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Hinduism, Caste System and Untouchables

Ranking of different castes in Hinduism – During ancient times, Hinduism ranked different castes not done by putting them within a framework of hierarchical layers of social order, each fitting neatly below the other, but more or less as a series of vertical parallels. All local groups, whether high or low, living in an area mutually depended, cared and supported each other in fulfilling different kind of needs of the society.

Interdependence of different social groups living in a local area – All sections of society living in a village or city-state, were bound together by economic and social ties and had a strong bond of mutual dependence. There was hardly any room for any section of society to consider itself, as being placed in greater or lesser disadvantageous position with reference to another. Concept of forwards or backwards or feeling of exploitation of lower strata by upper castes was almost non-existent at that time.

Stress on self-reliance, self-discipline and self-restraint – Every section of society was supposed to lead a self restraint and self disciplined life in all respect, be it in the matter of daily routine, occupation or inter caste relationship. There was no hard and fast rule of ranking various castes. It did segmental ranking of different caste groups according to relevance and contribution of their occupations to society. Usefulness of a profession to society as a whole, conduct and way of living of different people were the factors to determine social, economic or political status of a group in society vis-a vis others.

Basis for ranking different social groups – Considerations of self-discipline, hygiene, cleanliness, morality, knowledge and spiritual standards were given importance in their ranking. Higher a caste, purer it was considered, and greater were the self-restrictions on its behavior through rituals. Brahmins commanded respect of the whole society. They were put under maximum restrictions – to lead a simple life, devoted to the spiritual and intellectual pursuits and denied accumulation of wealth.

Respect to a person or group was never given on the basis of material success or control of power. Sir John Shore (Sir John Shore, the Governor General of India during the period 1793-1798) had observed that Hindus regarded Britishers at par with the lowest natives despite their being so powerful and the ruling community. Similarly Brahmins associated with unclean jobs like, Mahabrahmins performing last rites, have also been treated, more or less like Shudras and have been put at the bottom of the social structure. There were instances when non-Brahmins or Harijans served as priests of temples of goddesses like Sita or Kali, where all castes made offerings.

Co-existence of different groups generally in harmony and some times in rift – In its long process of evolution, caste-system has developed such an atmosphere, where different identities co-exist, generally in harmony and sometimes in rift. As far as masses were concerned, the system always kept them reconciled, if not contended in the past. It kept all the sections of society united under one umbrella despite of their diversity and gave the society stability, continuity and prosperity.

At times, there had been strife, contradictions and discords amongst different identities, so much so that India appeared to be a land of contrasts.  Nevertheless, most of the times, the Indian society has been able to develop  an attitude of reconciliation rather than refutation, cooperation rather than confrontation and co-existence rather than mutual annihilation.” (Khan, Democracy in India, pp 4-5)

Existence of Shudras – Existence of Shudras (at present referred as untouchables or out-castes) was recognized, as early as, Pre Mauryan Period (6th century BC to 3rd century BC). Though given a lower status, they were always an integral part of Hindu society. They performed essential social and economic tasks as well as in agricultural sector. 

Who were shudras? – Conquered groups, individuals or groups engaged in unclean occupations, clinging to the practices, which were not considered respectable, or persons born illegitimately or the groups clinging to anti-social activities were treated as Shudras and were given lowest status in the society. Breaking the caste rules meant loss of caste, meaning complete ostracism or having no place in the society. Permanent loss of caste – out-caste- was considered to be the greatest catastrophe for an individual, short of death penalty. By the beginning of Christian era, the out-castes themselves developed caste hierarchy and had their own out-castes. Socially, they were put amongst the lower strata of Hindu community doing all sorts of menial work and serving the upper castes of the three Varnas.

Hinduism taught not to blame others for deprivation – Many studies have shown that Hinduism never prevented Shudras or others to rise in the scale of society or to earn respect of the society. Hindu Dharma never held others responsible for an individual’s misery or deprivation. According to it Adharma” (immoral behavior), “Alasya” (laziness) and Agyan (ignorance) were to be blamed for all evils, exploitation and miseries of people.

In many parts of the country, people belonging to lower strata held position of power/superior status or earned respect of Hindu society. Many warrior kings of Shudra and tribal origin sought Brahmins’ help to acquire Kshatriyas status for themselves. Many Shudras were accepted and revered as philosophers or spiritual teachers like .Lord Rama, a king, ate half-eaten berries of Shabri – an untouchable. Lord Krishna’s foster parents Nand and Yashoda, who in today’s classification would be called OBC, get more respect than his real Kshatriya parents from Hindu society. Vashishtha, the principal of the conservative school of Brahmanism, was the son of Uravshi, a prostitute. Vishwamitra, the maker of the very Gayatri Mantra, the quintessence of the Vedic Brahmanism, was a Kshatriya. Aitreya, after whom the sacramental part of Rig-Veda is named as Aitreya Brahamana, was the son from a non-Aryan wife of a Brahman sage. Vyasa of Mahabharata fame and Balmiki, the original author of Ramayana, both untouchable according to present standards, were not ashamed of his origin and are highly respected persons all over India. In middle ages, Sant Ravidas, Namdev, Tukaram, Malika, Sunderdas and several other saints, belonging to lower ranks, earned the same respect as any higher caste saint. There had been instances of people of lower ranks becoming kings.

Therefore, it is not fully correct that Hinduism or its practices are responsible for Shudra’s isolation, deprivation, exploitation, low social status, inhuman treatment by caste Hindus, their low status in traditional Hindu Society, or forced them to do menial, unsavory and unclean jobs.

All troubles of lower strata of society started after the downfall of Hindu Raj and old Hindus values. Continuous invasions by Turks, Afghans and Mughals who earlier drained out the wealth of the nation to foreign lands and afterwards made India their homeland and ruled the country for centuries. It resulted in Hinduism turning inwards and observing all the rituals rigidly and blindly to save its distinct identity under foreign rule. Afterwards, feudalistic attitude, extravagance and luxurious life style of Mughal rulers and those at the helm of authority, increased the disparity between the rulers and the ruled.

Again, in  nineteenth century during British rule, modernization an industrialization process has made many traditional occupations obsolete or less paying or were regarded more hazardous and more time consuming. White collared jobs gained importance. Modernity taught people to escape from menial work and discredit manual work. More, a person withdrew from physical labor, more civilized, honored and qualified he was regarded by modern society. The British apathy towards indigenous skills, knowledge and occupations pushed millions of rural artisans, craftsman and small scale farmers, for whom work was essential for survival, backwards in a very subtle manner. It resulted in discrediting many traditional occupations and in destruction of Indian handicrafts and cottage industry. It scattered efforts, sense of direction and manufacturing skills of millions of artisans, craftsman, weavers etc. A few of them joined modern occupations. Majority belonging to different groups could neither enter modern sector, nor could stick to their traditional occupations considering menial work derogatory and lost their creativity, sense of achievement and pride. Masses had no option, but to either join band of agricultural laborers, industrial workers, and marginal labor and increase number of poor and unemployed. Outcome of such a change has been casualty of workers first, afterwards their work style, commitment, motivation and culture.

Recently empowerment of backward and untouchable castes has becoming once again a buzz -word in political arena. Poverty is the most pervasive phenomenon, which cuts across all the barriers of caste religion and region. It has been estimated that despite numerous developmental plans, schemes and legislation, including Reservation Policy in higher education and jobs, there are about 500 million Indians are living in squalor. There are many reasons responsible for their deprivation, agonies and poverty other than caste. Population explosion, illiteracy, unemployment, lack of awareness about opportunities to progress, insufficient wages in unorganized sector, indebtedness, politicization of caste system, obsolete forest and land policies and half-hearted implementation of developmental plans.   

Therefore, it can be said that it is not the malice of castes-Hindus, but the circumstances, that are pushing untouchables and some other backward castes away from the mainstream. Suffering from centuries old enslavement, suppression and ostracism deteriorated severely the condition of lower strata of society, stopped growth of their personality and made them dependent on others for their livelihood.

It is a humanitarian obligation of any civilized society to bring suitable changes to uplift and empower the submerged sections of society. The overwhelming poverty of millions belonging to lower strata of society and their near absence in echelons of power has led the law makers in India to intervene. Generally law follows social changes. But in India, after the Independence, the political leadership in their hurry and enthusiasm, tried to foster social changes through law.  In order to finish monopoly of a few groups in power structure and, as well as to bring to an end prejudice against discriminated groups, age-old imbalances and cumulative disparities of power, wealth and culture, they have initiated politicization of Caste-system. They hoped to integrate the whole country by casteless society. Unfortunately, instead creating a better future, it has generated other complications. Its paternalistic policies for bringing the submerged sections of the society into mainstream and creating a casteless society has not yielded the desired results, because these are –

  • Devised by self-proclaimed leaders and administered by bureaucrats belonging mainly to the elite of urban society,
  • Not rooted in local priorities or skills. The beneficiaries do not choose, design and implements the projects.
  • Often represented patronage networks of those doling out the money.
  • Often benefiting the rural elite.

Recently, many reformers and religious/spiritual institutions are focussing their attention on community empowerment. Many self-help groups have emerged all-over India. They  They bypass the government mechanisms and go straight communities. It hopes that their efforts would Recently the world over, community empowerment is becoming once again a buzz -word. The idea is to bypass government mechanisms and go straight to communities. It is expected to check corruption and waste, to take arbitrary power away from politicians at central, state, even at local level, also to build the skills of targeted groups through learning by doing and to empower them as decision-makers.

These self-help groups provide mutual safety-nets to its people in times of distress, use ostracism to penalize undesirable behaviour, rewards those with desirable behaviour, mediate and settle disputes without costs and delays of the formal of the formal legal and administrative system. They involve and encourage its people to design, implement and monitor the schemes, which the feel are beneficial for their community members.

Wherever properly harnessed, efforts of such self-help groups have yielded rich dividends. For example the Parsi and Christian communities, institutions run by Veerashaivya Mutts of Karnataka, Ramakrishan Mission, Radhaswami Satsang, Satya Sai Baba, Sadhu Vasvani and many others are practising community based approach for the development of humanity. They provide far better municipal, civic, educational, and medical services then the government. 

 

 

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November 26, 2017 Posted by | Reservation/Affirmative action program, Social and political values and systems | | Leave a comment

Is Policy of Reservations in Government services An Affirmative Action Program?

 “Authority without wisdom is like a heavy axe without an edge.” Anne Bradstreet

“Work is worship. There is no substitute for hard-work”

INTRODUCTION ­

Biggest experiment of Twentieth century – Policy of Reservations in government jobs is one of the biggest experiments in the history of Twentieth Century. It is a very sensitive issue. It was started to uplift the submerged sections of Indian society, to protect their rights and to overcome the cumulative disparities of power, wealth and culture existed among various sections of society. From its very nature, the policy is discriminatory and exclusive. It empowers state authorities to give preference to one or more groups in the society to exclusion of others and encroach on domain of right to ‘equality to all’. Of late, it has become a source of considerable controversy, as it also involves emotional feelings of people.

“Reservation in Government services” – Reservations in government services involves two contradictory principles – one, the principle of “Efficiency in administration” and the other the principle of “Social justice”. Reservation Policy aims at improving the lot of backward sections of society and empowering them for a better future. For a successful administration the keynote is efficiency, which means right people on right positions at right time.

An efficient administration can provide convenience to the public at large, and attain the developmental and welfare goals of the nation within time and cost parameters. It could secure maximum results with minimum labour and resources. However, Reservation policy suggests, as understood by Indian authorities, to appoint less- qualified persons on the crucial positions of power structure by relaxing the standards and fixing up a separate quota for each of its weaker sections.

Issues – The question arises, is it possible to find out a way, which can keep a balance between the two contradictory principles? Is it not desirable to make weaker sections strong and eligible first and then facilitate their entry into such services of the nation? How can a capable and confident team from amongst vast majority of backward people be prepared to shoulder responsibilities of administration judiciously?

