his duties; Lord then asks him whether he has understood what he had advised him. Arjuna responds that he has recovered from his delusion and is now ready to fight; ans Sanjay concludes predicting victory where Lord Krishna will be there.

The principal lessons to be learnt from Bhagwad Gita and come out of delusion are a set of nine principles as following –

  1. Principle of non-duality – The ‘Creator’ (God) and the ‘Creation (every living thing in this world) is an integral part of the same ‘Parmatma’/God/Creator, therefore inter-linked.
  2. Reincarnation – After several births and deaths of body, one can reach a state of immortality. A person is reborn depending on his deeds of previous birth.
  3. Immortality/Salvation – The final objective of all humans is to reach to the state of ‘Moksha’ or immortality – getting free from the cycle of multiple rebirths and deaths. In order to reach that status, one should do one’s duties.
  4. Karma with Detachment – This is perhaps the centre piece of Bhagwat Gita. Everyone has a role to play in ones life as per one’s karmas and destiny. While performing one’s duty/action, one should develop detachment – indicating, one should not bother for fruits of Action.
  5. Equanimity – One should try to be equanimous by overcoming the influence of the “pair of opposites” like heat or cold; pleasure or pain and honor or dishonor.
  6. Knowledge – As per Gita, senses are superior to the body, mind is superior to the senses and knowledge or intellect is superior to the mind. Gita tells: knowledge is better than abhyas (practice), meditation is better then knowledge and renunciation of the fruits of action is still better than meditation as peace immediately follows such renunciation.
  7. Four stages in life – For living life fully and fruitfully and aging gracefully, everyone one has to pass through four stages of life and perform different duties in different stages of life – before marriage learning; married life raising a family as householder; delegation of authority to next generation and spending time in contemplation; and after fulfilling familial liabilities, complete detachment and renunciation of worldly pleasures. Detachment frees an individual from the fear of birth and death.
  8. Tolerance and acceptance/interdependence – Hindu philosophy values interdependence, acceptance and tolerance as – (a) It accepts that there are different paths leading to God and be humane; (b)It gives complete liberty to worship any god or goddess of their choice, as well as use their own methods of worship; (c)It does not impose its own codes of conduct on other faiths; (d) It is liberal enough to see atheism as a legitimate pursuit.
  9. Avatars – The Supreme power visits earth from time to time in some form to make human-beings free from evil and tend them follow virtue. So far, according to Hindu mythology human evolution began with Matsyavatar (fish), then to Kurma (tortoise));Varaha (wild boar); Narsimha (half animal half mam); Vamana (dwarf); Parushrama with axe (tool); Rama the Maryadapurusha; Krishna the playful and serious avatar; and ninth, Budha the enlightened one. It is now expecting 10th avatar in the form of Kalki, a genetically supreme bionic man. (Quoted from ‘Know your religion through its philosophy by Prakash Shesh, the Speaking tree, TOI, p. 20)

June 24, 2016 Posted by | Uncategorized | 2 Comments

What caste-system means?

“Caste was the system of social life, in which Hinduism was expressed. …… Hinduism was the ideological and emotional buttress of caste”

“Caste and Hinduism succeeded in doing in India, what no state, no conqueror and no economy was able to do – the establishment of a single unified system of society throughout the whole of India (accommodating numerous semi-autonomous communities arising at many times and in many places), a system of society, which was able to comprise a greater range of local differences in a single system than any society has previously accomplished.” “

“Through caste system, India has simultaneously accommodated “it to an almost endlessly varied system of semi-autonomous community and at the same time, it brings considerable unity, harmony and condition of peace.”

It “succeeded in wielding an enormously varied plurality of semi-autonomous communities arising at many times and in many places and adopting themselves to many different conditions into a single system of society…” (Don Martindale, India since 1947, p 39)

 “Positive aspects of Indian culture are so deep that the merits of ancient systems would be rejuvenated…. The caste system was working well in ancient times and we do not find any complaint from any quarters against it. It is often misinterpreted as an exploitative social system for retaining economic and social status of certain vested interests of ruling class. … Indian caste system, which has evolved an answer the requirements of civilization at a later phase of development of culture, was integrated with Varna system as enunciated in the ancient scriptures and Dharmasastras.” (Quoted from Ancient caste system worked well: ICHR head, p.1, TOI July15,2014)

 “In modern understanding of ‘caste-system’, element of ‘caste’ has been highlighted and mis-stated; and element of ‘system’ has been supressed.”

Introduction

Caste-system in India giving distinct identity to Indian society – All the above quotations say something about caste system prevalent in India. Some new studies abroad have found (TOI, 23.5.16, P 15) that a strong sense of belonging to social groups make people happier than those who do not. The studies have found that more an individual identified with a particular group, happier one is with one’s life. Researches have found that with each additional group that one is connected with, his/her happiness increases by nine percent. That is the feeling, caste gives to a person -caste appears to be a fundamental social institution – a natural, inevitable unit of society. Sense of belonging to a family seems Natural to a person, Family is nothing but unit of an extended family, extended family of Kula, Kula of a tribe (Vish) – and a tribe of a Jana of Jati (Caste). This way, caste is second only to the family in widening a person’s social radius and in getting importance in his/her private and occupational life. 

Caste system has given Indian society a distinguished identity and a solid social structure with a system of thought, a way of life, and sense of direction. Many structures, systems and principles have been evolved for the harmonious and peaceful living of all its members in a society throughout the world from time immemorial. They remained in vogue for some time, then faded and gave way to new structures, systems and concepts. However it does not apply to caste system, which has given Indian society a distinguished identity and a solid social structure with a system of thought, a way of life, and sense of direction. Castes has its ethnic roots as denoted by Jati, and a ritualistic and symbolic significance in its Varna aspect. It is one of the dominant features still running through the entire social fabric of India.

Developed over thousands of years – Like Islam or Christianity, the origin of Caste-system can not be found in one single authoritative text, nor can it be attributed to one single founder. It has taken thousands of years to develop with the association of numerous social groups into it at different point of time. It started with the arrival of Aryans hereditary kinship and tribal groups in India in waves, from different parts of the world. Their mixing up with the indigenous people (popularly known as Hindus) gave birth to caste system. Over thousands of years, the experiences and deep thinking of many learned sages and intellectuals belonging to different communities have contributed to evolve this system.

Caste for a common-man in India – For a common man, caste appears to be a fundamental social institution – a natural, inevitable unit of society. An individual is a natural member of a family, which is the unit of an extended family, extended family of Kula, Kula of a tribe (Vish) – and a tribe of a Jana of Jati (Caste). In a way, caste is second only to the family in widening a person’s social radius and in getting importance in his/her private and occupational life.

Closer-relationship with caste-fellows – A person’s relation with members of his caste is closer than with those, belonging to other castes. Caste values, beliefs, prejudices, injunctions as well as distortions of reality are the indivisible part of a person’s psyche and conscience. Caste norms define an individual role in the society. It makes one feel good and loved, when he lives up to the norms, and anxious and guilty, when he transgresses them. It still provides an individual with social security.

Issue

In modern times, intellectuals and political leaders, both in India and abroad, consider ‘caste’ a problematic, complicated and derogatory word. They hold caste-system responsible for mind-blowing disparities, discrimination and exploitation. In such a situation, it would be interesting to see what actually ‘caste-system is? How and when did it come into existence? What are the salient features of caste system? Has it become obsolete in modern India? If not, then how much influence, the system still excercise over the minds of common-men in India? How can such an institution be discarded, which has so many qualities of good organization?

What is caste system?

A mechanism to assimilate new groups – ‘Caste system’ has provided a mechanism, through which numerous discrete tribes/social groups could be internalized in the mainstream of the society. As more and more indigenous and foreign groups desired to merge into the Hindu-fold in the past, caste system came into existence.

 Vedic ‘Varna’ system gave rise to caste system. Numerous castes and subcastes emerged within each Varna. However, the four Varnas and their order in precedence remained the same. Caste system has taken different shades and meaning with the changing times and places. Its character is different in the context of village, locality, region or religion.

Giving stability to existing society, while assimilating Numerous communities – The assimilation of various groups, be it racial, immigrants, locals, tribal, professional or others was done under Hindu society cordially through caste-system at different points of time by assigning each new group by assigning each new group a separate caste identity. Hindu society had assigned each new group a separate caste name and included it within its folds without disturbing its existing social order. It never prevented any new group from developing within its own parameters and preserving its specialties and indigenous culture. Each group was allowed to maintain its own rules, regulations, customs, ways of life, beliefs in its own god/goddess and control the conduct of its members. Caste-system has created a plural society long long ago. The beauty of the system was that the main society as a whole remained stable, even while offering a place to new groups within the main-stream.

Preserved carefully the culture of new groups – Caste system never tried to liquidate or absorb new groups artificially into its main stream. Rather it gave them opportunity to come under one umbrella, to preserve their own culture, style of living and traditions, as also an atmosphere to flourish in their own way. While other races and their systems have converted people belonging to other faiths into their own faith, imposing on them their own value system, caste-system has absorbed other groups as whole into itself without annihilating their originality, internal order, customs or language.

Why caste-system came into existence –As Basham says, Caste system may well be called a natural response to many small and primitive groups of people, who were forced to come to terms, with a more advanced economic and social system known as ‘Hinduism’.

Different social groups were fitted well from time to time as a integral part of the whole society on the basis of their being ritually clean or unclean, nature of work and amount of self-discipline they exercised. As far as castes are concerned, they rose and fell in their social order, some died out and new ones were formed from time to time.

The culture of each identity, coming into its fold, has been carefully nurtured and preserved. Hindu society has absorbed the good points of other cultures as well, which has enriched the composite culture of India. Today more than anywhere else in the world, it holds a multitude of thoughts, processes them and practices them. There has been co-existence of varied belief, pattern and thought due to inter-mixing and cultural mingling.

Adaptibility of Caste- system, its saviour  – Caste- system  has survived the vicissitudes of time, saved itself by erosion from within and assault from outside only because of the adaptability. Numerous castes and sub-castes emerged within each Varna. However, the four Varnas and their order in precedence remained the same. Caste system has taken different shades and meaning with the changing times and places.

Changes in caste system according to the needs of the time – Its character during Indus Valley Civilization was altogether different from what exists today. It is still in a transient phase. Its character is different in the context of village, locality, region or religion. Once changed, the system never returned to its original form. Its absorptive nature has internalized alien influences. That is why, it presents one of the oldest social institution and a continuous and uninterrupted living culture still existing in the whole world.

 Salient features of Caste-system

Following salient features have been the same throughout allover India –

Respect for knowledgeVarna/Caste-system has given a high regard to knowledge, wisdom, virtues, characters and will power. Knowledge has always been given importance. It is considered essential for the purpose of giving activities their due meaning and value. According to Hindu philosophy even a wise man may get puzzled without knowledge, as to what he should do or should not do. It is only after the acquisition of knowledge, that a person could understand the real nature of work and could distinguish correctly between action, forbidden action, and inaction.

 Brahmins were given the highest respect in the past, not because of their material successes, but for their learning, character, spirituality and ability to guide the masses. A powerful Emperor, like Ashoka the great, thought it his duty, to bow before the monks as a mark of my deep respect for their learning, wisdom and sacrifice. What matters in life, are not a person’s status or position, but his virtues and wisdom. Only when you have raised yourself up from ignorance, can you recognize the greatness of a few in a sea of humanity.

 Disassociation between Wealth and Status – In Western societies, wealth has always been associated with power, authority and social status. India has never been a materialistic society. Caste system has separated wealth from status, power from authority, pursuit and achievement in knowledge from temptations of worldly comforts. The greatness of a state is judged on the basis of the degree of righteousness and justice, with which the administration governs lives of the people, and not on the basis of the size of a state or its treasury. Similarly, in the society, status of a person or a caste is ranked on the basis of knowledge, discipline and moral standards, and not on the basis of material success, or control of power.

 Stress on duty Whereas, Western cultures have grown around the idea of `rights forming the natural foundation of human relationship, caste system evolves around the concept of duty, tolerance and sacrifice. Emphasis on duty usually makes a person or a group humble and tolerant.

Importance of discipline in social life – Discipline was inculcated amongst ignorant masses and a sense of direction was given to them through infinite variety of rituals, prayers, practices, customs and meditation. At present, its place has been taken over by the laws of a nation, which are enforced on the masses by state authorities to keep them disciplined. Fear of punishment compels the mobs to observe the rules and regulations set-up by state authorities.

Inculcating Tolerance in people – In this system, sacrifice is regarded far more important than success and renunciation as the crowning achievement. Such an attitude prevented ancient India to exercise coercion against its working class, whereas in ancient Greece, Rome or other European countries, people were made to work under the threat of a whip. It stopped people from taking law in their own hands.

 While other nations have passed through many bloody revolutions, India kept on adapting itself to changing times. Its value-system helps people to adjust themselves, without much difficulty, to most drastic changes. India has achieved its freedom in a peaceful manner under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. People, here, are filled with a sense of duty.

 Ranking of different castes– Earlier ranking of different castes was earlier dependent on their relative purity, morality, knowledge and spiritual standards. Considerations of self-discipline, hygiene and cleanliness on the basis of climatic conditions of the region were given importance. Every caste was supposed to lead a self restraint and self disciplined life in all respect, be it in the matter of daily routine, occupation or inter caste relationship. The system of each caste having a specific position in the society and a specific work to do with its rights and duties boosted the morale of the people and promoted social equilibrium and solidarity.