What is Reservation Policy – Dictionary meaning of Reservations – According to the “New Webster Dictionary”, reservation means “Keeping aside something for some specific purpose.” In the Indian context, Reservation Policy refers to a situation, wherein to uplift the submerged section of society, some jobs and other facilities are especially reserved in various institutions/organisations, so that they could be brought back into the national mainstream.

Social structure of Indian society – Before discussing the views of supporters and critics of Reservation Policy, It is necessary to know something about Social Structure of India.

  • In ancient India – Hindu society was classified in four functional groups known as “Varna” – the Brahmins to preach, the Kshtriyas to rule and defend the community, the Vaishyas to carryon the business and the Shudras to do the menial jobs for the society as a whole. Ancient Indian society was dominated by Hindu community. During that period, India had produced an excellent culture. Though there existed no political entity as an Independent Nation-State except for a brief period, but its culture had bound the people of this peninsula for ages from one end to the other. The system worked well for a long time. So much and so, that India was known as ‘Sone ki Chiriya’ ( A Bird of Gold)
  • Developed deformity with passage of time – In ancient India, numerous social groups came to India in waves at different points of time and desired to join the mainstream. All of them were assimilated into it without any conversion by giving each one a different caste name. It gave rise to the caste-system.
  • Then Turks, Afghans and Mughals continuously invaded India. Earlier, they drained out the wealth of the nation to foreign lands. But afterwards, they conquered and made India their homeland. There had been alien rule in the country for centuries, first of Mughals rule and then of British. As time passed, there developed many distortions. The society got divided into innumerable castes and sub-castes within each of four Varnas. Disparity and inequality grew amongst them with the passage of time.
  • Pathetic condition of Shudras and untouchables – By the beginning of twentieth century, the most pathetic condition was of both Shudras/untouchables and of women in general. Most of the individuals belonging to both the sections of the society  were illiterate and economically deprived. Worst of all was the position of women. There was discrimination against them in every sphere of life, from living to work to social status.
  • Reformative movements of nineteenth and twentieth centuries – From time to time, nationalist leaders and social reformers tried to remove the inequality and injustice prevalent in the society against lower castes . At times, the lower caste people themselves rebelled against prejudices. Efforts to uplift them and eliminate all forms of exploitation started with the emergence of Reformative movements during the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth century like Arya Samaj initiated by Swami Dayanand, or “Achutodhar” by Gandhiji.
  • Intelligentsia and Reformers of that period gave serious thought to the problem and conveyed the message that the inequality in the society should be finished. It was also impressed upon the masses that “Abhava” (Scarcity), “Agyan” (Ignorance), “Anyaya” (Injustice), and “Alasya” (Laziness) were the sources of all the evils prevalent in the society. Therefore, necessary efforts should be made by people, society and the government to get over these shortcomings.
  • Deprivation no longer acceptable in modern world – Various revolutions like the French revolution, Bolshevik revolution, Industrial revolution and other contemporary developments during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries made the people alert and aware of their rights. Misery, ignorance and economic deprivation, which were ear liar accepted as one’s lot, were no longer acceptable.
  • Masses desired to get benefitted from the resources of the nation – Masses started wishing that they themselves should be benefited, as much as possible, from the resources of their nation. Millions of people started demanding with persisting insistence better facilities in life – they demanded protection from five major evils of an underdeveloped or developing society – want, disease, ignorance, squalor and idleness.
  • Desire to establish a new economic order – The public desired to go forward quickly and to establish a new economic order, in which common man and weaker section of society could have better deal. It forced the national governments to take upon themselves the responsibility of protecting and nurturing them in such a manner that they got enough opportunities to grow, to their fullest stature.

Arguments of the Supporters Of Reservation policy – Policy of reservation has been hailed by it supporters as a “Historic step” the advocates of reservation. To them policy of reservation has been adopted to break the shackles of caste and to improve the lot of the poor masses. Arguments in favour reservation policy –

  • Lower castes under-represented in power echelons – Backward castes constitute about 80% of India’s total population (15% Scheduled Caste, 8% Scheduled Tribes and 52% Other Backward classes), but their representation in echelons of power including the senior in Government of India is a paltry 4.69%. Therefore, supporters of reservation policy demand that employment in government services should be on pro-rata basis.
  • ‘Due share’ to lower strata in power echelons – Founder of Bahujan Samaj Party, Kanshi Ram said, “The reservation for SC/ST began with only 2% in 1935. Now it is 22.5%. Gradually all reservations would be according to proportion of different castes in the population. My aim is to give reservation (to the upper caste minorities), not to demand it. V.P. Singh has made my job easier.”
  • Ex Prime Minister, V.P. Singh, Prime Minister from Janata Dal, while implementing the MandaI Commission recommendations in August, 1990 said in his independence-day speech, “We want to effectively give to the depressed, downtrodden and backward people their share in the power structure and in decision-making to run country and improve things.” ◦Suppression of downtrodden for centuries – Lower castes had been treated unequally in the past, now they should be given a more than equal status to make empower them. Competition could be just and valid only among equals. Since upper castes had suppressed lower castes on basis of their birth, present generation has to correct age-old imbalances and make reparations by giving downtrodden advantage through reservations. It is a noble and just cause in return for centuries of oppression.
  • Little dilution of meritocracy does not matter – Forward castes are better educated and settled because of the environment, in which they are brought up. But deprived castes, in absence of proper environment and economic constraints are unable to compete on equal terms with upper castes for jobs in the government, public or private sectors. Besides educational capabilities and economic status, socio-political dominance of upper caste is a powerful factor influencing selection process. Witnessing all these aspects social justice demands that jobs should be shared with backward even at cost of little dilution of meritocracy.
  • Foundations of Reservations social, not economic – “All foundations for government’s reservation policy were social, not economic” says Ram Vilas Paswan “Each caste is standing with one foot on the forehead of the one below it in the social hierarchy…” Shri Ram Avdhesh Singh, a M.P. of Lok Dal says, “Even the rich backwards are not given the social status, which poor forwards enjoy. That is why we need representation in the government on caste basis, where wealth and respect go hand in hand. These reservations are not for the economic good, but to link backwards with the State.” (India Today, September 30, 1990) Therefore supporters of Reservation Policy are against the idea of economic criteria. V.P and his associates said that it was introduced in Tamil Nadu in the past, but did not worked there (Times of India news item on September 4, 1990).
  • Whitewash a bitter historical reality – Swami Agnivesh of Bandhua Mukti Morcha had said, “We have created our fractures and schisms – it was not the Mughals, it was not the British, it was the Vedas that consolidated the casteism in Indian culture. We can describe the reservation policy today as palliatives, an attempt to whitewash a bitter historical reality, sitting on a handful of armchair sociologists and pretending the rest of backward India doesn’t exist. That we need is radical social change.”
  • Reservation Policy has empowered backwards as a composite pressure group – “Reservations, on the basis of caste, give the backwards an identity as a composite pressure group. This is a concrete achievement, which will help them to unite and fight for equality. Besides, caste is still a dominant factor in Indian social-structure; its existence should be accepted for recognising the under-privilege groups.” (News item in Times of India, September 15, 1990)
  • Merit not a prerogative of upper castes only – Merit is not found in upper castes only. There are many meritorious and talented boys and girls amongst the SC/ST/OBC. They only need proper atmosphere and opportunities for education and employment in order to shine to their full capacity. In old Madras Presidency, there were 100% reservation/job quotas, both for “Forward” and Backward” castes. Today about 68% seats are reserved for SC/ST/OBC in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, and they are far ahead of other provinces in matter of prosperity and good governance, where there is upper caste domination in administration.
  • Norm of ‘pull’ and ‘push’ – Ram Vilas Paswan, ex-minister says, “There is no such thing as merit in India today, there is only “pull” and “Influence”…. “Merit” is only a term used for the purpose of disruption by agitators.” Shri Paswan asks why forward class does not look towards merit in candidates admitted in institutions of higher learning because of capitation fee or selected for influential posts because of their family background.
  • ‘Bearer best knows where shoe pinches’ – V.P. Singh told the nation that society would be served best by filling the civil services by downtrodden as they were the bearers who knew where the shoe pinched. They had the qualities of heart, which the administration of the country needed more than the quality of head. They are committed to the uplift of their brethren. Syed Shabuddin of the “Insaf party” had said, “In a democracy every social group is entitled to share the fruits of development and keep a hand on the levers of power…. Both intra and inter group disparities must be reduced by Legislative policies. If the backward classes come into administrative posts, they may be able to increase efficiency, as they will be having grass-root knowledge of actual problems.” (News item in the Times of India, September 15, 1990)

In short, supporters of reservation consider it necessary to empower the downtrodden, to reduce economic inequalities, to give them social respectability, to reduce imbalances created due to upper class influence and to break the psychological barrier, to give downtrodden their due share in power structure.

Arguments of Anti-reservationists – Anti-reservationists doubt the efficacy of Reservation Policy. Reservation has been a source of turmoil in society many a time. They have shown their resentment every-time Parliament had extended the period for reservations. In seventies and eighties, the agitation against reservation policy took a major turn by taking a shape of national movement affecting many parts of the country. The agitation against reservation sparked violently in Gujarat in 1983 and spread to other places when a meritorious physically handicapped student of upper caste was denied admission in MD course and the quota student with much less marks was admitted. Such cases definitely arouse public sentiments and they criticise the government for following the policy blindly. Somehow the authorities were able to suppress it. But scars were left. They say –

  • Contrary to principles of equality – Reservations are contrary to principles of equality, fraternity and social justice. There is something fundamentally wrong with Reservation Policy. In the name of social justice, fundamental rights of many deserving people are curtailed or negated. It benefits and increases the number of those, who are desirous to find an easier way-out.
  • Genesis of Reservation Policy in “Divide and Rule” dictum – Reservations were first introduced by the British rulers to “Divide” the Indian population and “rule” the nation as long as possible. The British government divided Indians on the basis of caste and community. British rulers, who got alarmed about the increasingly power and influence of Brahmins, purposely propagated myth of tyranny of the “Forward Castes”, especially of Brahmins over rest of the society. Therefore, British rulers pinpointed Brahmins as oppressors and tyrants, who wilfully kept others down. They encouraged anti-Brahmin formations in the South. They started the practice of fixing-up quotas in various educational-institutions and government jobs on one side and separate electorate for religious groups on the other. Later on, Reservations started in other parts of the country as well for backward communities.
  • Source of Vote-bank politics – Now many politicians and their parties advocate to fix a quota for more castes,  to increase the percentage of quota and extend its time-frame for ever in order to create vote banks. Like Britishers, politicians and supporters of pro-reservation want to divide the nation, on the basis of caste, community or gender. They want to grab and hold political power as long as possible. Already, there is a perplexing diversity in India along geography, culture, caste, religion and language lines. They are spreading venom in the heart of each identity against other. If not checked on time, communalism and casteism are bound to destroy the unity of the nation and narrow down the aspiration of people.
  • Administration and policy-making for Sustainable Development requires services of most talented – The task of administration is one of the most difficult. It is so complex that it requires services of most talented, sincere, hardworking and honest people. A preference to a person with inferior talent over a person with superior talent is not only unjust but against national interests. Reservations in employment contemplates putting those on responsible positions in the government, “Who are not qualified for the job” – (Arun Shourie). And in the process, power passes from meritocracy to mediocracy (Nani Palkiwala). It also means that sub-standard services would be rendered to the general public.
  • Common-men suffer more – The policy of reservation affects adversely the efficiency of administration as a whole. Deteriorating standards of working in government institutions and poor law and order situation have already done irreparable damage to the development of SC/ST and OBC communities and made their lives miserable. The larger objective of eradicating the poverty and bringing the downtrodden in the main-stream could never be achieved by laying stress on quantity rather than quality and lowering the standards of education or governance. Does reserving a very few places for SC, ST & OBC satisfy the basic needs of millions of underfed, under-clothed and under-read people of India
  • Contributions of upper class – Kaka Kalelkar had said in, ‘Note of Dissent of First Backward caste Commission “It would be well, if representatives of the Backward-classes remembered that whatever good they find in the Constitution and the liberal policy of the Government, is the result of the awakened conscience of the upper classes themselves. Whatever Government is doing by way of atonement is readily accepted and acclaimed by the nation as a whole. The upper classes have contributed their share in formulating the policies of the Government. Removal of untouchability, establishment of equality and social justice, special consideration for backward classes, all these elements found place in the Constitution without a single voice of dissent from the upper classes.” Upper castes are still contributing their share through taxes (the money collected from taxes is supposed to be spent on developmental plans.) Somewhere, they are supporting, elsewhere actively participating in formulating developmental policies of the government.
  • Quantity of reservation quota – So long as “only a few places” were kept aside for those severely disadvantaged – Harijans and Girijans, the people tolerated the policy as functioning of institutions did not stand much risk of being vitiated and consideration of caste and community were placed under control. But, when V.P. Singh announced to implement 27% for reservation in jobs for OBCs, in addition to 22.5% reservation for SC/STs in government jobs, heart burning and stir against Reservation Policy passed all the limits. The whole nation was in for caste wars.
  • Reservation policy ignores merit – Reservation policy as it ignores merit. In 1947, when the Constitution framers were dealing with the reservation policy, they showed clearly their concern for efficiency. Art. 335 directs that ‘reservations for SC/ST should be consistent with the maintenance of efficiency of administration.’ Today, when economy is in shambles, inflation has touched 13%, coffers are empty, and common man is suffering due to inefficiency and mal-functioning of the government, the nation can not afford to ignore merit and efficiency. In Private Sector, survival and prosperity depends on merit. It picks up the best talent available in the country from the educational institutions itself by conducting “Campus interviews” and does not allow sub­standard working. That is why it is attracting the talents of the nation and is prospering.
  • Discourages development of skills – Reservation has discouraged development of skills, resources and attitudes in SC/STs needed to succeed without the crutches of reservation and has encouraged backwardness, inefficiency and lack of competitive merit amongst the castes enjoying reservation.
  • Making people lazy and increases malpractices – People of lower castes have taken these concessions for granted and expect it to last for ever. It has made even competent persons amongst them lazy and complacent. Guarantee of share in power structure without much effort develops an attitude never value the dignity of labour and work hard. The reservation policy is adding fuel to this attitude. Obtaining false certification about caste is increasing in order to get the advantage of the limited spoils. It has raised the expectation of others as well.
  • Short time measure – In many provinces, scheduled castes were enjoying the benefit of reservation in proportion to their population since 1935. Constitution had provided for state patronage to SC/ST for ten years i.e. till 1960, to SCs, because they were far away from the mainstream on account of “Untouchability” and other constraints, and STs because of “Social isolation due geographical reasons”. After the end of this period, the concession could be  continued by an amendment of the Constitution, which was not very likely. It was hoped that underprivileged would be at least in a position to stand on their feet by 1960.
  • Times have already changed – Vote-bank politics has changed everything since then. Successive governments have ignored the sweeping changes that have occurred throughout the country over the last 70 years. Through various measures, including Reservation Policy, people of all castes have progressed. Anti Brahmin movements in former Estates of Madras and Bombay had effectively eliminated Brahmins as a dominant political force. Lower strata of society had organized themselves, consolidated their economic and acquired political power. Through reservations they have succeeded in occupying position of power.
  • Shift of power in favour of Backwards – Political power has already shifted in favour of backwards, almost completely in the South and in massive strides in Bihar and UP, where they constitute nearly 40% of the Legislative strength. At State and local levels, especially in more populous rural areas their influence is continuously growing. Untouchables have made concerted efforts to mobilize themselves and to secure their upward mobility as may be seen in the case of Izhavas of Kerala, Mehars of Maharashtra, Chamars of UP, Meenas of Rajasthan, etc. Radical movement such as that launched by the militants Dalit Panther in Maharashtra have made the emerging strength of the lowest caste felt with increasing effectiveness.
  • Rigidity of caste wearing out – Rigidity of caste has been gradually wearing out. Introduction of railways, opening of hotels and restaurants, radio, TV and cinema houses have contributed to the relaxation of caste prejudices and rigidities. Besides education and training, land reforms, industrialisation etc have brought awareness amongst backward castes. The end of many practices, which created distances between different castes in the past, is a hopeful sign and guarantee for the future well being of every Indian citizen.
  • New lease of life to caste – Entry of caste into political arena through reservation policy has given a new lease of life to caste in the form of caste-ism. Caste-ism has not only held its ground but began to strengthen its hold in the politics at national as well as provinces levels. Politicians of Independent India are well-versed in making its increasing use in politics.
  • Time for gradual de-legitimization of caste – Yogendra Singh, Dean of Political Science in the Jawaharlal Nehru University says, “Forty years have seen enormous differentiation in class and caste division. Caste should not be the central element in dispensing social justice. In fact, there should be a process of gradual de-legitimization of caste by finding scientific methods for the exit of SCs and STs from the reserved quota.” (India Today, September 30, 1990)
  • ‘Past is past’ – Vasant Sathe of Congress (I) says “Reservation is no solution for a crime so many centuries old. Nor it is ethical to punish our present society for the sins of our fore fathers.” It is a law of jungle to hold responsible the present generation for the follies of its previous generations. According to Rule of law the present generation can not be punished for what their forefathers did.
  • Undermines ‘Principle of Equality’ – Anti-reservationists argue that there was a case to end the quota business in 1960 itself. Yet it has been allowed to continue till today. The Indian Constitution is committed to two different principles both of which relate to equality: ‘principle of equal opportunities’ and “principle of redress’. Now it is over due that ‘principle of equality’ be enforced in its true spirit without any favour. Since policy of reservation undermines the principle of equality, it should be gradually discontinued as had been done in the case of Anglo Indians in accordance with the Article 336 of the Constitution.
  • Inter and intra caste wars – Reservation policy does not consider all individuals equal. Instead caste becomes the basis to get this privilege. It leads to inter-caste rivalry. Anti-reservationists accuse the pro-preservationists for inciting the caste war by provoking public feelings. Brahmins and upper castes has been pinpointed as an enemy of downtrodden, who have always exploited the downtrodden mercilessly.
  • Distortion of historical facts – Political adventurers, dictators and fundamental fanatics have distorted the history in the past and used it as a ploy to serve their own selfish or partisan interests. It does not even matter to them, whether their own version of history is real or based on fantasy. When Hitler walked into Sudetanland, he claimed historical authority. When Mussolini attacked Ethopia in 30′s, he quoted history. When Zionists claimed Jeruselem, they tried to justify their act by citing history. When Saddam Hussain walked into Kuwait on August2, 1990, He staked his claim on the basis of raking up old history. Same thing had happened on August 15, 1990, when V.P. Singh announced 27% reservation for OBCs, it was hailed by his supporters as “A historic decision which will go a long way in giving the rightful share to socially and economically backward castes in the power structure of the country, of which they were denied under the pressure from the vested interests.”
  • Reasons of backwardness other than caste – At present, submerged section of society does not suffer so much due to discrimination on the basis of caste as for other reasons. Kaka Kalelkar, first Chairman of First Backward class Commission had said, ““If the backward communities have neglected education it is because they had no use for it (in the past). Now that they have discovered their mistakes, it is for them to make the necessary efforts for making the leeway…As far as the assistance in the matter of education for the backward classes, I am convinced that introduction of basic education in all the states with help the backward communities to cultivate self-confidence. They will also have a better chance of succeeding in life and have the advantage of mixing with other people.”
  • Glamorization of Backwardness –Earlier, backwardness was considered as stigma. People of lower castes attempted to improve mannerism in order to climb up in the ladder of social status. These days, many castes claim for a lower status and want to be included in the list of SC/ST, so that they may taste the fruits of reservation as well. No more any caste is ashamed of being called untouchable or backward. Reservations have created vested interests in the “Backwardness.” Now backwardness is a status symbol, because it eases the position, while one is in search of jobs. Therefore, more and more communities are clamouring for the “Backward class” tag. Those in power find it politically expedient to oblige them. The list of castes wishing for reservations has become very long. Witnessing all this it stands to logic that the beneficiary group should be kept under constant review, so that who have over the years reached a stage where they could survive with dignity without any crutches, could be delisted.
  • Creamy layer of lower castes at advantage – Benefits of Reservations are confined within the creamy layer of lower strata, while, it was supposed to benefit ‘poorest of the poor’. How can all the 80% downtrodden be accommodated in power echelons by reserving only 49.552% jobs out of 1% of total government jobs available in the country? Naturally, only few people are benefited, others are given only false assurances during the times of elections.
  • Economic criteria as a basis – Anti-reservationists argue that consideration of caste instead of economic backwardness is not just. Reservations, if it is necessary should be given on the basis of ‘economic criteria’ to all the poor regard less of their caste identity. There should also be an income ceiling for SC/ST and others with the entitlement of their children for reservations in job and admission to educational institutions. Then only really deserving people could be benefited.
  • Led to Brain drain – Reservation has shaken the confidence of the youth of so called forward class. About 50% reservations in government jobs have left many deserving and intelligent youths unemployed or underemployed. Some of them choose the path of crime or violence. Unemployment has been one of the reasons behind Punjab and Kashmir problems. Many intelligent and hard working youth are losing their interest, rapidly, in government jobs. They prefer to go abroad in search of greener pastures, where they get good return for their talents and hard-work. In addition, they get job satisfaction because of tension free atmosphere at work-place. Reservations have, thus, led to brain drain. It has already squeezed out many meritorious by leading the country to massive brain drain.
  • Cry for social-Justice? – The attempt to establish a socialistic government does not carry much weight. The USSR a super-power of pre-1990 days collapsed like a house of cards, despite having Socialistic government for last 70 years. With all its State control and public support, it could not provide expected relief to its masses. How could socialistic ideals provide relief to the masses in India, where there exists so much corruption and inefficiency in administration?
  • Feeling of alienation – Creation and perpetuation quotas in educational institutions and jobs has made backward classes alienated from the main stream. It is adversely affecting national solidarity. It is sowing the seeds of hatred among the people and put hindrances on the way of mutual help, mutual respect and mutual trust necessary for the development of the nation as a whole. Along with it, efficiency or excellence, probity, integrity of institutions and trust, which are required for overall well-being are adversely affected.
  • Reservations in Government jobs need not be a political program – Reservation in government jobs need not be made a political programme, which must be done according to the electoral mathematics. It was envisaged to uplift the submerged sections of society and make their future better. Governance is one of the most difficult and specialized tasks. Government employees are supposed to have sufficient professional knowledge and expertise in various disciplines – functional, technical, specialist as well as managerial and generalist – so that they could properly aid and advise the elected representatives of the people and dig for them the expert knowledge from the raw material, give it a shape with a sense of commitment. For attaining that expertise, they have to be equipped with knowledge in various educational institutions. Therefore, the government should be very careful while recruiting people in government jobs.

If politicians are so keen to give reservations to lower castes, a share in the power structure of the nation, why not quotas are fixed for members of different castes by law and elect turn by turn or by rotation – the President, the Prime Minister, the Vice President, Cabinet Ministers, Ambassadors, Governors, Chief minister of every state? In these positions, the representatives of the people are elected or selected and entrusted the power and make decisions for a fix period. If their performance is not satisfactory, at-least they can be removed or changed. But government jobs are permanent and government servants can not be removed easily till they retire after 32 or 35 years of service. Wrong person in wrong position could adversely affect the standard/functioning of the governance which should not be allowed.

Wanchoo Commission Report, 1968, and Railway Reforms Committee Report, 1983, on the working of Railways observed that reservations in jobs and promotions adversely affects the enthusiasm, incentive for hard work and devotion to duty and in-turn the efficiency and the morale of the civil servants. Sikri Commission on Railways, 1968, linked accidents with reservations. These three reports are just about one government department and that too when reservation is only 22.5% for SC/ST. What is going to happen, now when it is 50%? Who would be the ultimate sufferer. It is the innocent public only.