No group placed in greater or lesser disadvantageous position – Varna system was so conceived by the sages that there was hardly any room for any Varna to consider itself, as being placed in greater or lesser disadvantageous position with reference to another. The higher the caste within a Varna, the purer it was considered, and greater were the self-restrictions on its behavior through rituals. Brahmins, occupying the highest place in the society, were put under maximum restrictions and were denied accumulation of wealth. They were directed to lead a simple life, devoted to the spiritual and intellectual pursuits.

Not a rigid attitude while ranking – In ancient times, caste system had the seeds of liberalism. It provided the right and opportunity to get to the top from the humblest origin and earn the respect of the whole society. For example, Vashishtha, the principal of the conservative school of Brahmanism, was the son of Uravshi, a prostitute. Vishwamitra, the maker of the very Gayatri Mantra, the quintessence of the Vedic Brahmanism, was a Kshatriya. Aitreya, after whom the sacramental part of Rig-Veda is named as Aitreya Brahamana, was the son from a non-Aryan wife of a Brahman sage. Vyasa of Mahabharata fame was the son of a fish-woman and he was not ashamed of his origin. Balmiki, an untouchable according to present standards, the original author of Ramayana, is highly respected all over India.

Equitable System – Caste system has been associated, more or less, with social position of each caste group, the restrictions and privileges in matters of social intercourse and clearly defined rights and duties. Though the caste system believes in segmental ranking of different caste groups, according to their relevance and contribution to the society, it has placed all the individuals, within a caste group – rich or poor – on the same footing.

 All members of a caste have similar rights and duties, similar thinking process, similar customs, language, food habits, domestic routine, and style of dress. A person’s relation with members of his caste remains closer and equal than with those belonging to other castes. His relations with other castes are usually formal. All the members of a caste share moments of joy and sorrow with each other. Establishment of Uniform law code – a nationwide civil, criminal and commercial legal system by British and its uniform application to all castes and communities helped in bringing in the parity.

 Each caste an independent unit – The key, to understand the caste system, is not in seeing it as a framework of hierarchical layers of social order, each fitting neatly below the other, but as a series of vertical parallels. Each caste is an independent entity, with its own hierarchy, based either on a tribal identity or an occupational identity. In the past, there was not much disparity between different castes or between urban and rural people. Concepts of forward castes or backward castes, disparities between different sections of society and exploitation of the weak were almost non-existent. All this is a development of last hundred and fifty years.

 Interdependence Inter-dependence in social life and self-reliance in personal life were the intrinsic features of caste system. It was practically impossible for a single caste to fulfill all its needs by itself. Local semi-autonomous nature of Caste system has made all the people self-sufficient and capable to fulfill their needs. Every regional area produced enough to fulfill the basic needs of its people. The society had control over its natural resources.

 Now, with the emergence of Global society, people are becoming more independent and started depending on market forces to fulfill their needs, for which they need enough money.

 Bond between Individual and Caste – Every individual has a caste. There has been a close bond between individual and the society and individual and the occupation through caste, which has held them together. People help their caste fellows in times of need/emergency. Earlier the placement of power and access to authority was through the network of kinship and community.

 Employment, dignity and honour for all – The unique feature of caste system was that it provided work and employment to everyone. There was no dearth of employment opportunities for persons willing to work or wanting to become soldiers. Caste system inspired people to do their jobs well, as all worldly honour and spiritual happiness were vested there. It assured the people that proper performance of one’s work, whether high or humble, whether of a priest, warrior, Shudra or yogi were equally important for the society and were, therefore, right, respectable and worth pursuing. It provided the whole society a quality of life.

 Now the government has taken over the responsibility of providing jobs to its people. The trend has adversely affected the work-culture. Also it has become a big challenge for the government to give employment to all according to their capabilities and keep everybody satisfied.

 Division of Labour – Caste system is based on the principle of division of labor. All the functions needed for the maintenance and growth of the society have divided among various groups appropriately. Each caste group has been assigned a distinct function to perform. There was no confusion or frustration on matter of work earlier, because every body had his traditional occupation. Each and every caste serves the needs of Indian community.

 All people earlier lived with dignity and honour with the feeling that they, too, were contributing something to the society. Clear-cut definition of rights and duties for each caste based on its traditional occupation, developed a clear vision of one’s responsibilities. The separation of rights and duties combined with the principle of inter dependence provided its own system of checks and balances over arbitrary use of one’s authority. There was an automatic decentralization of authority.

 Assignment of workAssignment of work was based on certain principles and realities of life. According to it all people do not have the same attitude and aptitude. There are variations in their physical strength, mental capacity and moral aspirations, like and dislikes, inclination and expectations.

 Hindu philosophy believes that the whole world of activities is a result of complex intermixing of three basic qualities of human nature – goodness (Satwa), Passion (Rajas) and dullness (Tamas). `Goodness is associated with purity, peace and knowledge; `Passion with comfort and action; and `Tamas with ignorance, sloth, sleep and carelessness.These qualities determine the tendencies, potentialities, limitations, traits and character of different individuals and give them direction for action. `Adharma (immoral behavior), Alasya (laziness) and Agyan (ignorance) are usually responsible for evils, exploitation, and miseries of the people.

 Earlier different activities were assigned to different groups according to its natural endowment/inclinations, qualities and aptitudes/psychological characteristics. Brahmins having `Sat or `austerity were assigned the work of pursuing knowledge. Rajas quality of Kashtriyas was befitting for actions of courage, bravery, power and protection of the weak. Initially, according to Smritis it was not birth, but the qualities and deeds, which fitted one into a particular group.But, later on, upbringing, atmosphere and convenience tended to make these groups hereditary.

 At present, it is the choice of an individual to decide for ones career and acquire qualifications accordingly through formal education and training.

 Natural leaders – Don Martindale said that India possessed a reservoir of natural leaders – Brahman trained in literary skills and Kashitryas in art of leadership. Most of them were sensitive and caring and totally devoted to their profession. It was with their sincere efforts that numerous reforms were sought and the nation entered the modern era without any cultural break.

 Natural training without investment – The Caste system transmitted the traits of a trade, intelligence abilities, experiences, values and skills from one generation to another in a natural way. People, while growing up, learnt the secrets of their trade, hidden intricacies, solutions of their occupational problems, informally from their elders. It gave them confidence and saved them from confusion or unhealthy competition. Being in constant contact with the family occupation, it was natural for the people to learn maximum about their traditional occupations.

 SpecializationThe Caste system served as a spawning bed for social and technical skills. By its very nature, it encouraged the development and preservation of local skills. There was a tendency to bring in the most diversified skills to high level of excellence. It was encouraged with religious and semi-religious sanctions. Assignment of different functions to different communities led to the transfer of knowledge and expertise, from one generation to another, through inheritance and evolved an atmosphere, where a high level of Specialization and wisdom in different areas of activities could be achieved.

 Mobility– Caste system in its earlier ideology did not restrict mobility. Mobility from one caste to another, was though difficult, but not impossible. Through good deeds, the position of a caste could be improved. Caste system developed the practice of making mobility possible, not for an individual, but for the whole group. Upward mobility could be gained by a caste, either by change in geographical locations, or improving ritual status leading to self-discipline.

 It gave an incentive to groups belonging to lower strata to adopt more orthodox practices, cleaner habits, self-discipline and observance of the rules of Smrities in order to rise in the social scale.`Kayastha community, which is an amalgam of groups from all the four Varnas, secured for itself a place next to Brahmins through its intellectual pursuits, specialization in revenue work and observance of rituals.

 From fourteenth to the eighteenth century, people from all strata of society including the lowest joined army. There was no discrimination in the recruitment and treatment of soldiers of any kind on the basis of caste. Rajput status was given to soldiers.

Institution of ‘Caste’ contains all the essentials of a good organization –

 As is evident, institution of ‘Caste’ contains all the essentials of a good organization, whether social, political or economic, which help its smooth functioning like it –

  •  Provides a stable, sustainable social structure based on Principle of Varna.
  • Satisfies all biological as well as psychological needs of its members as an individual and as a group.
  • Follows the principle of Division of labour.
  • De-centralizes control systems.
  • Defines clearly duties and vocations for different sections of society,
  • Prepares an atmosphere for Specialisation
  • Balances various activities, no activity either be over-valued or under-valued.

  • Believes inself-discipline, inter-dependence, mutual respect for each other, trust and tolrence. 

  •  Creates Team spirit to secure coordination, peace and prosperity for all.

The system had been able to provide such an atmosphere in the past that when the world was passing through the Dark Age, India was full of light. The first few centuries are recognized as the golden period of Indian history. During this period, arts, commerce, crafts, philosophy and knowledge flourished magnificently. Its people reached a high level of intelligence having specialization in different areas.It has become rich in literary, philosophical and religious fields.

 It was a cheerful land. Each person found a niche in the social system. An average Indian, according to Dr. Albert Swheitzen, Did not find life a vale of tears, from which to escape at all costs, rather he was willing to accept the world, as he finds it and, extract, what happiness he could, from it.Recently U.S. Ambassador John Kenneth Galbrigth remarked, While he had seen poverty in many countries of the world, he found an unusual attribute among the poor of India. There is richness in their poverty. They did not count wealth in money alone.

 Many travelers visiting India, from alien lands at different points of time, confirmed that India possessed huge wealth, knowledge, and quality of life. German scholars, in the early Nineteenth Century and English scholars in the late Nineteenth Century and early Twentieth Century were deeply fascinated by its scriptures and translated it in their languages.

After Independence in 1947

 After the Independence, the Preamble of the Constitution of India assured all its citizens – EQUALITY of status; and to promote among them all FRATERNITY. Article 14 of the Indian Constitution confers Fundamental rights of “Equality before law.” Article15 prohibits discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth. Article 16 assures equality of opportunity in matters of public employment.

System less restrictive and rigid – Spread of education, process of modernization, industrialization, attempts of reformers and growing awareness of the masses have made caste less restrictive and rigid. The system allows its members a greater degree of freedom in all walks of life. The post Independence era witnessed the castes becoming socially more and more liberal. Children are brought up in a much more homogenous atmosphere. The ideas, beliefs and values, have changed to a great extent.

Considerations for purity and pollution fading away from public life

 – The traditional barriers on marriage, hereditary occupations and commonality, have started disappearing. Restrictions or interactions between different castes arising due to considerations for purity and pollution are fading away from public life. The old style of authority of caste-elders in every day life has already diminished. Unquestioned obedience or following blindly orders of family or caste elders is no longer there.
Castes no longer enjoy legal or religious sanctions. Expulsion from castes means little. Through Constitution itself, there is free access to public places to everybody, irrespective of caste or creed.

A well-accepted and well established reality of Indian social system

In social life, caste continues to excercise considerable influence on the minds of its respective members. It still meets important needs of its members more than any political or economic institution. People rely on it for moral and emotional support during normal times, as well as during crisis. That is why an ordinary person is reluctant to abondon the institution of caste, which has proven its value.Caste system still acts as a strong cementing force that binds all its members together and keep them under one umbrella i.e. Hinduism. Caste had always been and are still a well-accepted and well established reality of Indian social system.

 But the entry of caste into politics has made it rigid and led the Indians towards caste-ism, because of which all the sections of society are facing hardships. There is centralization of control systems. There is cut-throat competition and rivalry/bitterness for pelf, power or position now allover India. Besides, total aversion o f youth from their traditional occupation has rendered millions of them unemployed or underemployed, thus wasting their time, energy and efforts. This they could have utilized for constructive purposes.

 Some leaders, intellectuals and social reformers want to replace caste system by creating a new social order, common men are reluctant to abandon the institution of caste, which has proven its value. Caste system still acts in India as a strong cementing force that binds all its people together under Hinduism, from one end of the country to the other. Caste still continues to be a well-accepted and well-established reality of the Indian social life and its systems. It exercises considerable influence on the minds of its all Indians. It meets important needs of people more than any other institutions. People rely on it for moral and emotional support during normal times as well as during emergency/crisis.

May 10, 2016 Posted by | Uncategorized | 2 Comments

Origin of caste as a system in India

Caste was the system of social life, in which Hinduism was expressed. …… Hinduism was the ideological and emotional buttress of caste…. Caste and Hinduism succeeded in doing in India, what no state, no conqueror and no economy was able to do – the establishment of a single unified system of society throughout the whole of India (accommodating numerous semi-autonomous communities arising at many times and in many places), a system of society, which was able to comprise a greater range of local differences in a single system than any society has previously accomplished.”

Through caste system, India has simultaneously accommodated “to almost endlessly, a varied system of semi-autonomous community and at the same time, it brings considerable unity, harmony and condition of peace.”  It  has “succeeded in wielding, an enormously, varied, plurality of semi-autonomous  communities, arising, at many times, and in many places;  and adopting themselves to many different conditions into a single system of society…” (Don Martindale, India since 1947, p 39)
“Positive aspects of Indian culture are so deep that the merits of ancient systems would be rejuvenated…. The caste system was working well in ancient times and we do not find any complaint from any quarters against it. It is often misinterpreted as an exploitative social system for retaining economic and social status of certain vested interests of ruling class. … Indian caste system, which has evolved an answer the requirements of civilization at a later phase of development of culture, was integrated with Varna system as enunciated in the ancient scriptures and Dharmasastras.” (Quoted from Ancient caste system worked well: ICHR head, p.1, TOI July15,2014)

Indroduction

Evolved in a natural way -The origin of Caste-system can not be found in one single authoritative text, nor can it be attributed to one single founder. It evolved in a natural way over thousands of years. The experiences and deep thinking of many learned sages and intellectuals belonging to different communities at different points of time have contributed to evolve this system. It is a very old and indigenous system, conceptualized, developed and practiced exclusively in India.