  • Double standard – The government itself has exempted certain services and posts from reservation in order to maintain efficiency, discipline and loyalty to the nation intact such as all the Defence Services, Scientific and technical posts in the Department of Space, Atomic Energy, Electronics, posts of pilots and top technical persons in Air India and Indian Airlines, all scientific posts of Indian Institute of Science, Banglore, teaching posts in IITs and IIMs, private secretary to the PM and other Ministers, Planning Commission Members etc. (A Handbook on reservation for SC/ST compiled by Sharma and Purohit). It proves that the government maintains double standards.
  • Reservations for women – If any class in India needs reservation on the grounds of social discrimination or under-representation in power echelons, it is only the women in India. How about reserving 50% seats for them in all educational institutions and government jobs? That would be their just share and will not divide the society along the caste lines either. If it cannot be done, then at least 50% of the reserved quota could always be kept aside for women of respective castes. Are the politicians prepared to make such provision for women too?

In short, Anti-reservationists think that there is something fundamentally wrong with the Reservation Policy. It has been criticized for creating many conflicting identities like – majority and minority, backward and forwards, urban and rural, north and south and man and woman etc. It is being extended again and again with an aim to create “Vote-bank” in the garb of helping the needy.

In the name of social justice, fundamental rights of many deserving people are being curtailed or negated. It is a farce in the name of social justice, a slap on the face of education and merit, a vote catching measure and misuse of power by political parties.

Views of prominent persons on Reservation Policy – The views of some prominent leaders on reservation, are as follows:

  • Shri V.P. Singh – In his independence-day speech on August 15th, 1990, Shri V.P. Singh, ex-Prime Minister of India announced, while accepting the recommendations of Mandal Commission: “Bureaucracy is an important organ of the power structure and it has a decisive role in the decision-making exercise. We want to effectively give to the depressed, downtrodden and backward people their share in the power structure and in decision making to run this country and improve things. “
  • Mahatma Gandhi – In his book titled “India of my dreams” Mahatma Gandhi wrote: “So far as the reservations in the government departments is concerned, I think, it will be fatal to a good government, if we introduce there the communal spirit for administration to be efficient, it must be always in the hands of the fittest. There should be certainly no favouritism.”… “Distribution of posts should never be according to the proportion of members of each community. “… “Those who aspire to occupy responsible posts in the government of the country can only do if they pass the required test.”
  • Pundit Jawahar Lal Nehru – In a letter dated June 27, 1961, addressed to Chief Ministers of various States, Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru, Ex-Prime Minister of India wrote, “I have referred above to efficiency and to our getting out of the traditional rut. This necessitates our getting out of the old habit of reservations and particular privilege being given to this caste or that group. It is true that we are tied up with certain rules and conventions about helping the SC/STs. That deserve help, but even so I dislike any kind of reservation, more particularly in services. I react strongly against anything which leads to inefficiency and second rate standards. I want my country to be a first class country in everything. The moment we encourage the second rate, we are lost.” “This way, lies not only folly but disaster.”
  • Kaka Kalelkar – As Chairman of the Backward Class Commission, Kaka Kalelkar expressed his views on reservation in education (Backward Class Commission Report, 1956, Vol. I, page X). He wrote: “As far as the assistance in the matter of education for the backward classes, I am convinced that introduction of basic education in all the States will help the backward communities to cultivate self-confidence. They will also have a better chance of succeeding in open competition and having the special advantage of mixing with people and serving them, they will prove themselves better administrators and leaders of society.”                                       On page VIII of the same report, he has expressed his views on reservation in government services too, as under: “I am definitely against reservations in government services for any community for the simple reason that the services are not meant for the servants but they are meant for the service of the society as a whole. Administration must have the services of the best men available in the land and these may be found in all the communities. Reservation of posts for certain backward communities would be as strange as reservation of patients for a particular doctor. The patients are not meant to supply adequate or proportionate clientele to all the doctors what ever their qualifications.”
  • Sri B.D. Sharma – Shri Sharma, the Commissioner for SC/ST has pointed out in his 29th Report, tabled in Parliament on August 31st, 1990, as under: “The policy of reservation in government jobs has not improved the lot of the bulk of SC/ST in the country. In fact, in many cases, their condition has further deteriorated. “It is quite clear that even if the policy of positive discrimination were to succeed fully, it could benefit only a small section of these communities. On the other hand, if inequality continues to increase in our country or continues even at the present level, the maximum damage will” befall on the members of these communities themselves, because their condition is already the worst as in the case of the SC or because they are facing the most severe backlash of development as in the case of the S.T……” ” The policy of reservation is ironical, as it demands a share for the weaker section” in the gains of iniquitous system, which in the ultimate analysis cannot be anything, but the proceeds of exploitation of other poor belonging to the same group who remain at the bottom.”

  • Chowdhary Charan Singh – Chowdhary Charan Singh, the founder of Lok Dal and charismatic leader of Backward castes and class, wrote: “It must be conceded that reservation on the basis of caste is a vicious principle and creates many problems. More than reservation in recruitment, it is reservation in promotions that has led to great heart burning and great inefficiency in our services. Such reservation whether in favour of Scheduled or Backward castes, was, in my opinion beyond intentions of the founding fathers. Boys belonging to poor families, particularly those, where large section of our people are considered socially inferior for centuries past, are entitled to consideration rather than concessions at the hands of the government of independent India.”                                                                                                                      Chowdhary Charan Singh was also against extending reservation to SC/ST beyond 10 years “The intelligent and hard working youth are losing their interest, rapidly, in government jobs. They prefer to go abroad in search of greener pastures, where they get return for their talents and hard-work. In addition, they get job satisfaction because of tension free atmosphere at work-place. … “The Union Government, however, has for political reasons, been extending the period of reservations decades after decades. There should be bars on children of those who have benefited from reservation and those who are income tax payers, so that other less fortunates could be helped.” (A letter, February 12,1982 to Banarasi Dass, the then Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh)

  • Ram Vilas paswan – The Dalit Sena president and Janata Party leader, Mr. Ram Vilas Paswan, in his speech at Benipatti, Madhubani, on December 12, 1987 demanded for amendment to the Constitution to end the prevalent reservation system for Harijans and other backward classes in the Government services and replacing it by right to work for every body…. Reservation system had failed to achieve its purpose and had created social tension in the country. Mr. paswan said that despite Constitutional provisions and related laws, the government at the Centre and State had failed to protect the interest of Harijans.                                                                                     Later on, Paswan became the champion of reservation policy. He advocated reservations in jobs and educational institutions on permanent basis. It should continue till the caste system persists in India. Since caste system can not be put to an end, therefore, there is no justification for finishing the reservation for the downtrodden.

Views of intelligentsia regarding reservations in government jobs –

  • Professor Andre BeteilIe – Professor Beteille said: “Once the uneven distribution of caste in public institutions comes to be perceived as a problem of distributive justice, institutional well-being takes the back seat.” “Job reservations in public institutions are required to protect the interest of SC/ST, backward classes and minorities – if this argument is believed to be right and acted upon then our institutions can not function as they ought to, their well-being will be irreparably damaged.” … “The best course would be to expand the pool of qualified candidates at the lower level but this would call for patience which no government in India has so far shown.” “A quicker course, whose effects would show immediately in official statistics, would be to alter the proportions directly, through reservation of jobs.” (6th T. T. Krishnamachari Memorial lecture on “Distributive Justice & Institutional well-being”, November 11, 1990, the Institute of Economic Growth)
  • Shri H.M. Seervai – Shri Seervai wrote: “Reservations affect five parties adversely:
    • The State – to whose service persons are recruited by open competition in examinations held by independent Public Service Commissions.
    • The public – As the very phrase “Public servant” shows.
    • The persons – who are discriminated against, by reservations in favour of members of SC/ST.
    • Members of SC/ST – In whose favour discrimination is being made by fixing reservation quota; and
    • The service – That is each service considered as a whole. (“Is an efficient public service irrelevant in India”, Indian Express, September, 1990)                                                               “A service which lacks spirit-de-corps, that is, consciousness of and pride in belonging to a particular service, lacks an element essential to an efficient an harmonious administration. The position further deteriorates in a service in which in matters of promotion, people with superior qualifications are subordinate to people with admittedly inferior qualifications.”
  • Nani A Palkiwala – Shri Palkiwala opined that Reservation policy suffers from five fatal flaws:
    • The sub-standard replaces the standard, and the reins of power are to pass from meritocracy to mediocracy.
    • It ignores the reality that there are no backward castes but backward individuals.
    • Reservations in promotion are disastrous enough for the civil administration.
    • It divides the country on caste lines and is against social harmony and social intermingling of various castes.
    • Equality is the very heart of free republic, the foundation stone of true republic, the source of inspiration, the criteria for its citizenship and the hope for its welfare. The bedrock of reservation is discrimination in-reverse: it is discrimination against merit and calibre. (“Unity and security of State at stake”, Indian Express, September 14, 1990)
  • Arun Shourie – Arun Shourie, in an Article titled “This way lies not only folly but disaster” appearing in the Indian Express on August 22, 1990, writes: “A job should be something one has to work to get, something which one has to do one’s utmost to retain and advance in. It should not be, advancement in it must not be anyone’s by right”. But reservation definitely develops the ethos that the job, the promotion is mine by right and that too because of by my birth, not work. How can a modern society survive, let alone grow with this as its ethos?

Start of ‘Quota system’ in India

Resentment of Non-Brahmin castes – The time of start of reservations or preferential treatment was the later half of the Nineteenth century. People belonging to non-Brahmin castes resented the domination of Brahmin in modern callings. British rulers snatched the power from the hands of the patrons (owners of Princely states/Jamidars etc.), who till now helping them financially for their services. To earn their living respectfully, Brahmins were the first to opt for modern education. With their hard-work and learning background, they marched much ahead of Non-Brahmin castes. They made use of the opportunities, modern education offered. It was very difficult for them to compete s on equal footing with Brahmin, who had a long background of learning. They resented the advancement of Brahmin community.

British government in India also got alarmed because of their increasing influence of Brahmins almost everywhere. To balance the power, they fixed up Quotas for other castes in admission in educational institutions and employment in government services.

Scene after World-War II – After World War II, “Laisezfaire” theory of government’s function gave way to the concepts of “Welfare State”, and “Development Administration”. These concepts aimed at bringing about “Social, political and economic justice” and “Betterment to the lot of the submerged sections of the society” by building up a rapidly expanding and technologically progressive economy, in which the downtrodden could have a better deal.

With the general acceptance of these concepts all-over the world, the national governments gradually assumed the responsibility of welfare of all its citizens from “Womb to tomb”. Specific concessions, protections and assistance were given to the weaker sections of society in one form or the other all-over the world. In India, one of such protections adopted has been “Reservation Policy”.

Many Provincial Governments, especially those in the South, had fixed up quotas for different castes and minorities in educational institutions and government jobs. It was done much before Dr. Ambedkar demanded Reservations in Government jobs and separate electorate for the backward castes – a demand conceded by the British Governments in 1932.

Interestingly enough the Government of India Act, 1935, did not contain any specific provision for reservation. It, however, contained a few Sections (Section 275 and 298) which indirectly dealt with the subject through “Negative Protection” to those suffering from disability by reasons of race, religion, place of birth, descent, colour or any of them. The reservations in the Central services started since 1943, whereas the ST’s became eligible for reservations since 1950.

Scene in India after Independence – There has been a perplexing diversity in geography, culture, caste, religion and language in India. Along with it, there has been a great disparity between different sections of society – socially and economically. The attention of national leaders was drawn towards illiteracy, ignorance, superstitions, and taboos on food, drink and marriages, social segregation, lack of communication, living in inaccessible areas, unhealthy loyalties, continuing discrimination and lack of security,­ economic, social and legal.

Primary Goals  according   – After independence, India, being a democratic country pursued the principles of ‘Welfare State’ and ‘Social Justice’ after the Independence. The primary goals of the government for the independent India were:

  • To build a self-reliant nation through optimal utilization of its resources.
  • To establish an egalitarian and tolerant society based on the principles of justice, social economic and political,
  • To ensure to everyone equality of status and opportunity and
  • To give underprivileged a fair start

Views of Constituent Assembly members – Different views were exchanged during constituent Assembly debates –

  • Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, Chairman of Drafting Committee of Indian Constitution and founder of reservation policy in India, was of the opinion that social structure of India and its ‘Principle of Varna’ was responsible for the pathetic condition of ‘Avarna Hindus’, and keeping them far away from the mainstream and progressive influences. Varna system has divided the whole society of India into – Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas (Savarna Hindus) and Shudras (Avarna Hindus). Saverna Hindus were in privileged position. But the condition of Avarna Hindu castes, low Castes, Primitive Tribes, Untouchables and Criminals was pathetic. Avarna Hindus were given neither fair start nor equal opportunity nor square deal. Bringing these submerged sections of society into main stream needed Government’s intervention and initiate the practice of reservation as a government policy.

According to Ambedkar, lower castes did not have the courage to demand reasonable wages for their labour. They did not hold property (Land or cash) – they were born to work or starve. They were there only to wait, serve and submit. They were there to do or die.

  • Giani Gurumukh Singh Musafir – Giani Gurumukh Singh Musafir, a member of the Constituent Assembly thought that India had made the Harijans live in very poor condition for hundreds of years. He, therefore, advocated during the Constituent Assembly Debates on November 29, 1947: “Now when India has become free, it becomes the first and foremost duty of Central and Provincial Governments and of every Indian to see that these crores of downtrodden men are uplifted.”…. “They should be provided water, housing and education.”…. “So long as these depressed classes have this idea amongst themselves that they belong to this particular sect, so long as they think that they have this label affixed to them, it is difficult for them to progress. The very names give them this complex that he belongs to a depressed class.”
  • Shri Subhash Lal Saxena – Shri Subhash Lal Saxena, another member of the Constituent Assembly, said during the Constituent Assembly Debate on same day as Giani Gurumukh Singh Musafir i.e. November 27, 1947: “If capable Harijans are available, they should be recruited to superior posts. Besides the ordinary posts, the Harijan should be given all such jobs for which they are eligible. Harijans should be recruited in the Police. They should be given the post of Patwaries, School masters and Head masters etc. These posts would remove the inferiority complex, which is prevailing among them.
  • Many constituent Assembly members apprehended the fall of efficiency and administrative standard. Pt Hriday Narayan Kunjru feared, The regulations, made in this regard, may be unnecessarily wide or they may even be changed in such a way, from time to time, as to enable the executive to exercise a considerable amount of undesirable patronage.  

But seeing the pathetic condition of masses, Members of Constitution Assembly thought, if independent India made the weak to stand and compete with the strong on equal footing, it would be throwing the dice in favour of the strong. Therefore, for the imancipation of  submerged sections of society, they authorized the Central and State to make special provisions and take care of the downtrodden. In order to bring millions of under-fed, under-read and under-clothed people of free India into the mainstream of national life, Article 15(4) primarily provides for educational opportunities and Article 16 (4) to job opportunities. Directive principles, through Articles 38, 39, 41, 43, 45, 46 etc. gave some guidelines to the future Government. allowed the central and state governments to make provisions for reservations for ten years and empowered the Parliament to extend the period, if required. The aim was to include and absorb lower strata of society into the echelons of power.

While the Constitution framers were dealing with the topic, special provisions relating to certain classes specifically mentions that as far as the government services are concerned “The claims of the members of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes shall be taken into consideration, consistent with the maintenance of efficiency of Administration, in the making of the appointments to services and to posts in connection with the affairs of the Union or of a State”.

Article. 17 of Constitution of India abolished “Untouchability” and made its practice a cognizable offence the most heinous aspect of the Indian society by. Article 15 guarantees equality of opportunity for all citizens irrespective of religion, race, caste, descent, place of birth or any other reason.

Reservation benefits reserved category people in the following areas –

  • Political institutions consisting of the elected representatives of the people.
  • Admission in educational institutions.
  • Reservations in jobs.
  • Reservations in promotions.

In addition to it, candidates, belonging to reserve quota, if succeed to get jobs on their merit, their names are included in General category list, not in the reserved category/quota list. That means the number could even be more than mentioned above in a year. Besides if the candidates with required qualifications are not found in a particular year, the unfilled vacancies are carried over and added in the next years. These can not be filled with other qualified persons.

Measures taken to uplift submerged sections – Under Article 340 of the Constitution, a Commission is to be appointed by the President to investigate the condition of socially and educationally backward citizens, the difficulties under which they labour, make recommendations for removal of those difficulties and other ameliorative measures needed to be taken.

In 1978, a Commission for SC/ST was setup within the Ministry of Horne Affairs to monitor the comprehensive program and to ensure their all- round development. The financial allocations for the welfare of downtrodden have been increased tremendously after independence. The sincere effort towards their development began with Five Year Plans, which aimed at reducing the imbalances and disparities.

The First Five Year Plan identified the problem areas needed to be tackled viz absence of communication, paucity of drinking water, supply and irrigation, education and health facilities and universal poverty etc. Accordingly, many Integrated Development Plans and Sub–Plans were initiated besides reservations.

Reservations for OBC’s – In 1955, Kaka Kalelkar Commission on Backward Classes and in 1980, MandaI Commission, were appointed to suggest ways to improve the condition of poor people in India. On August, 1990, V.P. Singh’s Government accepted to implement, partially, the suggestions made by MandaI Commission viz. reserving 27% jobs for “Other Backward Castes” in all Central Government institutions or institutions aided by the Central Government. It received a great deal of resistance from the people and litigation in Supreme Court. Since 1992 27% seats in jobs are reserved for OBC’s.

Started as a temporary measure – Reservation was accepted by the constitution framers as a temporary measure. Article 330 provides for reservation in Legislature for ten years, unless at the end of this period the reservation is continued by an amendment of the Constitution. However, the Constitution was amended again and again in 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991 and 2001 to extend this period for another ten years at each instance. Now it has become a never-ending program. And the list of beneficiaries groups has kept on increasing. All state Governments have their own plans for job-reservations in their respective states and extending the list of beneficiary castes. At provincial level, different state-governments have fixed up their own quotas for different castes and communities.

Constitution on De-reservation – Before Independence, there was a provision of reservation in government services for Anglo-Indians. Article 336 of the Constitution clearly says that for the first two years after its start, reservations (in favour of the Anglo-Indians – a minority community) should continue on the basis as before; then during every succeeding period of two years, this reservation is to be progressively reduced by at-least ten percent, so that by the end of ten years all such reservation might cease.

In similar way, reservations for other sections of society could be progressively reduced by at-least ten percent, so that process of de-reservation could be started now, 70 years after the independence. And after a reasonable time, all such reservation could be ceased.

An analysis of the issue

There are certain basic truths, which needs to be accepted and pay attention to, before taking policy-decisions. Such as:

Society as an organic body – Society behaves and develops like an organic body. Each organ does a particular function and coordinated working of all organs together keeps the whole body fit and alive. Like other organic bodies, each and every section of society is an indispensable part of the society, which needs equal attention and proper care for the balanced growth of the society as a whole.

Just like in an organic body, weaker parts need special care, but not at the cost of others. So is in the society. Each and every section of the society needs to be assigned a specific function. Each one should perform its respective job. Society needs the services of all sections of the society. The work of any section is neither inferior nor superior to other. Each and every section of society needs to be aware of its indispensability to the whole. A society can move and prosper to its fullest, when each and every section of society does its functions well and lives in harmony; and when there is mutual help, respect and trust amongst the various sections of the society.

Society as an organisation – For an efficient and smooth functioning, like an organization, society also needs –
•Division of labour – Nobody can do all the work by himself. Division of different functions required in a society is the first requisite.
•Grouping of activities – All functions and activities should be so grouped as to avoid confusion. Activities of similar nature or having same objectives are grouped under one section.
•Structure – An organization needs a structure with well defined functions. The structure must be simple and easy to understand. It should also ensure continuous growth and, therefore, should not be rigid.
•Balance of activities – Proper weight-age to different activities, in proportion to their contribution to organization as a whole, is necessary. No activity should either be over-valued or under-valued.
•Team spirit – Relationship between various groups within an organization should be based on the principle of “mutual help, mutual respect and mutual trust”. It facilitates better coordination of diverse activities performed by different sections. Smooth relations amongst its constituent’s leads to optimal utilisation of resources and to satisfaction of all its constituent members.
•Specialisation – Concentration of a section on the performance of a single task, leads to greater efficiency and more specialisation. Functions need to be assigned on the basis qualifications, skills, attitude and aptitude of its employees.
•Creative thinking – A good organisation encourages initiative and creative thinking.
•Satisfaction – Organization must be able to satisfy the biological as well as psychological needs of its employees as an individual as well as a group.
•Adoption of new technologies and development – An organization helps adopts new improved means of doing things, permits prompt adoption and optimum use of technological advancements. It must avoid nepotism, favouritism and must give an upper hand to merit and talent.

Indian society contains all the essentials of a good organisation.

Truth about “Varna-system” – “Varna system” along with its castes and sub­-castes is not as bad as has been portrayed earlier by British rulers, now by some leaders and the pro­-reservationists. It is based on principles ‘mutual respect, trust and tolerance for each other’, ‘There is enough for everybody’s need, but not enough for anyone’s greed’ or ‘To each according to his needs and from each according to his capacity’. ‘Division of work’ was based on attitude and aptitude of an individual. It has given to India a solid social-structure, which is simple to understand. Above all, it has provided unity of culture which has been able to bind the people of Indian peninsula from one end to the other.

Mahatma Gandhi said “The main reason of our economic and spiritual degeneration is that we have not correctly followed the “Varna System”. This is the main reason of poverty and unemployment and one of the main reasons that there is untouchability”. He suggested to encourage education amongst the masses for the growth a self-contained and self-regulated society; all occupations to be given equal respect; people to be encouraged, not to be forced to adopt their hereditary occupations; and difference of income derived from various occupations should be narrowed down to the minimum.

“Policy of reservation” lost its validity – “Policy of reservation” adopted by the independent India has lost its value and justification now. Reformatory movements of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, attempts of constitution-framers spread of education and awareness amongst general public. Many changes have come about in the whole atmosphere, in thinking, attitude and aspirations of common-men. Recent technological advancements have made the life of common-men easier and created enormous opportunities to earn more. The experiences of recent past reveal that Policy of reservation has lost its value and justification now because –

SC/STs and OBCs emerged as powerful pressure groups – After the green revolution of sixties, the economic and political status of people engaged in agriculture India has improved tremendously. India being an agricultural country, 75% of its population (mostly belonging to SC and OBC categories) is engaged in agricultural sector only. Reforms gave them permanent rights as owners or otherwise. New agricultural technologies, backed by administrative and financial support by governmental agencies, helped them the chance to get out of the trap of poverty. They have organized themselves and emerged as a very powerful pressure group both in the fields of economics and politics. Still, if many SC/STs and OBCs have not been able utilise this opportunity fully, fault lies somewhere else and not in caste system. In their under-nourished faces are written the failures of the successive Governments and their policies that have ignored their actual needs.

Caste is no longer a barrier in the matter of jobs – Doors of education have been opened for all. Many scholarships, loans, hostel facilities, and admission in select institutes of the country (Where the whole expenditure is borne by the government) are being made available to them. Many Integrated Development Programmes and Sub Plans have been initiated to improve their position – socially and economically.

Immense choices in matter of occupation – Earlier people were forced to earn their living only by doing their hereditary jobs. But the Constitution of India gave everybody freedom and equal opportunity to select one’s source of earning. Society has accepted the change-over to any profession a person wishes to pursue and for that he has to prove his suitability in the job market. Educational facilities have been provided to them. Many scholarships, loans, hostel facilities, and admission in select institutes of the country (Where the whole expenditure is borne by the government) are being made available to them. Many Integrated Development Programmes and Sub Plans have been initiated to improve their position – socially and economically. However, sub-merged people of SC/ST community have not so far been able to utilise this opportunity fully. Benefits are benefitting the creamy layer amongst them.