Provided a Mechanism to assimilate small and primitive groups – As Basham has pointed out, Caste system may well be called a natural response to many small and primitive groups of people, who were forced to come to terms, with a more advanced economic and social system. It provided a mechanism, by which numerous discrete tribes could be, all sorts of groups and associations arising for political, sectarian or other reasons could be internalized and preserved within the whole.

Development of thousands of years of the association – Caste is the development of thousands of years of the association of many racial and other groups in a single cultural system. The arrival of Aryans hereditary kinship and tribal groups in India in waves, from different parts of the world and their mixing up with the indigenous people (popularly known as Hindus) gave birth Varna-system of Vedic culture.

Start during ancient pastoral society –  The beginning of the system can be traced from the times of pastoral tribal society, when people started forming small groups mostly living in hilly areas, not far from rivers. Tribal communities were nomadic or semi nomadic and egalitarian. They depended on nature for its subsistence.

Development during Agricultural society – Gradually pastoral tribal society transformed into a settled agricultural society, confining its activities and life within a small area or territory. Agricultural society leisurely evolved its structures and systems over about 2000 years (roughly between 2000 BC to about 600 BC) and kept on coping with the changes slowly, time had brought in. As reflected in ‘Rigveda’, when people ceased to be a wandering people, started the early stages of Vedic Age.

Clans and tribes settled permanently in different parts of the country. Possession of land, slaves and hired laborers started. People hardly possessed more than what was needed for their subsistence/survival. The practice of cultivation, rise of crafts and iron tools transformed the egalitarian society into fully agricultural and stratified society sometime during 6th century BC.

Beginning of settled life – After entering into India, first Aryans conquered India’s original inhabitants of Northern part of India, colonized and established kingdoms. Most of  original inhabitants moved to Deccan and then south. During the period, it was possible to have high ranks, but not high social classes. Initially a simple class division was seen in the social structure, i.e. nobility and the ordinary tribesmen. The units of social-political organizations were family, clan, village, tribe and Jana. Family was the unit of society headed by father. Three or four generations lived together, and probably owned property in common. A number of families living in one locality formed ‘grama’ (village). A number of such fighting units dwelling in a particular region constituted a ‘vis’ (canton), ‘Jana’ (a group of tribes) consisted of a number of such cantons, with a king as their ruler.

Mixing up of their culture with native culture of the land – Starting with arrival of Aryans in waves and mixing up of their culture with native culture of the land evolved a social structure based on the principles of “Varna” (giving birth to caste system), “Dharma” and “Karma”, which together distributed, organized performance of various functions and contributed to the growth of Indian society. In the beginning, Varna – meaning color – guided the division of the society. These principles gave Vedic society a distinct character, defined roles and organized inter-relationship of various sections of society.  Fair skinned Aryans, being the conquerors, kept themselves on the top. They spread their language and culture allover the North. Many changes started taking place in the life, manners, religion, language and literature of people.

Social structure bases on ‘Varna’ – Principle of ‘Varna’ had stratified Vedic society into four groups – Brahmins (intellectuals), Kshatriyas (warriors), Vaishyas (Businessmen) and shudras (service providers) according to aptitudes, occupation and location of people. Aryans dependents of Brahmins and Kshatriyas were the subject class. Vaishyas followed the profession of agriculture or cattle raising and formed also the armed forces of their princes. The three classes were not rigidly separated. People, who were conquered and admitted into the fold of Aryan society, were looked upon as the lowest of the four classes. Conquered Kols and Dravid tribes formed the fourth class of ‘Dasas’ or ‘Shudras’. Aryan princes did not regard ‘Dasa’ princes as inferior, for they made alliances with them.

Possession of land, slaves and hired laborers started. People started producing and possessing more than they needed. The kings collected their surplus yields. The power of kings gradually increased. For regular collection, administrative and religious methods were devised.

Rise of caste system – As more and more indigenous and foreign groups were merged into the Hindu-fold, Vedic Varna system gave rise to caste system. For making place for new groups, caste system provided a mechanism. Through it, the job of assimilation of different tribal, local and immigrant groups was done cordially, at different points of time. Each new group joining it was given a separate caste identity. It neither disturbed the existing internal social order nor any new group was prevented from joining it and still allowed new groups to preserve its specialties and indigenous culture. It gave each one opportunities to develop within its own parameters. Thousands of endogamous groups were included into it. Each group was allowed to maintain its own rules, regulations, customs, way of life and power to control conduct of its members. However, principles of Varna, Dharma, and Karma remained the foundation stones of caste system and contributed to its growth in a systematic way.

Connection between ‘Varna’ and ‘Caste’ -Castes had its ethnic roots as denoted by ‘Jati’, and a ritualistic and symbolic significance in its ‘Varna’ aspect. Different castes found their place under a ‘Varna’ on the basis of their being ritually clean or unclean, nature of work and amount of self-discipline they exercised. Numerous castes and sub-castes emerged within each ‘Varna’. Four ‘Varnas’ remained the same. These were never more or less than four. For over 2000 years, their order in precedence remained the same.  As far as castes were concerned, they rose and fell in their social order, some died out and new ones were formed from time to time.

Castes in the Making around 5th century – Perhaps, the first faint trace of caste is to be found in the careful cataloguing of traders and professions in later Vedic literature. Many traders were organized into guilds around 5th century AD, in which, some authorities have seen the origin of commercial castes. These can be seen as the castes in making. Even up to 7th century AD, people showed no clear knowledge of the existence of castes. Huan Tsang, in the Seventh century was well aware of the existence of Varna, but not of castes.

Salient features of Caste System – All the strength of caste system comes from its basic principle of Varna, which  gave Indian Society a stable, sustainable and a solid social structure with a system of thought, a way of life and sense of direction, accompanied by principles of Dharma, and Karma,  The principles which ensured the continuity despite numerous foreign invasions, migrations and assimilation of various groups. Caste system could survive for such a long period because –

  • Principles of a good organization – Almost all principles of a good organization are found in caste system. It provides strong structure based on principles of ‘Varna, Dharma and Karma”, keeps its members comfortable and satisfied, assigns duties to different sections of society according to their natural instincts and qualities and instills amongst people feeling of interdependence and team-spirit etc. Caste-system believes in lofty principles like “Vasudhaiv Kutumbkam” (whole world is one family), “live and let live”, “Self restraint”, “automatic checks and balances” “division of labor” along with “to each according to his needs and from each according to his capacity” etc. etc.
  • Assimilation without conversion- Caste system is a natural response of mixing up of numerous social multi-ethnic groups with indigenous groups of the land into a single cultural system. Beauty of caste system lies in the way; it assimilated numerous social groups coming from different parts of the world at different points of time in waves.– immigrants, locals, tribal, professionals or others – into its mainstream. Unlike Islam or Christianity, it has brought them under one umbrella without any conversion.
  • Caste as a mechanism for inclusion of other groups – Caste system worked as a mechanism, assigning each incoming new group a separate caste identity. Society remained stable, while offering a place to a new community. The system neither disturbed its existing internal social order nor prevented any new group to develop itself. Without any conversion, caste system made new groups its integral part. It never tried to annihilate their faith, originality, internal order, customs, culture or language. Instead, it gave them freedom to prosper/make changes into their systems according to their internal rhythm.
  • Based on the vision of an organic society – Caste-system is based on the “vision” of an organic society. Society as an organic body needs services of all its constituents equally. Each part has been assigned a particular function. All the parts are equally important and indispensible, need equal attention for its growth and care for balanced growth of the whole system. Coordinated functioning of all parts together keeps whole system fit and alive.
  • Employment, dignity and honor for allThe unique feature of caste system was that it provided work and employment to everyone. There was no dearth of employment opportunities for persons willing to work or wanting to become soldiers. Caste system inspired people to do their jobs well, as all worldly honor and spiritual happiness were vested there. It assured the people that proper performance of one’s work, whether high or humble, whether of a priest, warrior, Shudra or yogi were equally important for the society and were, therefore, right, respectable and worth pursuing. It provided the whole society a quality of life.
  • Basis of segmental-ranking – Though the caste system believed in segmental ranking of different caste groups, according to their relevance and contribution to the society, it placed all the individuals, within a caste group – rich or poor – on the same footing. All members of a caste had similar rights and duties, similar thinking process, similar customs, language, food habits, domestic routine, and style of dress. Elders took care of maintaining discipline within the caste and helped the members, who were weak and helpless.
  • Ranking – Varna system was so conceived by the genius sages that there was hardly any room for any Varna to consider itself, as being placed in greater or lesser disadvantageous position with reference to another. The ranking of different castes was dependent on the nature and social relevance of their work, contribution of their work for social subsistence, efforts required to perform their duties and amount of self restraint/self discipline, they exercise, their relative purity, morality, knowledge and spiritual standards. Considerations of self-discipline, hygiene and cleanliness on the basis of climatic conditions of the region were also given importance, while ranking different castes.
  • Stress on self-restraint and self-discipline – Every caste was supposed to lead a self restraint and self disciplined life in all respect, be it in the matter of daily routine, occupation or inter caste relationship. Brahmins, occupying the highest place in the society, were put under maximum restrictions and were denied accumulation of wealth. They were directed to lead a simple life, devoted to the spiritual and intellectual pursuits.The higher the caste within a Varna, the purer it was considered, and greater was the self-restrictions on its behavior through rituals. The system of each caste having a specific position in the society and a specific work to do with its rights and duties boosted the morale of the people and promoted social equilibrium and solidarity.
  • Inter-dependence – All the activities of urban or rural areas were confined within a small area, having very little links with the outside world because of slower means of transport. Only merchants visited different distant places. The local societies used to be self-sufficient mutually `supporting and caring for each other. No caste took an all India character. There was no nationwide hierarchy of castes. However, in a local area, the relative standing of castes was more or less fixed. All local castes, whether high or low, living in an area mutually depended and supported for fulfilling different kind of needs and cared for each other. All people living in a village or city, were bound together by economic and social ties and had a strong bond of mutual dependence. Rituals required the participation of all castes.
  • Local character – Local character and semi-autonomous nature of caste system made close interaction and cooperation between different castes a reality. Inter-dependence in social life and self-reliance in personal life were the intrinsic features of caste system making each local area self-sufficient and capable to fulfill all the needs of its people. People living in a local area shared moments of joy and sorrow with each other. All castes including untouchables were assigned important social duties. Harijan women helped all castes at time of child-birth. Harijan males beat drums in front of Hindu’s houses or in front of a procession on important occasions/ceremonies. Village barber spread news, arranged marriages and served food during celebrations. Occasionally non-Brahmins or Harijans served as priests of temples of goddesses like Sita or Kali, where all castes made offerings. The key, to understand the caste system, was not in seeing it as a framework of hierarchical layers of social order, each fitting neatly below the other, but as a series of vertical parallels. Each caste was an independent entity, with its own hierarchy, based either on a tribal identity or an occupational identity. All the castes were independent, yet their roles complementary.
  • Not much disparity – There was not much disparity between different castes or between urban and rural people. The concepts of forward castes or backward castes, disparities between different sections of society and exploitation of the weak were almost non-existent earlier. The tropical climate of the country compelled the people to the distribution of surplus, as it was difficult to store anything for long.
  • Automatic checks and balances – Decentralized self-regulated systems managed various activities in social, intellectual, political, and economic life and controlled its malfunctioning or dis-functioning. There was hardly any question of all India tyranny of any caste group. There was not a single group identifiable as very strong-dominating all the others, or as an enemy to defeat. Laws remained unmodified and flexible with the capacity to adapt to local customs and situations. People in power and position cared for the lower castes in order to acquire and retain local followers. The system made upper castes generous in matters of food, drinks and loans, when required. The plurality of society provided automatic checks and balances and controlled the arbitrariness or unbalanced growth of power of any group. Indian peasantry in UP, Bihar and MP were armed. In fact, non-Kshatriya peasant provided leadership of most armed bands, which were numerically predominant and economically and politically strong at the village level. The monopoly of powerful peasant was a reality of the rural life of Medieval India. The Brahmin strongholds were the centers of learning. The floating population, consisting groups like Gujjars, Bhattis, Rajput rangers, who remained outside caste system, were so strong, that they terrorized settled agriculturists for centuries. Forests, which competed with arable land in size and importance, till the 18th century, gave shelter and food to large sections of society and served as havens for those in search of escape from society. Thus, from time to time, and place to place, different castes rose and fell in their social order, some died out and new ones were formed.
  • More stress on duties – The system clearly specifies duties, privileges and restrictions of each role separately and managed relationship with others. It encourages self-discipline, self-control and self-direction. Sprees on one’s responsibilities/duties rather than on rights, combined with principle of inter- dependence provides its own system of checks and balances over arbitrary use of one’s authority and leads to automatic decentralization of authority.
  • Flexibility and adaptability – Caste system took different shades and meaning with the changing times and places. Once changed, it never returned to its original form. Its adaptability and absorptive nature has pronged its life. The system evolved its structures and systems leisurely and kept on coping with the slow changes, time brought in. Its character during Indus Valley Civilization was altogether different from what exists today. It is still in a transient phase. It is different in context of village, locality, region or religion.
  • High level of intelligence and specialization – Caste-system worked so well and efficiently in ancient India that when the world was passing through Dark Age, India was full of light. First few centuries are recognized as the golden period of Indian history. Caste system had wisely organized all activities of society properly.
  • Acted as a shield – During medieval India, caste system was a major force for failure of Islam, Christianity and other religions to make headway even after mass conversion. Though many evil practices developed in the system during this period, but it acted as a shield for Hindus to retain their cultural identity, while living under alien rule, whether it was of Mughals, Portuguese or British.