Label of Brahmin or Shudra meaningless today – Today, the label of Brahmin or of Shudra does not matter much in choosing a profession. There is no dearth of employment opportunities. From all sections of society, people are acquiring necessary qualifications and are entering into areas of their choice. Experience shows that all are doing well in almost all spheres.

Increasing opportunities in service sector – A vacuum has been created in the service sector, when many traditional jobs became obsolete. Jobs in service sector could also fetch a handsome amount of money. Recently some people engaged in this field such as tailors, carpenters, dyers and drycleaners, owners of hotels and restaurants, owners of video libraries, scooter and taxi drivers even Paanwalas are doing much better than ever before. The key to their success appears to be the very same as elsewhere – hard-work, excellence, maintenance of standard or quality and entrepreneurial skill. Today, in the lure of safe and secure job, easy and quick money, government jobs in local, state or central levels are becoming very popular.

That day appears not to be far off when in complex technological society, the white-collared jobs would loose their present attraction and the service sector would get a prominent place. An excellent plumber then may become more admirable than an incompetent scientist. Therefore, instead of disturbing the efficiency and working of the organized sector, the government could concentrate on enormous opportunities of self­ employment available in this sector, and thus helping the downtrodden to establish well themselves in the society.

Creamy layer amongst beneficiary groups – On the one hand, it has been experienced that Benefit of reservations is confined within a few dominant and prosperous SC/ST and OBC castes. They have now acquired economic, political and above all muscle power. Many of them make vote banks for the politicians, capture booths during elections and could ask their unfortunate brethren to shut their mouths or to meet the consequences. In certain regions, they themselves have become the exploiters of their unfortunate brethren – suppressing the agricultural labours and are heaping atrocities on Harijans.

Efficiency in administration – A service which lacks spirit-de-corps, that is, consciousness of and pride in belonging to a particular service, lacks an element essential to an efficient an harmonious administration. The position further deteriorates in a service in which in matters of promotion, people with superior qualifications are subordinate to people with admittedly inferior qualifications.

It is feared that relaxation in matter of recruitment standard, as reservation policy suggests, adversely affects efficiency of administration. It creates a distance between quota officers and non-quota officers, adversely affects integrity and coordinated efforts of services for development of the nation as a whole. Merit oriented approach in matter of filling crucial and important posts, in principle, opposes reservation of any kind, which gives preferences to a person over a more talented person. It is a humanitarian obligation of a civilized society to uplift and empower the weaker sections of its society. But it should not be done at the cost of efficiency in administration. Mal-administration or ineffective and inefficient administration makes the life of common people more miserable.

False assurances – Politicians and political parties with vested interests are luring the poor masses by promising them to give government jobs through reservations. Government jobs still fascinate the masses as with it are attached the attraction of fix salary, prestige, power, influence, security of employment and scope to distribute patronage. If without acquiring the needed qualifications and without much effort one can get all these things, no body minds it.

Vast reservoir of talents amongst the lower strata of society – There is a vast reservoir of potential/talent amongst backwards as well, only they need opportunities to grow. Their hidden qualifications and capabilities Sound education and training would make aware them aware of their hidden qualifications and their capabilities. Their confidence can be restored, only when they are brought to the level of forward castes people so that they could compete for jobs and promotions on equal terms.

Hurt feelings of poor belonging to upper castes – The deprived and poor people, belonging to so called “Forward caste”, feel betrayed by their own Government. They are being victimised because of no fault of their own. ‘Economic criteria’ offers a general formula to help to all extremely poor and underprivileged individuals irrespective of their caste or creed. Many dynamic and talented youths have lost their faith in the government and interest in government jobs. Upright officers do not get a proper atmosphere in the office or reward for their merit, intelligence, hard work and honesty. On the contrary, due to politicization, growing disregard for the work-culture and overstaffing, upright officers are sidetracked. Fixed salary is just sufficient to keep them from hand to mouth. They have to struggle all through their lives – after paying the taxes, meeting their children’s school fees and coping with ever increasing prices of essential items to maintain a decent life style.

Backwardness of some, not unique in India only – Backwardness of some sections of society having such massive demographic entities is not peculiar to the Indian conditions only. It is universal phenomena. Every nation has it and adopts its own ways to uplift the sub-merged people. The Chinese approach, in this regard is through education and not through unmeritorious reservation of jobs, as there is no need to create vote banks there. Grooming of downtrodden in India could also be done by providing sound education to them. Already there are many institutes and some more may be opened especially for lower strata of society, where they could study the same syllabi and to go through the same courses as other students from a good background. The students from poor background may take more time to go through the same courses and reach up-to the same standard as others. The process may be slow but is steady. The quality of education should not be allowed to deteriorate at any cost as is being done.

Times when Governmental intervention needed – When individuals are proved to be working under special handicap or are not allowed to function freely as citizens, then only the government may intervene irrespective of caste or creed so that deserving persons from all sections of the society may get the needed help. It should punish the culprits strictly and make special provision for advancement of under privileged or handicapped persons. It need not necessarily be in the form of reservations. Reservations have been proved to be disruptive to the peace of the society and unpractical.

Conclusion and suggestions

The past experiences have made it clear that the remedies suggested through reservation proved worse than evils, the leaders were out to combat. To some, this discrimination is positive and to others, negative and contrary to principles of equality, fraternity and social justice.

Deserving people get lost amidst the gore and gusto – The faces of poor people, really deserving support from the government, have been lost amidst the gore and gusto of pro and anti-reservationist movements. ‘Shudras’ have been the life and blood of the Indian society for centuries in the past and led the nation to the ‘Golden Era’. They still provide essential services to the whole community in different disciplines. But in exchange, today, they get very little – not even enough to satisfy their basic minimum needs. Reservation made no difference in their lives.

There is no denial to the fact that for centuries, Shudras have been the life and blood of the Indian society. They have been performing certain traditional standardised services for the whole community. In exchange, as usual, even today they get very little – not enough even to satisfy their basic minimum needs. Reservation made no difference in their lives.

Side effects of Reservation policy – Reservations have developed many side affects. Instead of becoming a viable instrument for the upliftment of the submerged section of the society, it has created vested interests of the powerful lobbies of society. It is serving the interest of those people who do not need it any more and making the administrative machinery sick. Giving additional weapon in weak hands is no remedy. First the hands need to be made strong enough to hold and use the weapon properly through awareness of the surroundings, sound education and-training. Then they themselves without any help from an outside agency will pick up the weapon in their hands and protect themselves and others in the society with it. Education alone can make them more knowledgeable in the fields of their works, more laborious and more confident, so that they could earn enough to live with honour and dignity.

Plans needs to be based on real issues – Witnessing the various views and past experience, it becomes clear that instead of reservation, other development measures should be tried after identifying the real issues and actual needs of these people. Downtrodden must be made capable to stand upon their feet and make their due place in the society. Policy of generating confidence and inculcating skills, knowledge, attitude and habits through sound education should be pursued, so that they could be brought to the required intellectual level, do justice to the jobs assigned to them, hold their positions without any complex and live in the society with honour.

Only two ends in Governance, ‘nation, and ‘individual’ – The unity and solidarity of the nation demands that its population should not be divided along the lines of different identities i.e. caste, region, language, religion or base – rural or urban – by giving preference or over- protection to one section or group over the other. As Kaka Kalelkar had suggested, while framing policies, government should recognise only two ends – the individual on the one hand and the nation as a whole on the other. No sectional or communal grouping should be encouraged to flourish itself in between the two, which could undermine the equality, liberty and freedom of the individuals and the solidarity of the nation.

Result-oriented action programmes needed – Issues should be identified rationally and result-oriented action programmes needs to be implemented sincerely as suggested by the Planning Commission, various government departments and voluntary organisations. The backwardness of most of the people is due to poverty, illiteracy and many evils that go with it such as ignorance, superstitions, mal-nutrition, lack of access to shelter, clothing, health, hygiene etc. These problems can never be solved by making policy of reservation as a major remedial measure. Other remedial measures are required for the development, which could produce desired results within time and cost parameters. More stress should now be given to fair distribution of surplus land and other anti poverty programmes, which could benefit a large number of poor people everywhere if honestly pursued.

Reservations as “Disastrous”, “Fatal” and even a “Vicious principle” – Witnessing the various views and past experience, it becomes clear that instead of reservation, some other measures should be tried after identifying the real issues and actual needs of these people. It was not only the first Prime Minister Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru, but Mahatma Gandhi, the Father of the nation, and Chowdhary Charan Singh, the charismatic leader of backward caste, considered reservations as “Disastrous”, “Fatal” and even a “Vicious principle”.

Positive steps needed to be taken – More than Reservations is needed to the inculcation of concentrate on skills, knowledge, attitude and habits through sound education. It would make weaker sections to stand upon their own feet and to survive without the crutches of Reservations. It would bring backwards to the required intellectual level, make them capable do justice to the jobs and fulfil their responsibility without any complex. It would ultimately generate confidence in them and live in the society with dignity and honour.

Vision of Nehru – The vision of Nehru suggested putting emphasis on education – “The real way to help a backward group is to give opportunities of good education; this includes technical education, which is becoming more and more important. Everything else is provision of some kind of crutches which don’t add to the strength or health of the body. We have recently made two decisions: one is universal free elementary education that is the base and the second is scholarships on a very wide scale at every grade of education to the bright boys and girls and this applies not merely to literary education but much more so, to technical, scientific and medical training. I lay stress on the bright and able boys and girls, because it is only they who will raise our standards.” …. “But if we go in for reservation on communal or caste basis we swamp the bright and able people and remain second rate or third rate.” (Chief Ministers Conference, June 27, 1961,)

Authorities like Shri B.D. Sharma, Commissioner for SC/ST, and many others have also opined that policy of reservations in government jobs has not improved the position of the bulk of SC/ST and CECs. Instead it had further developed many problems.

Winding up
•If India wants to emerge as a strong nation in the world, it should give preference to efficiency, motivation, discipline, tenacity of purpose and will to achieve the desired goals.
•It is not the policy of reservation which is required but a policy of generating confidence in backward caste.
•Stress should be given to basic education.
•No sectional or religious group be allowed grow between the government and the individual.
•Really-deserving individuals needing special attention must be identified by assessing their economic condition without any bias.
•All help, such as free and extra tuition, subsidised and extra nourishment, residential accommodation etc., to overcome their disabilities and to acquire requisite abilities should be provided
•Abilities to shoulder responsibilities at entry point and performance throughout the career should always be given importance.
•In postings and promotions, Standard set should apply equally to all and strictly to all.
•At no time and at no level, the standard should be allowed to deteriorate.
•The method of assessment should be continually honed, so that more meritorious persons could be selected.
•Wages should be enough to enable them to work honestly and live in the society with dignity without clamouring for dishonest money.

In the words of Shri C. Rajgopalachari, which he said long ago that for any system “To be good and efficient as a whole we want right type of men. The quality of men placed in position is more important than laying down rules and methods of operation. The caste consciousness is a hard reality. It unites and divides in a very real manner today whatever be our goal and today is most important in matter of administration. Short sighted favouritism and concessions to produce contentment among classes and castes will be very short-lived and will deteriorate into a constant pondering to intrigues and factions, if we do not look to the real efficiency.”

November 4, 2017 Posted by | Reservation/Affirmative action program | , | Leave a comment

Sardar Patel, Reservations and Socialism

A tribute to Iron man Of India on “Unity day” 31.10.1917

“What the country needs is not parrot like cry of socialism, but unity and strength

Sardar Patel ‘Iron man Of India’- Sardar Patel was an important member of Constituent Assembly, Deputy Prime Minister and the first Home Minister of independent India. He along with Gandhiji, DR. Rajendra Prasad and Nehru captained and pulled the nation out of darkness and stormy times preceding and following the transfer of power.