When the world was passing through the Dark Age, India was full of light. The first few centuries are recognized as the golden period of Indian history. During this period, arts, commerce, crafts, philosophy and knowledge flourished magnificently. Its people reached a high level of intelligence having specialization in different areas. Many travelers visiting India, from alien lands at different points of time, confirmed that India possessed huge wealth, knowledge, and quality of life. It was a cheerful land. Each person found a niche in the social system. Its people reached a high level of intelligence having specialization in different areas. It was a cheerful land.

Caste still a strong social institution – Not only in the past, but at present also, caste system appears to be a valid and useful, a natural and inevitable unit of society. It is popular and commands respect and attention of majority of Indian masses of all sects present in India, whether foreign or indigenous. For them following four are fundamental social institutions. An individual is supposed to be a natural member of a family, which is a unit of an extended family, extended family of Kula, Kula of a tribe (Vish) – and a tribe of a Jana or Jati (Caste).

Caste second only to family –  A person’s relations with members of his caste are closer than with those, belonging to other castes. Caste values, beliefs, prejudices, injunctions as well as distortions of reality are the indivisible part of a person’s psyche and conscience. Internalized caste norms defines an individual role in the society. It makes one feel good and loved, when he lives up to these norms, and anxious and guilty, when he transgresses them. In a way, caste is still second only to the family in widening a person’s social radius and in getting importance in his/her private and occupational life.

Caste inseparably inter-twined with Indian way of life – Later on, caste-system has became a dominant factor, a natural unit of Indian society, running through the entire fabric of its social structure. Slowly but steadily it got inseparably inter-twined with Indian way of life. So much and so that that, Muslims and Christians, Sikhs and Buddhist, living in India could not remain immune from it for long, though their respective religions believe in egalitarian society. They have, with all their equalitarian faith, formed caste groups within themselves.

Winding up

Developed deformities as time passed on – Caste system has travelled a very long distance since then. Many changes have taken place in the system especially during centuries of Muslim and British rule in the country. As time passed on, vested interests in each era had distorted or interpreted the original concepts in the manner, which suited to their purpose. Many deformities and rigidities had developed into system to preserve its indigenous identity and culture.

In political circles, caste is blamed for all the agonies of submerged sections of Indian society – Caste-system is blamed for everything – it could vary from illiteracy to creating disparities of power, wealth and culture, escalation of violence, crimes and corruption leading the nation towards disintegration and discrimination and exploitation of weaker, unprivileged sections of society, forcing destitution on vast number of people. But the fault lies somewhere else.

Caste-system presents one of the oldest social institution presenting before the world a continuous and uninterrupted living culture existing in the whole world. The strength of caste system has been proved by the following facts:

  • Despite centuries of foreign rule over 75% of Indian population remains Hindu and have strong feelings for caste-system.
  • Had caste system become obsolete, it would have given place to other system.
  • Caste system has influenced all other communities living in India.

Caste system acted as a shield – Caste-system and its values have acted as a shield. During medieval and initial period of modern India, caste system has been a major force for failure of Islam, Christianity and other religions to make headway during the Muslims or British rule and even after the mass conversions of Hindus into Islam and Christianity. Even in 21st century’s atmosphere of chaos, as C. Rajgopalachari has pointed out “If there is honesty in India today, any hospitality, any charity- any aversion to evil, any love to be good, it is due to whatever remains of the old faith and the old culture”.

Conclusion – Allover the world, many systems, institutions, structures, principles, and cultures have been developed from time to time, which created a wave sweeping the entire world with it for some time. But soon, they became obsolete and were replaced by anti-waves which replaced them and wiped off the previous influence. Caste system, on which Indian social structure is based, has proved to be an exception. Its character is different in the context of village, locality, region or religion. Its absorptive nature has internalized alien influences.

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May 10, 2016 Posted by | Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Unbalanced population growth in India

“Har taraf, har jagah beshumaar aadmi,

Phir bhi tanhaiyan ka shikar aadmi”  Nida Fazil

Over last few decades Indian population has grown enormously. In 2001 India’s population was102.9 crore, in 2004 108 crore, in 2009 116 crore and expected to be 124 crore by 2020.  Population explosion has already neutralized all the efforts done for economic, infra-structural and social development. Now it is putting more pressure/severe strain on the already over-loaded system, aggravating many problems like poverty, low per capita income, food availability, pressure on land, burden on education, medical care, housing, unemployment, underemployment, rapid depletion of natural resources and environment. It is leading to distress migration within country as well as abroad. It has changed the demographic balance. It has prolonged poverty and misery of millions of people. There is constant pressure on infrastructure and civic services. Electricity and water-supply, sewage and drainage systems are not able to meet the growing demands.  

The present problem is not only of rapid population growth, but also of an unbalanced population growth. Level of education and income has a definite impact on population growth. There seems to be a correlation between the birth rate and literacy. Higher the levels of education lower the birth rate and vice verse. The population growth has been contained amongst educated class. However, the number of poor, illiterate and unproductive hands is continuously increasing.

Women literacy has led to lower birth rate as well as lower infant mortality rate. For example, in Kerala, having cent percent literacy, the birth rate is much lower than UP, Bihar or Rajasthan, where the literacy rate is lower, and the population of agrarian community and poor people is increasing unchecked. They suffer from illiteracy, superstitions, desire of male child, high mortality rate among children, or lack of awareness. They do not consider children as a problem, but an asset and insurance for old age.

It is observed that over decades population of SCs, STs and OBCs has been continuously growing. There appears to be no reason for them to control their population. The protective policies, preferences and allowances under various Welfare Schemes seem to work as incentive for not adopting  family planning measures. Rather they are encouraged to increase their numerical strength for increasing their influence and role in electoral politics.

According to 1991 Census, while the total population in the country, excluding Assam and J&K, grew by 23.79%, it was 30.90% in the case of SC, 25.67% in the case of ST and 22.11% in the case of non-SCT. Region-wise, highest growth rate has been recorded by SC population in Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya Mizoram, Orissa and W Bengal. This is followed by ST, followed by Non SC/ST population. In Gujarat, Rajasthan, Tripura, Dadar and Nagar Haveli, ST population followed by SC, followed by NON SC/ST population has recorded highest growth rate. In Goa, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu and Daman and Diu, the growth rate is highest among SC population, followed by Non SC/ST, followed by ST population. In Kerala, highest growth rate is among ST population followed by Non SC/ST and then SC population. In Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar and UP the growth rate is highest among Non SC/ST followed by SC and then ST population. The Non – SC/ST growth rate in most populous states like UP and Bihar appears to be mainly due to rapid rise in the population of OBC people.

Though, as per government’s census policy, no published data is available about Backward Class’s population growth, the 1951 Census authorities gave to the First Backward Class Commission, two sets of figures in respect of Backward class population. These were 678.39 lakhs (18.9%) and the other estimated at 20.5% of the total population. In 1956, the Commission raised it to 1135.10 lakhs (31.8%). The Mandal Commission, in 1980, further raised it to 52%. The increase in its number is both due to inclusion of additional castes in the backward list as also due to increase in the birth rate among them. The unbalanced growth is more pronounced in the case of Muslims. The 1991 census reports an increase from 11% in 1951 to 13% in 1990, in respect of Muslim population. The growth of Muslims is higher than any other religious group. The recorded growth in Muslim population shows an increase of 32.78% as against 22.78% in the Hindu population. This increase is again due to increase in birth rate as well as migration.

Though percent-wise, unbalanced growth of various sections does not seem much, but in absolute number, it is alarming. Tough competition between different sections for growth has created a gulf between different sections of society, each one pursuing its sectional interests. It gives rise to new equations in power echelons. The wider the gulf, larger the problem for the Government The welfare schemes for such a large population puts an extra economic burden on government.

The problem can not be sorted out by coercive methods. Literacy helps in bringing down fertility substantially among all the sections. People especially poor and marginalized should be encouraged to have a small but happy and healthy family by choice. Attention needs to be paid the problems like high numbers of maternal and infant deaths, by improving the quality of health services, meeting un-met needs of family planning services and linking population programmes with reasonable incentives as well as disincentives for having a large family.

February 9, 2016 Posted by | Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Is superior status to IAS justified in 21st century?

“Rank does not confer privilege or give power. It imposes responsibilities.” Peter Drucker

“No creative, intelligent person seeks power. No intelligent person is interested in dominating others. His first interest is to know himself. Hence it is the mediocre who go after power.”  Osho

Introduction

Majority opinion of Seventh Pay Commission has recommended parity in pay and promotion between IAS and other class I services in its report submitted to the government in November 2015.  The associations of  36 other Group A central services class I have protested against elite status given to Indian Administrative service (IAS). They argue that IAS is not justified in its constant bid to underline its “superiority”.

Administrative structure needs to evolve to meet the contemporary challenges. Governance is far more complex today than it was a few years back, when the existing rule of giving an edge to IAS was devised. At the level of joint secretaries and above in central government’s posts, officials need a lot more domain of knowledge in their respective areas. Therefore government should encourage specialization to improve  the quality of governance.

Their counterparts in other services are handling more “specialized jobs”. Therefore, they  desire to bring in pay parity, do away with the edge enjoyed by the IAS which has been successively upheld by every pay commission till date and give due preference to specialized services rather than generalists, in managing the key departments at the centre.

Premier IAS has always an edge in the top posts in central secretariat, (say joint secretaries and above). It has been possible because the empanelling and selecting authorities i.e. the department of personnel and the cabinet secretariat is completely dominated by IAS.  Its personnel claim that while in service, they have to perform multifarious tasks. They claim that to keep their morale high and confidently discharge their duties, an edge should be given to IAS.

The demand for parity started with the third Pay Commission’s times. At that time IAS’s dominance in top posts of central government gradually weakened. In 1972, out of 45 posts of secretaries, 30 were from IAS and 15 from other group A services. In 1984, this figure changed to 36 from IAS and 25 from other group A services. IAS  had recaptured 71 posts of secretaries out of 92 in 1995. It regained its lost glory from 1995 onwards. Currently 73 out of 91 secretaries in central government are from IAS, 11 are scientists and 7 from Group A services, and none  from IPS, IRS, IAAS, or IRAS. (Figures quoted from TOI, p. 10. dt. 16.11.15). According to petitions from Group A services submitted to 7th Pay Commission, about 75% of joint secretaries, 85% of Addl. secretaries and more than 90% secretaries at present are from IAS.

Civil services in India  – Civil services in India whether at Centre or in Provinces can, without doubt, be regarded as the most remarkable of all the institutions, which Britain has bequeathed to India. Fortunately India has inherited from the past, a unique administrative-system, which knows, what posts are strategic and who are the persons to hold them. Along with IAS/IPS or IFS, many other professional and technical all India Civil services, popularly known as Central Services play a very vital role in the administration of various activities in different spheres all over India.

Government of India selects through open competitive examinations conducted by Union Public Service commission (UPSC), candidates for its elite central services. Amongst all, civil services examination (CSE) is most popular. Quite often, public in general refer to this examination as ‘IAS exam’.

Combined All India Civil Services examination (CSE)

Every year UPSC conducts a common civil services examination (CSE) for to select personnel for many services under government of India like Indian Administrative Service (IAS), as well as for other non-IAS services like IFS, IPS and other central services for different departments like Revenue, Railways, Audit and accounts etc.   There are three stages of this examination – ‘preliminary’, ‘main’ and personality test (interview). UPSC conducts annually separate examinations for some technical/professional services.

Apart from selecting officers for Indian Administrative Service, Indian Police Service and Indian Foreign Service, there are some Group ‘A’ and ‘B’ Central services, officers of which are selected throughCombined All India Civil Services examination like Indian P & T Accounts & Finance Service, Indian Audit and Accounts Service, Indian Customs and Central Excise Service, Indian Defense Accounts Service, Indian Revenue Service, Indian Ordnance Factories Service (Assistant Works Manager, non-technical), Indian Postal Service, Indian Civil Accounts Service, Indian Railway Traffic Service, Indian Railway Accounts Service, Indian Railway Personnel Service, Posts of Assistant Security Officer in Railway Protection Force (RPF), Indian Defense Estates Service and Indian Information Service.

 B Services includes Railway Board Secretariat Service (Section Officer’s Grade), Armed Forces Headquarters Civil Service (Section Officer’s Grade), Customs Appraisers’ Service, Delhi, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Daman & Diu and Dadra & Nagar Haveli Civil Service and Police Service, Pondicherry Civil Service

Issue

Many non-IAS officers (officers of Central Services class I & II) like to call themselves as IAS officers, because earlier, ICS enjoyed the ‘elite status’ during British Raj. After Independence, its successor Indian Administrative Service has become the ‘elitist’, ‘glamorous’ and most sought after civil service amongst all other higher civil services under Government of India. IAS attracts the maximum attention of the government and has the smoothest carrer prospects. It has developed certain complexes amongst officers of both IAS and other higher civil services. Such a trend has adversely affected the co-ordinated working of the whole administrative machnery.

 Why?

Officers of all higher civil services join the government after being successful in Common entrance examination (CSE ), which is supposed to be one of the toughest examination conducted by UPSC. Society regards success in it as a proof of high calibre of youth. It has been the dream of talented youth allover India to compete successfully in this examination. And it has always motivated the cream of all sections of society to appear in it and become a part of the elite services of India.

IAS propped up as the Elite service

However, it is only Indan Administrative Service (IAS) officers, who start enjoying very high status, authority, smooth career progression and prestige from day one, they join the service. Earlier ICS (officers in their early twenties would arrive fresh from his ICS training at Oxford to rule single-handedly a district half as big as Wales) and now IAS officers have wide-ranging authority in districts as collectors and at centre as policy-makers. They –

  • Have easy accesses to levers of power.
  • Are symbol of power – dealing directly with Ministers at centre and provinces.
  • Have smoothest career-progressions. And
  • Occupy almost all senior-most posts at centre and States.

During pre-independence days there were some 9 All India services + other Non ICS services of generalist nature, which were as popular as ICS was, like ICS (Judicial as there was not much pressure of Imperial Government on their working) or Indian Custom Service (as they always got postings in big towns). Even after Independence, for some time, there was not much difference in the social status, career progression, standard and behavior pattern of IAS and Non IAS class I services. However since 1960 onwards, slowly but steadily, IAS has become more and more powerful and the only ‘Elite service’ under Government of India.

Apart from politicians, many officers of other central services also give too much importance to IAS. They forget that IAS is only one of them. Theirs’ services are also the integral and important parts of the whole administrative system/bureaucracy working for Government of India in the area of their specialization.

What civil services are?

In short, it can be said that civil service is a “professional body of officials, permanent, paid and skilled.”2 According to Max Weber2, the main characteristics of a civil service are as following:

  • Well-structured set-up – For the performance of various, government both at centre or provinces needs into its administrative set-up, in all the spheres a team of mature, dynamic, visionary and responsible officers at all the levels of administration, from almost all vocations, occupations and professions. Civil service requires all its officials to have alert minds, high level of intelligence, broad vision and relevant knowledge about their respective subjects.
  • Division of labour – defined rights and duties prescribed in written regulations;
  • Hierarchy – (a) Systematically ordered authority relationship;
  • (b) Promotions regulated by merit and seniority;
  • Merit based selection and training – technical competence as a formal condition of employment;
  • Full time career-based service with fixed monetary salaries;
  • Impersonality – strict separation of office and incumbent in the sense that employee does not own the means of administration and cannot take the advantage of their position for promoting self-interest.
  • A system of rules and files – its operations are government by a consistent system of abstract rules.
  • Loyalty to impersonal authority like the State.

Organisational set-up of bureaucracy

For the performance of its manifold activities, government employs thousand of workers into its administrative set-up (civil services/bureaucracy) from almost all vocations, occupations and professions. It is government’s primary duty to make all feasible administrative, organisational and working arrangements for its employees.

Structure of civil services/bureaucracy set-up

Whole administrative system is vertically and horizontally divided in order to meet the differing requirements and emerging developmental tasks. The way administrative set-up is organized, plays an important role in performance of tasks and in harmony and cooperation of members inter-se.

Prof. Applebly says, “The structure determines where responsibility lies; how and to what extent responsible and controllable delegation takes place; what emphasis should be given to various objectives. It poses and conceals issues of policy. It provides or relatively fails to provide a structure of progressive responsibilities for decision making and thus at each level screens out some decisions and relieves those in higher positions, so that they may give attention to decisions really important to their functions”.

A proper job evaluation leads to position-classification and forms the basis of personnel management.

Position classification

Position classification is a systematic division of different posts in several classes in accordance with the functions to be performed, responsibilities to be shouldered and other conditions. It is “the systematic sorting and ranking of position in a hierarchical sequence according to comparative difficulty and responsibility”. Usually positions, supervision and authority to be exercised downward, other responsibilities, simple or complicated type of work, qualifications required for the post etc., are the factors, which operate in the determination of classification.

The manifold activities of a government can be put into the following categories –

  • Control functions;
  • Service functions; and
  • Development functions.

Different civil services in the Government engaged in the above tasks may be classified into three broad categories function-wise:

  • Generalist Services;
  • Functional Services; and
  • Technical Services.

Usually services responsible for control functions remain on the controlling/giving-end therefore become more important and personnel engaged in service function or development function at asking end, always looking up at them for getting their job done.

Working of civil administration in  India

The civil administration, whether in Centre or in State, can be divided into two groups –

Working in the Secretariats

Secretariats are at the Central level as well as at the state level. It is Policy making body;Usually IAS officers on deputation from different states occupy most of the senior posts in Central Secretariat. In the State Secretariats also, it is the IAS Officials, who are posted on the top posts in almost every department.

Working in the Secretariat exposes officers to policy perspective in diversified subjects like agriculture, horticulture, power, coal, transport etc. The work in Secretariat requires bright officers having experience and knowledge in relevant areas. Following are important functions of the Secretariat: –

  • Obtaining decisions on policy matters and enunciating policy decisions in clear language,
  • Overall planning and finance,
  • Legislative business,
  • Personnel management policies,
  • Legal advice,
  • Coordination and cross clearance among the administrative departments, in the Secretariat,
  • Communication with central institutions like the Planning Commission etc., and
  • Overall evaluation, supervision, control and coordination of the work being done by the field organizations.

Working in field organizations

For implementation of policies and plans, working in the field can be divided into:-

  • Working in field departments or head offices.
  • Working in the districts

District occupies a key position in civil administration. The Collector continues to play a pivotal role in the District Administration. District is the most convenient geographical unit, where all the regulatory as well as developmental tasks of civil administration are performed.

It is at this level, that administrative personnel come into direct contact with people. Bulk of people gets affected, favorably or adversely by the governmental policies, programs and its implementation. It is here, that people judge the quality and efficiency of the governmental administration.

Both kinds of work, work at Secretariat as well as in the field, have their distinctive challenges. For the efficient performance of work in both the areas, there is need for there is need for really bright and talented officers and flow of knowledge, experience and continuous consultation between the Secretariat and the field agencies.

Political set-up during pre and post Independence period

Pre-Independence period

In the nineteenth century and early 20th century, Laissez-faire was the basic principle of governance. Being so, the main concerns of the imperial Government was maintenance of law and order situation and collection of revenue. They were not much bothered about public welfare activities.

During Imperial rule, the bureaucracy under British government consisted of two parts:

• Government in London headed by the Secretary of State for India and curiously called the `Home Government’ of India.

• Government in New Delhi (in Calcutta before 1911), headed by Viceroy and Governor General of India, called the Government of India.

The two parts were closely related despite of the factor of long distance between England and India. Pylee has said “The whole system from top to bottom was well knit, highly centralized and behaved like an unbreakable steel frame with all the characters of a full fledged autocracy.”

Post-Independence Period

The political system adopted by India is that of a federal parliamentary democracy. The federal structure consists of Union and State Administration. The Prime Minister/Chief ministers and their colleagues are real political heads of different government departments. Their executive power, in practice, is exercised by permanent civil service. Civil services mean all the streams of functional, technical and specialist cadres as well as managerial and generalist cadres. Civil services serve as a link – so essential to maintain continuity of policy and consistency of administration between successive ministers. It includes both officials at Central and Provinces. Good governance depends on the mutual harmony and cooperation of both the wings.

Ranking of the services in pre and post independence periods

Pre–Independence period

British Rulers of 19th and early 20th century were not much interested uplift of downtrodden and neither they interfered unnecessarily in the interests of the privileged classes in India, who served as solid supporters of British Rule in India.

On the top – Services like Indian Civil Service, Imperial services and Indian Police (IP), engaged in the control functions were on the top. Their primary function was to maintain law and order and perpetuate British rule in India. Most of the officers were from the elite and rich families of Britain. Their oligarchic socio-economic background had its shadow on them and forced them to form a separate class – a close aristocracy of talent, race and even of colour. Besides they were ignorant of the values and culture of the Indian Society. These factors put together kept the British civil servants aloof from the Indian masses.

In the middle – In the middle were the specialised services, especially engaged in revenue work. Appointment in the managerial cadres of these services did not require any professional qualification or experience. Income tax Service, Indian Excise and Customs Service or Accounts Service etc. came under this category.

Least attention to technical services – Technical services were paid the least importance.  Technical services required knowledge and experience of a defined field, professional degree/ diploma and/or experience for entering into these services. They were engaged in national-building activities/building up the infra-structure of the nation. Engineering services, Health services etc come in this category.

Post Independence era

No alternativebut to leave the things on time

During the last days of British Rule many problems such as communal tension had come to a breaking point. Lawlessness existed everywhere. The armed forces had mutinied in several places. There had been railway and postal strikes. Goods were in short supply and there was a danger of another famine in near future. These problems forced the British Government to advance the date of Independence to India. (CP Ramachandran, Partition Legend, Hindustan Times, Sept. 1, 1980, P.9)

The above factors in combination with departure of British and Muslim officers from the civil services, partition of the country, Pakistan’s incursion into Kashmir and annexation of widely distributed conglomeration of provinces and princely states in the union of India made the situation worse at the dawn of independence. Events, inevitably unplanned, were moving so fast that there was no question of even attempting to supervise their course.

The country had no alternative but to leave the things to time, opportunity and initiative of local officers and organisations. It is for these reasons, save minor changes here and there, that the pre-independence political and administrative set up moved into the post-Independence era and continues even today, still having the mindset of Imperial rulers.

In the role of Development administration

 After Independence the basic task of the administrative machinery, i.e. civil services/bureaucracy has been changed from one of attending to routine regulatory function to that of promoting a rapid socio-economic development of the nation. Adoption of socialist and egalitarian society as ultimate national goal demanded a qualitative change in the attitude of administrative officers.

Independent India requires a radical change in the attitude of higher civil servants. Their new responsibilities demand that they should come closer to the masses and feel the agony of the millions of underfed, under-read and under-clothed citizens.

The earlier mind-set of the foreign ruler dominating the natives should have given way to the concept of a civil servant, `servant’ in the real sense – in the service of its masters, i.e. the people at large. Unfortunately, it is not so. The services engaged in implementing developmental plans and policies and welfare activities needs to be given more importance than been given in the past.

Structure of services

Both Government of India at central level and State Governments at provincial level have their own administrative set-up. They have their own generalist, functional, technical and specialist cadres.

Pre independence scenario under Imperial rule

Civil services in British India were classified as covenanted (higher) and uncovenanted (lower) services on the basis of the nature of work, pay-scales and appointing authority.

In 1887, Aitchinson Commission recommended the re-organization of the services on a new pattern. It divided the services into three groups – Imperial, Provincial and Subordinate.

Nature of work, quality of supervision by superior etc were the factors, which were considered for classification of the Imperial Services. The recruiting and controlling authority of Imperial services was the `Secretary of State’. Initially, mostly British were recruited for these services. The appointing and controlling authority for Provincial services was the respective provincial government, which framed rules for those services with the approval of the government of India. There were then, subordinate services for minor and ministerial jobs.

With the passing of the Indian Act 1919, the Imperial Services headed by the Secretary of State for India, were split into twoAll India Services and Central Services. On the eve of the Government of India Act 1919, nine services were there in All India Services list. Amongst important Central Services were Indian Railways Service, Indian Custom Service, Indian Accounts Service etc. There were Provincial Services as well. Diagrammatically the classification can be represented as under:

                                            Diagrammatic presentation of pre-Independence

                                                      ________I______________________

 Covenanted  (Gazetted) I  and II Services             Uncovenanted Non-gazetted III & IV                                                                                                                                                          

­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­                                            According to Aitchinson Commission 1887)

                                                                       I

                         ————————————————————

                Imperial                                                      Provincial  (I &II)

                                                                                                  

                                                                India Act 1919

                                                              ________I___________

                                     All India Services (9 in all)              Central Services

Vertical classification of services – From 1930 onwards, the classification of services came to be governed by Civil Service Classification, Control and Appeal Rules, 1930. According to it, the various services were divided into four categories: Class I, Class II, Subordinate and Inferior.

During British period, there was another classification of the Civil Services into gazetted and non-gazetted. All positions, the names of whose occupants were published in the Government Gazette in connection with their postings, transfers, promotions and privileges in respect of disciplinary action, right to appeal and retirement etc. were called `Gazetted’ posts. Class I and II Officers generally enjoyed the gazetted status. In contrast other positions, the names of whose occupant did not appear in government gazette were categorised as non-gazetted. This distinction continued to exist till 1974.

Post independence classification of the services

The framework of civil services in Independent India has remained almost the same, except that a few technical services which earlier were All India have been put in the category of Central Services.

Post independence classification of the services is governed by the Civil Services Classification, Control and Appeal Rules, 1930, as was amended from time to time. Now the different services are designated as All India Services, Central Services and State Services. These are classified into class I, II, III and IV. Varadachariar Commission substituted the terms `subordinate’ and `inferior’ by class III and class IV services after independence.