He was down to earth a realist, a born Kisan and a traditionalist. He was The iron man of India with strong will power, sturdy commonsense, indomitable courage, incorruptible integrity, austere and simple living unlike today’s politicians. He led a life full of suffering and sacrifice. Devotion to duty was the hallmark of his character.[xvii] He was a strict disciplinarian. He was blunt and quite outspoken. He never minced words. He believed more in deeds than in ritualism. Despite  his personal reservations, Patel always gave due respect to Nehru.

With his mature thinking and realism, he handled many gigantic problems and complex state affairs like unification of India within  a very short period, broken law and order machinery at the time of transfer of power, expeditious evacuation of millions of Hindus and Sikhs caught in the Communal holocaust in West Pakistan, or vexatious issue of the division of assets between India and Pakistan, or smooth integration of Indian States by pacifying the Princess of 560 and old princely States.

Integration of India

It goes to the credit of Sardar Patel ‘the  Integration of India out of nearly 560 princely states against all odds immediately after the Independence after the British left India handing over the authority of governing them to the rulers of princely states and giving them freedom to decide, whether they wanted to join India or Pakistan.   The whole world was watching with curiosity the developments and was suspicious about its success to pull on. Visionary Patel along with his team worked tactfully day and night to integrate those princely states into India.

Patel along with his team succeeded in uniting 560 and odd princely states under Government of India in splendid manner and almost within a year. The events of four years from 1947 to 1951 were very hectic, and full of toils anxieties. It was the cooperative efforts of the entire team from top to bottom working with a unity of purpose under the leadership and inspiration of Sardar.

First President of India Rajendra Prasad wrote in May 1959“That there is today an India to think and talk about, is very largely due to Sardar Patel’s statesmanship and firm administration.” His name should be written in gold in Indian history. It is unfortunate that the nation has forgotten/ignored him and his contributions and has shied away from giving him his rightful place.

Sardar’s views on socialism and reservations

Sardar Patel was opposed to the Parrot cry of socialism” and lashed out against socialists for their agitation on an issue, which he considered, was hampering unity and strength of the country. Patel had an apprehension as early as 1934 that borrowed methodology of socialism could be misused to establish fascism.

He is reported to have remarked on 2nd January 1948 at Shillong before a mammoth gathering. “By experience, I am convinced that what is necessary for us is to learn how to produce more wealth (created by ones own labour) and thereafter think what to do with it. What the country needs is not parrot like cry of socialism, but unity and strength”. Patel asked the people to think, why England took a long time to become socialistic and why America made no mention of it even now.

When the original Constitution framed in 1950, the words, “Socialism” or “Socialist democracy” were not mentioned. The word “Socialist” as qualifying the Republic was added in 1975, through 42nd Amendment Act by Indira Gandhi’s government, giving it almost the highest place in the name of equality and Remove PovertyProgram. Since then 42 years have passed.

Some people feel that inserting these terms in the Constitution limits policy choices. Even during debates in Constituent Assembly, the chairman of Drafting Committee Dr. B. R. Ambedkar rejected insertion of the term, ‘socialist’ into preamble – “What should be policy of the state, how the society should be organized in its social and economic side are matters which must be decided by people themselves according to time and circumstances.”

India’s tryst with Socialism –  It is said that, “An invasion of armies can be resisted, but not of an idea, whose time has come”, and “Today’s theory and socio-political structures could be tomorrow’s big mistakes”. Both these, sayings fit well with India’s experiment with the ideology of “Socialism”.After the World War-II, socialism was the wave that swept the entire world. War made almost democratic government to play the role of a guardian, as far as its economy was concerned.

Objectives of Socialism – The principle of “Laissez faire” was the guiding principle of governance during the 19th century. USA became world’s largest economy having highest per capita income rate. Many European States emerged as great imperial powers. After World War I, it turned many countries to totalitarian regimes.  Italy became a fascist nation and Nazism grew in Germany.

Wave in favour of social-justice – World War-I was the turning point. War made every democratic government to play the role of a guardian, as far as its economy was concerned. At that time, it was not only a political or economic ideology, but also a radical philosophical alternative, which assured to create a new integrated, casteless, classless egalitarian society, free of discrimination and inequality.

Socialism was supposed to destroy all inequalities of race, sex, power, position or wealth and to distribute equitably social, material and political resources of the nation. Socialism meant to place in full or in parts means of production and distribution under State’s ownership or control, as against private ownership and free enterprise. It believed in planned development for removing poverty and leading the nation to prosperity. In socialist countries, Government assumes the responsibility of protecting its citizens from the shocks of everyday life from womb to tomb. The first one to opt for totalitarian regime was Soviet Russia. By the time, World War-II was over, socialism was the wave, that swept the entire world.

After Independence in 1947 – As was the trend, in 1947, Socialism and Socialist democracyhave been the buzz words. India could not remain immune from its influence. Many of its political leaders were greatly influenced by the principle of socialism. They, under the leadership of Pundit Nehru were in favour of pursuing policies based on social justice. According to them, in order to achieve a just and equitable socio-economic order and to remove poverty before long, bending towards socialism was necessary.

Unity and strength not “Parrot cry of socialism – However, at that time itself, visionary and able statesman like Sardar Patel lashed out against those, who believed that there could be no justice, unless its economy was based on social economy. Or that freedom was meaningless without economic equality and social justice. He was sure, what the country needs is not “Parrot cry of socialism”, but unity and strength.

Sardar Patel considered socialist propositions purely theoretical and academic, far away from reality. He said, Unlike many, who indulge in ‘Parrot cry of socialism’, I have no property of my own. Before you talk of socialism, you must ask yourself, how much wealth you have created by your labour. If you have created nothing, the parrot would have flown, and the cage would be empty. By experience, I am convinced that what is necessary for us is to learn how to produce more wealth and thereafter, think what to do with it.”

Sardar Patel asked the people to realize why England took a very long time to become socialist and why America made no mention of it even now.

Gandhiji also appreciated socialist leaders desire to bring about improvement in living standard of masses. But advised them first to come together, think what was in the best interest of the country and set people on to constructive work. He told Manu Gandhi on 15th April 1947, Socialism is a term of modern age, but the concept of socialism is not new. Lord Krishna preaches the same doctrine in Gita. One needs to have in one’s possession, only what one requires. It means that all men are created by God and therefore, entitled to an equal share of food, clothing and housing. He said, Socialism will not come by occupying positions of power and by delivering speeches from the platform.

Giving practical advice to do selfless service to the people and to ensure the straightest and quickest way to achieve a socialist order, Gandhiji said, If you wish to establish socialism, there is only one way, in which it can be done. Go and live among the poor in villages, live as they live, be one with village people, work for eight hours daily, use only village made goods and articles even in your personal lives, remove illiteracy among village people. Gandhiji also upbraided the Communist party workers for, Instead of having faith in India and drawing inspiration from its unrivalled culture, you wish to introduce Russian civilization here, as if Russia was your motherland.

Constitution of India and Socialism — In 1950, when the Constitution was framed, the words, Socialism or Socialist democracy were not included in it in order to keep a balance between the views of towering personalities like Gandhi, Patel and Nehru. The Constitution of India only mentioned To secure to all its citizen economic justice and equality of status and opportunity.

The influence of the socialistic principles is visible in the Constitutional directives to the Government to:

  • Provide adequate means of livelihood to all its citizens,
  • Distribute material resources for common good
  • Avoid concentration of wealth and means of production in the hands of a few,
  • Right to work,
  • Equal pay for equal work, to both men and women,
  • Living wages for all workers, protection of workers especially children,
  • Humane conditions of work, and
  • Provide for right to education and public assistance.
  • “Democratic socialism” under Pt. Nehru

Developments on the front of socialism after the death of Sardar Patel – Along with the socialist influence, Pt Nehru, after the death of Sardar Patel, favoured the creation of public sector. It was considered to be a historical need at that time to speed up nation’s development. Because private enterprises neither had the resources, nor the skill, nor inclination to invest heavily in infrastructure, where returns come much later and a huge amount of money locked up without immediate gains. The Government alone had the resources and will to build an infrastructure for development through planned schemes. All industries of basic and strategic importance and those in nature of public utility services were reserved by the Government for the public sector.

Jai Prakash Narayan, a staunch supporter of socialism, at that time, criticized Pandit Nehru’s concept of mixed economy and said, “You are trying to ride two horses, which may be possible in circus, but not in historical evolution. You want to go towards Socialism, but you want Capitalists to help in that. You want to build Socialism with the help of Capitalism. You are bound to fail in that”. Nehru’s concept of mixed economy, in which central planning lived within a kind of free market ex-skeleton, later on developed all the weaknesses of socialism and capitalism, with none of the advantages of either. Under the mixed economy, businessmen and industrialists,who had access to authorities and the authorities, who had the power to give permits and licenses, flourished.

Planned economy – Many plans were developed under planned schemes to transform the backward society into a society of equals in a short time. The original inspiration for planned economy came from the Soviet Union. In short, nations following the path of socialism has made six specific mistakes: –

  • They have adopted an inward looking, import substituting path, rather than an outward looking, export promoting route, thus denying itself the chance to share the world’s prosperity of the 70s and 80s,
  • It has set up a massive, inefficient and monopolistic public sector, to which it denied the autonomy of working,
  • It has over-regulated private enterprise, thus diminished competition in home market,
  • It has discouraged foreign capital and denied itself the benefit of technology and world class market,
  • It has pampered organized labor responsible for lowest productivity of labor and capital, and
  • It has ignored primary education at the cost of higher education

Under Indira Gandhi regime – The word “Socialist” as qualifying the Republic was added in 1975, through 42nd Amendment Act by Indira Gandhi’s government, giving it almost the highest place in the name of equality and “Remove Poverty”.

Failure of socialist policies in solving nation’s problems – Under the leadership of Mrs. Gandhi socialistic plans and policies were followed in such a way, that it had done more damage than good. It developed tentacles of corruption, scams, scandals and callousness in almost every sphere.  It created the politics of appeasement and vote banks, destroyed the work culture, and encouraged separatism everywhere in the society.

Parties used the term ‘Garibi Hatao’ to woo different submerged sections of society like Dalits, tribals, minorities, backward castes, unemployed youths etc and create a large vote bank themselves. Politicians defined and interpreted it in their on own way, and created confusion and division amongst different sections of society. They were not so much interested in tackling the key issues like population explosion, terrorism, unemployment, inflation, jobs especially in the spectrum of slowing economy, law and order, development of educational systems, development of infrastructure for the convenience of public at large. Their main interest lies in creating vote banks.

On the whole, the concept of socialism has created in reality a closed, centralized and unproductive systems. It has suppressed sustainable growth of the nation as a whole. Indian society. In the name of Welfare State and social-justice, the Government acquired extraordinary powers to exercise arbitrary control over massive resources. It centralized the planning, controls and ownership, which led those in authority to abuse of power and “Grab more power” attitude.

Arbitrary State Control – The Government acquired extraordinary powers to exercise arbitrary control over massive resources.  It closed its economy to the world, nationalized industries and services, initiated rigid controls on the private sector and created monopolies in the public sector. An unfettered market system led to grave economic inequalities, which got transformed into political inequalities. It developed tentacles of inefficiency and red tapism, corruption, scams, scandals and callousness in almost every sphere. It did not wipe out poverty, nor created an effective distributive system, nor equality, but it had led almost to the loss of economic liberty.

Demoralizing effect on people, reduced them to the size of pygmies – In the name of socialism, it created a domineering State controlling the smallest detail of the economic and social life of the people. Reduced People to the size of pygmies. Though in theory, sovereignty rested in the people of the nation, they found themselves absolutely helpless. They have been enslaved by politicians, planners and bureaucrats.  It jammed the wheels of morality and conscience. The excessive control made people gradually lose their motivation for hard work.

Divided people into uncompromising compartments – Politics of social-justice has divide people into uncompromising water-tight compartments. And then attempted to woo different sections of society separately like Dalits, tribals, minorities, backward castes, youths, salaried employees in government or public sectors etc.