Since July, 1974, the classification of civil servants under class I,II,III & IV has been changed into groups `A’,`B’,`C’`D’. Civil services belonging to Group ‘A’ and ‘B’ are fabricated in the constitutional fabric of the nation for managerial work of the nation’s administration, whether in Secretariat or in field.

Categorisation of services under Government of India –The present categorisation is as under:

  • All India Services
  • Central Services –

All India service

Fine instrument to provide efficient administration – In the light of historical facts, development and achievements of last 150 years, it could be said without doubt that the All India Services were a fine instrument forged by the British Government to provide an efficient and effective planning in different areas, proper maintenance of law and order situation and governance of the country. It brought about not only stability and tranquillity, but also all round and varied development.

It is a well established fact that in every country, there are certain posts in its administrative set up which might be called strategic from the point of view of maintaining high standard of administration. Fortunately for India, it has inherited from the past a system of administration, which is common to whole of the country and it knows what these strategic posts are. All India Services are meant basically for providing personnel for those strategic posts in state administration as well as at policy making level at Centre and Provinces.

All India services just before independence – As the movement for Indianisation gained momentum, the Indian public opinion and the attitude of nationalist leaders became allergic to All India Services, not on the basis of their actual performance, but because they were controlled by the Secretary of State and were a living symbol of foreign rule.

B.B. Misra says that on the eve of the Government of India Act 1919, there were nine All India Services in existence like Indian service of Engineers,   etc.etc. After Independence though India was committed to rapid socio-economic development, of the nine All India Services, all the technical services were either abolished or provincialized. “It was the ICS and IP that remained unaffected and continued to act as an unifying force. Most of the other services were abolished. Considerations of national unity, the positive need of India’s all-round development and the attainment of a minimum uniform standard in administration were allowed to go by default.”2

All India services under the Constitution – The Constitution framers provided that, “without depriving the states of their right to form their own civil services, there shall be All India Services recruited on an All India basis with common qualifications, with uniform scale of pay and members of which alone could be appointed to those strategic posts throughout the Union”. (Constituent Assembly Debates P. 37) All India Services are governed by Article 312 of the Indian Constitution. At present, there are only three All India Services:

Indian Administrative Service;

Indian Police Service; and

Indian Forest Service

Indian Administrative Service and Indian Police Service are incorporated in Article 312(2) of the Constitution. Indian forest service, Indian Service of Engineers, Indian Medical Service and Indian Education Services etc were supposed to come into existence after 1965, but only Indian Forest Service could see the light of the day.

Central services

This category covers both technical as well as non-technical services meant for implementing the policies of the Union in areas which fall directly under Central Government’s list or in Concurrent List (for which Central control or guidance for uniformity becomes necessary in the national interest) such as Railways, Posts and Telegraphs, Excise and Customs etc.

There are some services dealing with those subjects mentioned in Concurrent List, for which it was considered expedient to have a Central control or guidance for uniformity in national interest. It includes both technical (including scientific) and non-technical services, such as water resources management, power generation. There are also some services, which are required for conducting the business of the Central Government such as Audit and Accounts Services. There are many other functional, specialized and technical services meant for implementing the policies of the Union and for performing various functions, for which Central Government is responsible, come in this category.

Recruitment into various services under Government of India

In order to provide the nation a well-equipped and intellectually brilliant administrative frame-work, the recruitment to all the higher services is done through open examinations conducted by Union Public Service Commission. The direct recruitment by competitive examination has been envisaged with an idea that very brilliant person can be shaped into efficient officials suitable for holding senior positions.

There are different competitive examinations conducted and interviewed annually by UPSC for combined civil services as well as technical and specialised services. No preliminary screening is considered necessary as technical graduates have already undergone a rigorous curriculum in their respective fields of study.

Lord Maculae initially shaped the recruitment policy for IAS, IPS and Allied services (most of the professional services) in 1854. The recruitment system for IAS/IPS and other professional Civil Services remained the same after Independence except for some marginal modifications, here and there, from time to time.

The basic ingredients of this system have been:

  •  Selection of really brilliant young people – the calibre of direct recruits was ensured by their success in an open competition.
  •  An intensive training either formal or informal for two years; and
  •  Actual field work for at least a few years (earlier the period was of five to seven years, during which ICS/IPS were moulded to suit the needs of their organisation properly.

In 1975, under Dr. D.S. Kothari, a Committee was set up to review the system of recruitment to IAS/IPS and allied services class I and II. It recommended unified competitive examination consisting of a preliminary screening examination to test skill, speed and accuracy for non-technical civil services. It is an objective type to facilitate quick identification of those, who have the requisite range of knowledge. The main examination consists of four compulsory and four optional papers to test the depth of knowledge. Finally there is an interview to examine communication skills, public speaking skills, leadership qualities, ability to exchange meaningful ideas and attitude. This scheme came into practice from 1979.

After graduation, between 21 to 28 years of age maximum age keeps on differing from time to time for different category of candidates i.e. General category, SC/ST and OBC. All candidates have to appear in the entrance competitive examination, which consists of three components:

  •  Compulsory papers – to test the general mental culture and interests of the candidates;
  •  Optional papers – to judge intellectual ability and scholastic attainment, and
  •  Personality test – to see personal qualities including some intellectual qualities, which a written examination cannot discover

Immediately after their selection into various services, the successful candidates are sent to various training Institutions for their foundation training so that they may get the picture of the political, social and economic aspect of the administrative set-up and they may get acquainted with the basic concepts and requirements of their jobs.

Stress on a graduate degree – A simple graduate degree is still the master-key for appearing into combined civil services examination recruiting the candidates for managerial cadre various civil-services. It makes them eligible for getting a nice and respectable career in the government, giving final reprieve from manual work.

The system worked well at initially, when objectives and duties of governance were plain and simple. And people were ignorant, subservient and undemanding. Now in 21st century, it is practically impossible for a simple graduate having only common sense and intelligence with classical knowledge and literary ability to fit-in for any post in its most elite service, giving status, authority and lots of privileges. Larger the range of responsibilities, more is the requirement for the government to have well-educated, well-selected and well trained personnel.

Status of Various services

Elite status to services doing control functions before Independence – During British Rule,

  • ICS and IP were conceived and propped up as the elite services. The superior status accorded to this service was perfectly in accordance with the aims of foreign rulers. These services were engaged in ‘Control Functions’, i.e. maintenance of law and order or revenue collection. They were supposed to perpetuate British rule in India as long as possible. These services were predominantly meant for ‘White-people’.
  • Services dealing with ‘Service Functions’ like Education, Finance, Medicines, Telegraph and Communications, Railways and Survey of India etc occupied in order of priority a place next to paramount functions of law and order and revenue collection. An admixture of European and native officers was considered suitable. And
  • Scientific and technical services which would not pose any serious danger to the Empire were allowed to be managed by the Natives, because sufficient British personnel were not available to man these services.

The superior status of ICS was recognised by giving them important and top-level posts and attaching substantially higher emoluments to ICS & IP than any other Central Service. Few Indians, who were selected into these services, were also given the same emoluments, so that they could be loyal to the rulers, and though Indians by birth, they could develop the mentality of a foreign ruler.

Reasons for the prominence of ICS – Lloyd George, the British Prime Minister said in the House of Commons in his historic `steel-frame speech’’ on August 2, 1922, that the British Civil Servants were the very basis of the Empire in India and he could not imagine of any period when `they can dispense with the guidance and assistance of a small nucleus of the British Civil Servants’. He said, “I do not care what you build on to it. If you take that steel-frame out of the fabric, it will collapse. There is one institution we will not cripple, there is one institution we will not deprive of its functions or of its privileges; and that is hat institution, which built up the British Raj – the British Civil Service in India”1. The higher civil services were the `steel-frame of the whole structure’’ of governance of Imperial rule in India and were exclusively trained to suit to the special needs of the British Imperial Power. Sir Edmund Blunt had said, “the superior Indian Civil Servants were the practical owners of India, irresponsible and amenable to no authority, but that of their fellow members.” Dr. Fisher also confirmed “it is the government”.

It was a very influential institution during British rule, because it administered the entire Indian Empire with such apparent zeal, efficiency, high-mindedness and impartiality. Reasons were simple for this perception as Gilmour (‘The Ruling Caste, David Gilmour’, a biographer of both Kipling and Curzon) pointed out-

  1. ICS was manifestly neither venal nor corrupt in the way in which, for example, some officials and officers of the old East India Company had been. It had its own weaknesses like assumptions of racial superiority and the conviction that the ICS always knew best.
  2. ICS displayed a mixture of motives, skills and temperaments.
  3. They had sense of responsibility while working from the District Officers to the Magistrates, Residents, Political Agents, Deputy Collectors, Lieutenant Governors, and so on.
  4. ICS officers as District Officers had wide-ranging responsibilities for the overall governance of a district. though he “did not run the railways or the telegraph or the Army…..er to call out troops in an emergency – but he was responsible for almost everything else”.
  5. Some of them were reactionaries, reformers and thinkers.
  6. ICS worked as District Officers in their early twenties, arrive fresh from training at Oxford.
  7. They had the confidence to rule single-handedly a district half as big as Wales.
  8. British Government was anxious to demonstrate to Indians that British rule was even-handed, several times intervened to ensure that culprits were properly punished for outrages.

ICS was popular not only in India, but allover the world,. “It always puzzled many bigwigs like Stalin, von Ribbentrop and many other foreign observers, namely how barely a thousand British ICS (Indian Civil Service) personnel managed to rule both British India and the princely states with a combined population of well over 300 million during the first part of the twentieth century. Very few statesmen, from Bismarck to Theodore Roosevelt, doubted the quality of British rule.

After Independence

Maximum attention of Government on IAS In Independent India also, the system of generalist supremacy has been inherited from the Raj and has been retained as so up-to-date. IAS, (the successor of ICS of the reputed, efficient and powerful service) has been propped up as an elite service. For an educated youth, it is a matter of pride to be a part of IAS, as it was with the ICS in pre-independence days. The officers of IAS get importance, authority, favours, concessions and privileges right from the day, they join the service. IAS has always remained the most sought after of all the services for the youth, as it provides the highest entry point in bureaucracy. It has always remained the most sought after of all the services for the youth, as it provides the highest entry point in bureaucracy.

IAS occupies a place of pride in socio-political circle. Right from its inception, IAS attracts the maximum attention of the government and the politicians. The officers of this service start enjoying supremacy over other services, immense power, prestige and privileges right at the beginning of their career both at the centre as well as in provinces and continue to enjoy it till retirement. Along with the council of Ministers, they control, virtually, all the levers of the governance of the country.

Like its predecessor ICS, IAS occupies the same elite status or the place of pride. The Government offers to IAS best career prospects, immense power, better perquisites, prestige, higher responsibilities, fatter salaries, and superior status than any other service at the center or in the states.

IAS is predominantly engaged in control functions of its provinces as well as in centre. IAS plays a significant role in administrative and developmental work of the Government. They deliberate directly at the highest level of policy formulation, decision making and policy implementation.

It is a matter of pride and honour for anyone to belong to Indian Administrative service. So much and so, that people belonging to other class I central government services proudly call themselves IAS officers.

The system of recruitment

There was a time when government services attracted the best talents of the nation. Now it no more attracts the best brains. Now the cream of the nation prefers to seek jobs in foreign land or join private sector, where getting better emoluments and work atmosphere.

The Recruitment System for Higher Civil Services remained, more or less, the same even after Independence, in as much as it is based on academic performance judged through an open competitive written examination followed by personality test conducted by the Union Public Service Commission instead of British Civil Service Commission.

In Short

 Till 1960s, there was very little difference in the social status, standard and behaviour between IAS officers and class 1 officers belonging to other services of Government of India.

Now-a-days entry into IAS is the surest and quickest means to get control over others, to improve one’s status in the society, to command instant admiration and respect of the people, thus in reaching quickly to the commanding position in the society. It is supposed to be the manifest symbol of power. It makes an easy access to levers of authority. It enables them to occupy positions having immense power and privileges at the highest level in the Government. Once in service, a person could lead an easy life, is a general conception.

·    To reach quickly to commanding position – To aspirants, entry into IAS is the surest and quickest means to get control over others, to improve one’s status in the society, to command instant admiration and respect of the people, thus in reaching quickly to the commanding position in the society.

·    Symbol of power – It is supposed to be the manifest symbol of power. Its officers deal directly with politicians, plan bigger things, moves all over the world frequently. It has added glamour to the service. The result of this development has been that the IAS has attracted the attention of politicians, especially of those pursuing the sectional interest.

·    Direct dealing with politicians – Today, IAS officers deal directly with politicians, plan bigger things, moves all over the world frequently. It has added glamour to the service. The result of this development has been that the IAS has attracted the attention of politicians, especially of those pursuing the sectional interest.

·    Easy access to levers of authority – It makes an easy access to levers of authority. It enables them to occupy positions having immense power and privileges at the highest level in the Government. Once in service, a person could lead an easy life, is a general conception.

Criticism of giving ‘elite’ status to IAS

This has bred in its officials a character of high-browism and haughtiness and The technical people feel curbed and constrained by the authoritarian habits, attitudes and behaviour of IAS personnel. Leave aside the officials, the prevalent practice at present, even allows a clerk in the administrative and accounts offices to hinder the progress of a technical project, whose execution might be urgently called for by the government and the people. Such an attitude is harmful to the progress of nation, more specially at a time of its history, when it is vigorously engaged in transforming its backward primitive agricultural economy to an advanced industrial order. The Estimate Committee (3rd Lok Sabha) in its 93rd Report hoped that members of ICS and IAS would avoid such attitudes towards the other services, and would, instead by their conduct set high example of dedicated service, which may inspire other services.

Most of the new recruits are mainly interested in exercising the State authority over powerless people and making as much money as possible by misusing their authority. They are now not bothered about the high ideals, intellectual competence and high standards of administration, commitment to public service, Constitutional values, or concern for justice.

Hampering technological advancement – It is often alleged that IAS officials are mainly responsible for hampering the technological advancement of the country. In this age of technology, there are many ministries and departments, having technical character, such as power, heavy industries, steel and mines or petroleum and chemicals, which require technical personnel at policy making levels, to meet the challenges of modern India properly.

But as the situation is, in order to provide smooth career prospects to IAS, mostly IAS officers are appointed to the higher posts even in the departments/ministries of technical nature, because technical personnel, according to the present personnel policies, are not eligible to hold such senior posts. Serious doubts are expressed about the capacity of the IAS to act as an instrument of modernisation and technological advancement.

Disparity between different services

There should be no disparity between different services Free India laid emphasis on national reconstruction and development, a shift from the traditional task of maintenance of Law & Order and revenue collection. The administration is now supposed to play an important role in the developmental process launched by the Government. This fundamental shift in the role of administration called for a variety of skills, equally important in themselves in the higher echelons of administration. But Government of India, like British Rulers, accords higher status to IAS Cadre, which still enjoys exclusive monopoly of crucial positions at the Union and State levels and has a direct access to ministers.

As early as in 1959, Shri C.L. Handa had said, “whereas they has always been room for these wings ever since the dawn of modern economy, the subordination of the technocrat to mere administrator in the higher rungs of the service is an anomaly. These wings must remain at part. They should work hand in hand as a single purpose team and the tendency for establishing rulers and ruled relations must be put down firmly, as this will weaken the very foundation on which the progress of the country is based. (Presidential Address, 15th Annual General Meeting of the Institute of engineers, Dec 18, 1959)

Administrative Reforms Commission had suggested that “preference for the generalist should give place to a preference to those two have acquired competence in the concerned field”, because, “change in the role of government and the great diversification of its functions called for variety of skills in the higher administration. The new tasks call at higher level for competence, which cannot be acquired overnight, but can only be imbibed through special training grafted on the basic functional skills or academic qualification. Each new area of administration – be it economic, social, industrial, technological, scientific or agriculture has its own body of academic requirements, knowledge and techniques. The effective administration of each demands an intimate knowledge of its underlying principles and awareness of its problems. This knowledge can only come through the study and practice of administration of the relevant area over a long period of time, in some cases at least, long enough in fact to amount to a commitment – a professional commitment”.

Prof. A.K. Dasgupta and Prof. Nihar Ranjan Ray, Members of the Third Pay Commission, in their note of dissent expressed their opinion in the following words – “We are strongly of the view that maintenance of disparities in the services has done harm to our society. Whatever urgency the system might have had in the past, in the present state of affairs, it is anarchism. The precedence that a general administrator enjoys today over other services is a historical relic of the colonial regime. The purpose of administration under that regime was limited…The country was to be governed and officers, mostly British, were to be commissioned to do the job. Specialised services, in so far as they existed, were thus treated as subordinate to general administration. Conditions have changed, and it is time we recognised that they have changed. It is absurd in our view that a government which has embarked on a comprehensive programme of economic development and has accepted technical progress in its widest sense as the major aim of policy, should still continue to accord a lower value to a scientist, an engineer or a doctor than it does to an administrator”1. (Report of Third Central Pay Commission, Chairman of Justice Raghubar Dayal, 1973)

The harmful effects of this old and outdated system (according to Memorandum to the Fourth Pay Commission All India Confederation of the Central Government Officers Association, Dec., 1983, PP5-6.) can be listed as below:

  • This discarded value system has failed to infuse adequately a sense of participation in the management cadre of all disciplines.
  • The individual’s special talent and inclination is not directed to achieve that skill for which that talent is best suited, merely because one feels that a better remuneration is available for a different course.
  • A developing economy is constantly in need of ever-increasing resources. Under the system even what is available is not being fully exploited. Because elitist character is given to generalist services, even scientists, doctors and engineering graduates have been offering themselves for All India Administrative Service and other Central Services;
  • This has contributed in no small measure to plight of scientific and technical talent outside the country;
  • Dearth of talent in specialist fields because the remuneration and status attached to them is comparatively less attractive.

Recruitment system – The system of recruitment and selection adopted in 1858 might perhaps not be fit to meet the requirements of Modern India after Independence. It appears rather odd that a simple graduation is required to enter into the most prestigious service i.e. the IAS. While in other services like Indian Economic Service and Indian Statistical Service, the requirement is a postgraduate degree. In Engineering or technical services a degree in Engineering, which takes four years of rigorous graduation course.

In the present age of specialization one cannot depend on the assumption that academic performance, classical knowledge and literary ability would fit a candidate for any administrative post. A welfare development administration need not only the quality of minds of its prospective civil servants, but also needs the subject-matter contents of their minds. The qualities and knowledge needed for different disciplines in the government differ from each other to a great extent and the officers of a particular discipline should have that knowledge and qualities, otherwise the work will suffer.

An officer working in a particular branch of administration should have full knowledge of that subject e.g. an officer working in industrial plant should know what is production, planning and control, PERT chart techniques, the behaviour of supply and demand curves under perfect competition, Monopoly etc. and not one who can only remember and tell the date of birth of Louis XIV. If he is to be told about the fundamental concepts of his work, by his subordinates or colleagues, how will he justify his presence?

The policy of reservations in civil services is unfriendly to efficiency. The problems of administration are now so complex that they require the services of most talented, sincere and honest officers. A preference to a person with inferior talent over a person with superior talent is not only unjust but against the national interest. For efficient and effective governance right persons are required for right posts at right time.

Unlimited Authority without ResponsibilityIt is said, Power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely. The concept of Welfare state and Development administration has bestowed immense authority in the hands of Government, which is mainly exercised by the executive, meaning the ministers and the IAS. But this authority is without responsibility. Whatever may go wrong, either at the field level or at the secretariat level, an IAS officer is never held responsible.

If law and order situation deteriorates in a district, IPS officer is held responsible. If a policy decision goes wrong, it is said that the IAS officers were wrongly advised by the specialists or specialized organizations dealing with that particular subject. Also swift changes, from one functional area to another, make it difficult to hold an officer responsible for any wrong policy. By the time, the results of a policy or the implementation of a program is evaluated, the concerned officer would have been shifted to another department or gone back to his parent state. The IAS officers, by and large, have failed in their chosen fields like Collectorate or Secretariat. These offices affect the lives of crores of people. At present, these offices have become dens of corruption, mismanagement and mal-administration. Despite this, the IAS has never been held responsible for the apathetic state of affairs. The incompetent officials, unable to shoulder the responsibility entrusted upon them, get total immunity from responsibility and irregularity, so far.

Suggestions

Mr. Bapat, an administrator, has said, “For a country like India, with a tradition of thousands years of authoritative paternal administration, the transition to parliamentary democracy has evolved a revolutionary change in the physiology of the body politic. It calls for a radical adjustment of attitude on the part of its operative organs, viz., the higher administrative personnel.”1

  • Feeling of superior or inferior or `Ruling class and Ruled’ relationship amongst IAS and Non-IAS services must be put down firmly. It will weaken the very foundation, on which the progress of the country is based. Young IAS officers should be trained as how to deal with the officials belonging to other non IAS services of technical, professional or specialist departments.
  • They should be trained to work cooperatively with non IAS higher services.
  • Unified civil service – Government of India should merge all its civil services – administrative, professional, technical as well as non-technical – into one unified service with an integrated pay structure and same time-frame for career-progression.
  • Modern India of 21st century needs more than in the past, qualified administrators. Either IAS personnel should be selected earlier, say after higher secondary and then trained properly for the job as is done for Defense Services or MBA degree be made compulsory for appearing in competitive entrance examination.
  • Lateral entries could also be made to get bright persons already employed like: –

Ø Technocrats having sufficient experience in management,

Ø Professionals from other civil services,

Ø Entrepreneurs, willing to switch over to government.

  • Promotions in the service should be strictly based on good performance.
  • Civil servants should be encouraged to upgrade, sharpen, and focus their knowledge towards analysis and problem solving.
  • As Rajaji had suggested, right person should be appointed on right post at right time.

November 4, 2015 Posted by | Uncategorized | 2 Comments

Catch them young

Introduction

A few years back, the trend of the organizations for recruiting personnel was to look for well-trained and experienced persons. Currently it has been seen that institutions don’t prefer to appoint persons above 35. It is felt that average age for mid-management should be around 27-30 and for senior management from 30 to 40 years.

Why Young? – The trend for catching people at young age is because it is the most creative, energetic and impressionable years of life. Young people possess fresh knowledge, open to new ideas, bring in radical thoughts, positive and flexible in attitude/approach. They are hard-working, innovative  and prepared to take risks, and capable to face challenges . They are tech-savvy and appreciate soft skills, which is the requirement of present day.

Recruitments on administrative posts in Government? – For efficient and effective governance of a nation, the basic requirement is to place ‘right persons at right place on right time’. Government  needs well trained team of dynamic, responsible and visionary persons having adequate knowledge in their respective disciplines.

Catch them young and train them for specific jobs – Young people may not be fully matured, need guidance and need to be disciplined.  Besides, the deteriorating standard of education is incapable to equip much needed dynamism, knowledge and skills to perform their jobs in responsible manner, when they enter into a professional life. Proper training is needed to make up for these inadequacies. Recently,  people’s faith is increasing again in principle of “Catch them young and train them” in their respective areas of work accordingly.

Deficiencies in educational system – The present scheme of education and training has failed in introducing dynamic and responsible people in the governance of the nation. The quality of education is such, that it hardly makes majority of students either intellectually competent or motivated to do constructive work in responsible manner.

Overcrowding in institutions of higher learning – The requirement of a degree for getting white collard jobs has resulted in over crowding the institutions of education and training. The stress on quantitative increase has subverted all the attempts to improve the quality of teaching and learning. It has led to continuous fall in the standard of higher education. The examination and evaluation system tests only a narrow range of skills, especially those of memory and suffers from grave errors, so much and so, that people question the legitimacy of a modern education system itself.

Recruitment at young age and training system in army – Today, when other democratic institutions have lost public faith, the Defense Services are still keeping up some standard. The candidates passing out from National Defense Academy commands a high esteem in public’s eye, when they start their career as army officers. They have proved that they form the best disciplined cadre of officers – dynamic, sincere, responsible and dedicated to their duties. They do not hesitate to sacrifice their today for making others’ tomorrow safe and peaceful.

Selection of army officers – The selection of army officers is done after higher secondary education on the basis of written examinations and a thorough interview testing aptitude, leadership qualities, general ability and intellectual acumen. After their selection, they get four years of rigorous training – three years in NDA at Kharakwasla, and for one year in IMA at Dehradun in the case of Army, Hyderabad in the case of Air Force and Cochin in the case of Navy.

Training more successful during formative years of life – The training of army personnel is done at the age, when their minds are still in formative stage. The training is so tough and seriously imparted that either trainees come up-to the desired standard or quit it in between, if they were unable to cope with the rigors of the tough training and disciplined way of working. The officers are given further education and initial training under strict supervision of seniors. The three years training in NDA prepares them for performing their duties as armed forces officers well. By the time they pass out, they are well equipped with basic requirements of their jobs.

Similar is the practice in the field of medicine and engineering – Selection immediately after higher secondary and then further education and thorough training in their specific discipline for a period of four years. India has earned a name globally in IT sector. A small band of officers for Indian Railway Service of Mechanical Engineers are well known for their expertise and efficient performance. It is well known that Indian Engineers, especially from IITs and Indian Doctors are in great demand abroad.

Pre-entry training of young minds – Recently Kota in Rajasthan has developed into a coaching hub for IITians. It has produced many toppers and send hundreds to engineering colleges. Now-a-days competition has become so tough that it is never too early for learning. Many coaching institutes in Kota, and elsewhere in Rajasthan Assam and Punjab are planning to start special training programs (Pre-foundation Career Care Program (PCCP) aimed at “better conceptual understanding” for students of Standard VIII. It is meant to develop a “scientific temperament, mathematical aptitude, problem-solving skills, reasoning and competitive psychology” at an early age, no matter whether students pronounce/comprehend these phrases or not.

Suggestion for early recruitment in government services – It is advisable that the cadre of officers engaged in the task of governance should be selected early to equip them with intellectual, moral and physical qualities essential to perform the complex and delicate job of development administration effectively and efficiently. While their minds are still in the formative stage, it is easier for the Government to take a purposeful approach to articulate the required thinking, attitude and knowledge in them.

Job-oriented education and training will imbibe in them intellectual knowledge, qualities, attitudes and skills according to the increasing and diversified needs of the modern administration, such as social purposefulness, public service consciousness, ability to understand administrative, political and economic implications of a problem, resourcefulness in solving them, creativeness, dynamism, up to date knowledge in their particular discipline, capacity for team-work, good fellowship, ability to cooperate, alertness in grasping a situation and quickness in assimilating relevant facts and persuasiveness in presenting their point of view. It will deepen the awareness of professional norms. It will facilitate the Government to have right type of people required for an efficient administration.

November 1, 2015 Posted by | Uncategorized | , , | 1 Comment

BETI BACHAO BETI PARHAO

DSC09533            DSC09543BETI BACHAO BETI PARHAO

 

Justice A.K.Srivastava

Former Judge of Allahabad

and Delhi High Courts

4.2.2015

 

‘Beti Bachao Beti Parhao’, the slogan recently given by our Hon’ble Prime Minister, is very laudable in view of the continuous killings of female child in womb or soon after her  birth. Such practice is mostly in the lower class or lower middle class.

In a study workshop on female infanticide where men and women from all walks of life were participating, some women participants were very vocal on the issue of giving birth to female child considering the present law and order situation. They posed a question ‘should women give birth to female child to be molested, sexually abused and brutally murdered when the law and order machinery (including the courts) is insensitive to their vows?’

As a retired High Court Judge participant, I was totally taken aback. On return to home, I pondered and made introspection over their remarks on the courts. The women participants, in my view, were not wholly wrong. The lower class and the lower middle class feel fully in-secured. The administration and the police managing law and order adopt callous attitude towards them. Even courts cannot escape the blame. Court cases of child abuse and child rapes are not given priority and ultimately the courts become lenient towards the culprits on one or the other grounds being absolutely oblivious of the plight and trauma the victims suffered and the shocks received by their parents.

I recall some of the judgments of the Apex courts. A two and a half years old female child was sexually molested and in the process her ribs were broken which became the ultimate cause of her death. Her private parts were fully torn and bleeding as per post mortem report. The culprit was not a young boy but a neighbour aged 35, married and having two daughters. His conviction was upheld throughout. The Sessions Court and the High Court sentenced him to death penalty but the Supreme Court commuted death sentence to life imprisonment considering the case not to be rarest of the rare case. The innuendo was that rape and murder of girls aged two and a half years was common in our country or the act of the accused was not dastardly or the accused was not found to be menace to the society and unfit to live in the society.

In another case a girl aged 12 was not succumbing to the advances of a boy living in the same village. One day, in the evening when she along with her father was returning home from fields, that boy along with his two friends accosted her and repeated his demand to her. When she and her father raced towards their home they were physically caught, father was tied to a tree and the girl was raped in the presence of her father. On the statements of the victim, the girl, and her father, the Sessions Court convicted the boy and gave life sentence to him. In appeal, the High Court upheld the conviction but the sentence was reduced to already undergone. The total period the convict remained in jail was

less than one and a half months as he remained on bail throughout during the trial. Now see the reason for that lenience. The Hon’ble Judge came with a sexual philosophy of his own that when sex dominates the mind of a male he becomes oblivious of his acts. So the Hon’ble Judge gave license to all boys having eyes on girls to commit rape on them and take the aforesaid plea for very little punishment.

In Nithari’s dastardly case of child abuse and murders, the accused Koli was given death sentence by the trial court, then by the High Court and lastly by the Supreme Court. Koli had sexually abused and raped around 40 children, then murdered them and kept their skeletons in the house owned by his master Pandher in NOIDA. His clemency petition was rejected and he was going to be executed. But suddenly the High Court of Allahabad in a PIL stayed his execution and then ultimately commuted death sentence to life sentence on the ground that the government had delayed in deciding his clemency petition. What a compassion of those who moved the PIL and of the courts, for the human rights of the child abuser and murderer having no concern for the human rights and feelings of the parents of the victims! Such judgment is giving rise to a new class of corruption. After being sentenced to death, make a clemency petition, bribe at every stage to delay decision on the clemency petition and then get a legal right to get commuted death into life sentence despite the case being termed as rarest of the rare even by the highest court. In the present political and

administrative scenario delaying decision on mercy petition is very easy.

Coming to the society in general, I see that men are becoming very insensitive towards sexual abuse, exploitation and murders of young female children. Every day in the newspapers we read and in the TV channels we see how callous are the men when it comes to investigation and trial of the offences of rapes or rapes coupled with murder. The first reaction of the police remains that it was consented sex. Reports are not registered. If registered but if the culprits are bigwigs, no arrests are made. If arrested, the battery of lawyers, with all their legal acumen and other efforts get bails for them and the trial goes on for eternity. The accused, on coming out on bail, threaten the girl to rape her again. The girl and her parents, being helpless because of the might of the accused, run away to other abode. The accused gets more emboldened and becomes a great threat to other girls in the vicinity. He boasts openly that nothing will happen to him.

In the press I had read that a boy had thrown acid on a girl because she was not responding to his advances. The matter went to Court and he was convicted and sentenced to imprisonment. On release he started threatening to put acid on her younger sister as well. The younger sister, though not of marriageable age, was hurriedly married and sent to far off place. Getting angry, he threatened the landlord of the

girl’s parents to throw them out otherwise he would throw acid on his daughter. Frightful, the landlord threw the tenant. That was an incident where all the might of police and administration failed and the convict became the master of the scene. How come? It only was the consequence of the unconcerned attitude of the male world. The males become active only when the matter relates to their daughters. I ask one question to the Hon’ble judge, who expounded his own sexual philosophy to give very little rather no punishment to the rapist, whether he would have stuck to his sexual philosophy if his daughter had been raped in the same fashion.

It is of common knowledge that the rapists move in the society as heroes. Nobody points them as rapists. On the other hand, the raped girl or the raped woman has to hide her face as if she was guilty. If she moves in public she is pointed out ‘here goes the raped’. Sometimes even lewd remarks are passed.  Such a male psychology is very disturbing.  All obnoxious questions are put to her in the courts if the trial Judge does not check.

It is also found that the rapist gets help from and is accommodated by all and sundry. For example, recently a teacher in Central School at Gomtinagar, Lucknow was accused of raping his student successively and when she became pregnant he, in connivance with his wife and a lady doctor, got the abortion done. It was strange that the girl

aged 16 was recorded as wife of the teacher aged 43 in the hospital records where the abortion was done. What sort of conscience the lady doctor had? The administration of the school also remained lukewarm when the matter was complained to it.

Every day the newspapers and the TV channels are full with news of rapes of minor girls. Even minors are found raping their class mates and neighbours. Why? The reasons may be found in the TV channels, porn literature, cinemas and internet, where sex is being rampantly served. Erotic feelings are bound to arise. Therefore, for the safety of minor girls from being abused, molested and raped the general atmosphere should be cleaned. Exposure of sex in TV channels, advertisements, cinemas and internet should be banned. It was so disgusting to watch a TV advertisement for a male perfume where a lady having puja thali in her hands got so sexy on inhaling an exotic male perfume that she left the thali and went with the man who had sprayed the exotic perfume on himself.

Markets are full with sex erotic medicines. The world, all over, is doing research to find erotic substances for men’s potency and then to sell erotic medicines at a very high price. Sale of such erotic medicines in our country should be banned unless a prescription for sexual health from a registered qualified sexologist is produced.

In the last, I wish that judges are sensitized to take into consideration the human rights of the victims of sexual crime as well while sentencing the convict or granting bail to the accused of rape or throwing of acids on such girls who do not succumb to the amorous desire of the accused. Such sensitization may be made in the Judicial Academies of the States and the National Judicial Academy. I do not know whether these academies have, in their curricula, a topic on proportionality of sentencing to the crime committed. If not, they should add.

 

March 12, 2015 Posted by | Uncategorized | 2 Comments

Teach poor and backwards how to fish

 “Take up one idea. Think of it, dream of it, live on that idea. Be full of that idea and just leave every other idea alone. This is the way to success.” Swami Vivekanand

“The highest levels of performance come to people who are centred, intuitive, creative and reflective – people who know to see a problem as an opportunity.” Deepak Chopra

“Teach backwards and poor to fish”

”Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day; teach a man to fish and you feed him for life time.”

 

STRUGGLE
A Story told by Ravi Chhabra –

“A biology teacher was teaching his students how a caterpillar turns into a butterfly. He told the students that in the next couple of hours, the butterfly would struggle to come out of the cocoon. But no one should help the butterfly. Then he left.

 The students were waiting and it happened. The butterfly struggled to get out of the cocoon, and one of the students took pity on it and decided to help the butterfly out of the cocoon against the advice of his teacher. He broke the cocoon to help the butterfly so it didn’t have to struggle anymore. But shortly afterwards the butterfly died.

 When the teacher returned, he was told what happened. He explained to this student that by helping the butterfly, he had actually killed it because it is a law of nature that the struggle to come out of the cocoon actually helps develop and strengthen its wings. The boy had deprived the butterfly of its struggle and the butterfly died.

 “Work is worship” – The saying that it is good to dream big, but it should be back up with hard work to get success. Nothing worthwhile in life comes without a struggle. Instead of crying all the time for discrimination, self-pitying and seeking crutches to move forward, one should meet the challenges bravely, work hard and move forward. For everyone, sky is the limit to flourish.

One should always remember that “Work is worship. There is no substitute for hard-work”. So, keep on making efforts. No body knows when he/she is going to hook a fish. Usually “Opportunity is missed by most people because it is dressed in overalls and looks like (bothersome) work.” Abraham Cowley

 Self-reliance is the key-word – The key for uplifting the submerged sections of society and for their sustainable development lie in preparing people to be self-reliant, living without crutches or depending on external support. Doles given by powerful lobbies or by ruling authorities can benefit only a few poor individuals and that too for a short period.

Dependence, a source of unhappiness – Dependence on governing authorities or others brings unhappiness in life. An individual loses self-confidence. Life becomes a long struggle both for the rulers as well as for ruled. Instead of honing the income generating qualities of people through education and training and contributing something to the society and nation according to their capacities, doles cripple the masses.

Calling any section of society backwards is derogatory – “Injuries may be forgiven, but not forgotten”. (Aesop). Official use of words like ‘backward’, ‘underprivileged’, ‘Submerged’, ‘downtrodden’ for any section of society is derogatory. It leads to self-pity, politicking and puts a permanent blot on the forehead of a man or a section of society.

Cases of Suicides – There is a lack of right approach Many students belonging to marginalized communities and getting admissions in institutions of higher studies through reserved quota on relaxed grounds either leave their studies in the middle or commit suicide when parental pressure on them for getting successful is too much to bear and they find themselves to handle the situation in academics. Students belonging to poor and deprived sections of society do need financial assistance and some support systems to improve their performance, but definitely not lowering the standards. When candidates join workforce without acquiring required qualifications, their performance at work-place remains unsatisfactory, which is not upto the mark “in public interest”.

Teach poor how to fish? – There is a folk tale – Once a man came to a prophet and asked for some money for his livelihood. The prophet taught him a formula for dignity. He gave an axe and advised him to “go to the jungle, cut some wood, and earn your livelihood by selling it. And meet me after fifteen days”. The man sincerely followed the advice. After fifteen days, when he met the prophet he said, “I am happy with my job. Now I know that for living in dignity, I must not ask for anything from anyone.”

Every individual born with some special quality – Nature has gifted everybody with some special quality and enormous potential to pursue one’s own interest. One only needs a proper atmosphere to work according to one’s attitude and aptitude.

The best way, in which a welfare state can create an equitable society and help its submerged people, is to empower them and to make them aware of their capabilities. It should develop their personalities to the fullest by inculcating in them an attitude to tap their own potentials. And then, it should train the people according to their attitude and aptitude.

Job-satisfaction – The government of a welfare state should facilitate its people to get employed in jobs suitable to their capacity and personality. It should give them incentive to work/job-satisfaction by providing conducive atmosphere to work, and encourage them to earn their living by honest means, achieve good results by hard work and move ahead in life on their own.

Hard work brings shine in life– It is often alleged that forward caste people are born with silver spoon in their mouth. But it is a misconception. It is not ease but effort, not facility but difficulty that makes a man. Through hard work, one can earn money, but through money one can not buy hard work or happiness. Too much of comfort kills motivation. Certainly self-motivation/incentive to work is of far more valuable than external support.

“Yes, I can do it” – So a welfare society/nation must teach the submerged sections of society to fish through sound system of education supplemented by proper vocational training, not to ask from the government any favor/concession or quota for moving ahead in life. People also learn not to yell for concessions, easy money or doles. Favor or external help can give only temporary relief, not a permanent solution. One must rely on his own efforts. Hard work is always accompanied by confidence with a feeling “Yes, I can do it.” (President Obama)

Latasinha's Weblog

    “Take up one idea. Think of it, dream of it, live on that idea. Be full of that idea and just leave every other idea alone. This is the way to success.” Swami Vivekanand

                                                      “Teach backwards and poor to fish”

”Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day; teach a man to fish and you feed him for life time.”

“Injuries may be forgiven, but not forgotten” Aesop

STRUGGLE
A Story told by Ravi Chhabra

“A biology teacher was teaching his students how a caterpillar turns into a butterfly. He told the students that in the next couple of hours, the butterfly would struggle to come out of the cocoon. But no one should help the butterfly. Then he left.

 The students were waiting and it happened. The butterfly struggled to get out of the cocoon, and one of the students took pity on…

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February 5, 2015 Posted by | Uncategorized | 2 Comments