A large number of politicians are not so much interested in tackling the key issues like population explosion, terrorism, unemployment, inflation, jobs especially in present spectrum of slowing economy, law and order, development of educational systems, development of infrastructure for the convenience of public at large as in creating vote banks.

Opinion of Intelligentsia – A group of intelligentsia regard concept of socialism as good as an ideology, but in real life-situations as one of the most misused terms in present-day political circles.  a major portion of such policies was proved to be the examples of bookish socialism and had little relation to the burning problems of the country. The experience on this front indicated that probably the objective of social justice was unrealistic. It jammed the wheels of morality and conscience.  By 1990, India also realized like many other countries – what it was practicing so far was a phony, fake and tainted social justice.

It created the politics of appeasement and vote banks, destroyed the work culture, and encouraged separatism everywhere in the society. It was realized, though quite late, that Democratic socialism itself is a contradiction in terms, as a socialist society or a planned economy cannot be democratic.  The uneven distribution of economic power and benefits through manipulations of polity had created major distortions and problems for the smooth administration / governance.

Milovan Djilas, a Yugoslavian revolutionary and writer, who predicted the fall of communism and fought both Tito and Stalin, concluded on the basis of his experience, The suppression of classes would be the first step towards the extinction of society… There can be no society without classes. The problem is how to create a balance between the classes, to prevent some from getting rich at the expense of others and to prevent the oppression of one class by another. It must be recognized, however, that it will never be possible to establish an ideal equilibrium among different social classes…The future ideology of the reformist left must not become a barrier to the achievements of capitalism such as efficiency and the profitability of business. The central problem is, how to distribute wealth without disrupting economic activity, while at the same time building a society based on human solidarity…. This idealism should not be confused with the chimera of establishing a society with rigid and permanent forms – I believe the more varied a society is, the better and more creative it will be. There will always be injustice and inequality in the world, which will be the task of the social democrats to combat.

Mr. Paul Johnson, a historian of 20th century says, The more the State grows and impedes the free exercise of market forces, the more the quality of information deteriorates, more likely decisions based on such them would be wrong. A Polish communist Government planner says, In this crazy system, we do not know, the true cost of anything. We do not know which factories are efficient and which are hopeless. So we are continually reinforcing failure and punishing success.

Mr. Subramanyam says, The hypocrisy of socialism developed along with centralization of authority, denigration of democratic institutions and strangulation of Panchayat Raj institutions as part of one integrated political process in the country. J Krishnamurthy said, Working for social welfare is to fill water into a pail that has holes. The more water is poured in it, the more it pours out and the pail remains empty.

The experiences on Socialism along with principle of secularism, equality etc are not very encouraging. The problem of socialism is of performance, not of faith, and the price paid by the nation for this faith has been efficiency and its future prosperity.  It reminds Sardar’s teaching, that need of the hour is hard-work, Unity and strength not “Parrot cry of socialism”

Sardar’s views on the issue of Bureaucracy

After Independence, many national leaders wanted to abolish the bureaucracy after Independence, it was Sardar, who advised them at Bombay in October 1947. he said, We have only a small number of Civil Servants left. Many people say that they are working in their old way. But those, who have experience of administration, know under what circumstances and how much they are working. Outsiders can not appreciate their work. Many of them, loyal workers and patriots are working with us night and day. All that we have been able to achieve, whether it be in the sphere of states or in Kashmir or another theatre, has been possible only because of their loyalty and whole hearted support.” 

Nehru is on record to have said: “But of one thing I am quite sure that no new order can e built up in India, so long as the spirit of ICS pervades our Administrative Public Service.  That spirit of authoritarianism is the ally of imperialism and it cannot coexist with freedom.  It will either succeed in crushing freedom or will be swept away by itself.  Only with one type of State, it is likely to fit in and that is the Fascist type.  Therefore, it seems quite essential that the ICS and similar services must disappear completely, much before we can start real work on a new order.” (Jawarlal Nehru, An Autobiography, London, the Bodley Head, 1953, p.443.)

Sardar Patel, the then Home Minister, however, held an opposite view.  He foresaw the dire necessity of “All India Services” in independent India.  Therefore, he convened a “Provincial Premiers Conference” in October, 1946 to take a decision on All India Services.  While presiding over the Conference, he said: “My own view as I have told you, is that it is not only advisable, but essential, if you want to have an efficient service, to have a Central Administrative Service, in which, we fix the strength as the Provinces would require them and we draw a certain number of officers at the Centre, as we are doing at present.  This will give experience to the personnel at the Centre leading to efficiency and administrative experience of the district, which will give them an opportunity to contact with the people.  They will thus keep themselves in touch with the situation in the country and their practical experience will be most useful to them.  Besides their coming to the Centre will give them a different experience and wider outlook in a larger sphere.  A combination of these two experiences will make the service more efficient.  They will also serve as liaison between the Provinces and the Government and introduce certain amount of freshness and vigor in the administration, both at the Centre and in the Provinces.  Therefore, my advice is that we should have an All India Service.” (Sardar Patel, Proceedings of the Premiers’ Conference, October, 1946).

Again speaking in the Constituent Assembly, he warned: “There is no alternative to this administrative system…The Union will go, you will not have a united India, if you have not a good All India Service, which has the independence to speak out its mind, which has a sense of security that you will stand by your work..   If you do not adopt this course, then do not follow the present Constitution.  Substitute  something else…This Constitution is meant to be worked by a ring of service, which will keep the country intact.  There are many impediments in this constitution, which will hamper us.  But in spite of that, we have in our collective wisdom come to a decision that we shall have this model, which in the ring of a service will be such that will keep, the country intact.. these people are the instrument.  Remove them and I see nothing, but a picture of chaos all round the country.” (Constituent Assembly Debates, Vol. X, No.3, October 10, 1946.)

Despite the strong arguments put forward by Sardar Patel, it was not an easy job to gain provincial acceptance for the proposed All India Services. Some important national leaders like Nehru, G.B. Pant, etc., and a few states like Punjab, West Bengal, Jammu and Kashmir were very critical of it.  They preferred to have their own `Superior Services’.  However, All India Services were pushed down their reluctant throats by Vallabhbhai Patel. (The Hindu, October 25, 1946, p. 4.)

The vision of Sardar Patel in continuing this institution proved to be a step in the right direction even after 70 years of independence. The Setalvad team said, “The Indian scene has changed in many ways since then. But in this respect, the change that occurred over the years serves only to confirm all that Sardar Patel said with prophetic insight many years ago. It should be needless to affirm the continued validity of all the objectives underlying the All India Services and yet in a country, in which the Constitutional parts are possessed with pre-emptive desire to assert their separations, such an affirmation is solely needed. The value of a system considered necessary for the administrative unity of the country despite the ubiquity of congress Party rule and found indispensable for securing fair-play and competence in administration, despite the acute awareness of their need in the most potent political figures at a time, when their power was untrammeled and their right ran through the length and breadth of the land, can in the less favourable conditions of today be ignored only at the cost of perilous consequences. Continuity also demands a system which can maintain links in administrative behaviour throughout the country, while political changes visit different States and the Centre.” (ARC,Report of the Study Team on Centre-State Relationship, (Chairman: M.C. Setalvad), Government of India, 1967.)

The ARC also observed, ”Not only do the original considerations for which the All India Services was set up in the beginning hold good even today, but they apply with greater force today and make it necessary that a service structure like the IAS should continue for foreseeable future.” (ARC, Report on Personnel Administration, August 1967, p.61)

B.B. Misra felt concerned at the abolition of other All India Services. He said, “It was the ICS and IP that remained unaffected and continued to act as unifying force. Most of the other All India Services were abolished. Considerations of national unity, the positive need of India’s all round development and the attainment of a minimum uniform standard in administration were allowed to go by default.”46 Thoughts of Misra read with the analysis brought out under sub-title, “The Need for Additional All India Services”. Leads to the conclusion that the country has erred in not allowing continuation of All India Services in other areas of national interest. However, as the saying goes “It is better to be late than never”, it is time that a beginning is made to set up All India Services for Health, Water, Power, Education and Judiciary, immediately. This should not be a difficult task as the Rajya Sabha has already passed a resolution to that effect, at least for Health, Water and Power, and it can always pass a bill for other two remaining subjects, viz., education and Judiciary.”(B.B. Misra, Administrative History of India, 1834-1947: General Administration, London, Oxford University Press, 1970, p.143.)

On the eve of Independence, when the entire administration exhibited the signs of wear and tear, Sardar Patel had warned the nation, India is passing through the most critical and troubled days of her long and checkered history and strong, efficient, experienced broad minded administrators were badly required at that hour to save the nation from the impending crisis . Today, 70 years after the independence, position is the same, because of vote-bank policy, caste-based reservations and politics of vendetta. Nation again shows the signs of wear and tear. It is good to remember today Sardar Patel’s views on important issues and contributions to the nation and pay attention to what he had said 70 years ago.

October 31, 2017 Posted by | Reservation/Affirmative action program | | Leave a comment

Reservation Policy and social-Justice

“From each according to his ability, to each according to his need.”

Introduction

Controversies over  ‘social-justice’, ‘Reservations’ and ‘Secularism’ keep on  sparking now and then, especially during pre-elections days. In recent past during campaign for Bihar Assembly  elections, political parties  drifted from development agenda and focused their attention to ensure social justice through reservations. Now in Gujrat, where Assembly elections are due on during in November, Hardik Patel, advocating the reservations for Pattidar Community (population of about 20%) is bargaining with major political parties on reservations for Pattidars. He says that to ensure “equal opportunities, distribution of wealth and socio-economic privileges” to SC/ST and OBCs, caste-based reservations is a must. For many political leaders, the only way to uplift and safe-guard the  interests of underprivileged castes or ‘so-called backward castes” is  fixing quotas in education, employment, and in different welfare schemes and subsidies plans. Political parties have forgotten the theme for sustainable development of all , ‘Sabka saath, sab ka vikaas.’

A few days back, some people showed resentment for the words  not being mentioned in a Modi Government’s advertisement published on the event of 66th Republic day. To defend it, the government clarified that these two terms were inserted in the preamble later on. The word “Socialist” as qualifying the Republic was added in 1975, through 42nd Amendment Act by Indira Gandhi’s government, giving it almost the highest place in the name of equality and Remove PovertyProgram.

Issue – When the Constitution was framed in 1950, the words, “Socialism” or “Socialist democracy” were not there in the Preamble of the Constitution.  The word “Socialist” as qualifying the Republic was added in 1975, through 42nd Amendment Act by Indira Gandhi’s government, giving it almost the highest place in the name of equality and Remove PovertyProgram. Question arises – Why? Since then 35 years have passed. Time has come to assess, how much has India achieved since then in removing the poverty? If not much, then why?

Some people feel that inserting these terms in the Constitution limits policy choices. Even during debates in Constituent Assembly, the chairman of Drafting Committee Dr. B. R. Ambedkar rejected insertion of the term, ‘socialist’ in to Preamble – “What should be policy of the state, how the society should be organized in its social and economic side are matters which must be decided by people themselves according to time and circumstances.”

India’s tryst with Socialism –  It is said that, “An invasion of armies can be resisted, but not of an idea, whose time has come”, and “Today’s theory and socio-political structures could be tomorrow’s big mistakes”. Both these, sayings fit well with India’s experiment with the ideology of “Socialism”.

In Indian society, in general there was not a feeling of apathy towards any religion or people belonging to other faiths. That is why all the major religions of the world existed here since time immemorial. People believed in the oneness of human society. As a rule, rulers did not imposed their personal faiths on their subjects.the tradition of religious freedom and religious accommodation was firmly established in its culture.

Religious intolerance was seen in India after the pronounced antipathy towards other religious faiths existing here in India. Through forced conversions, Muslims tried to expand their community during the period  AD 1000-AD 1757. Many Hindu temples and images were destroyed. It led to resentment and disharmony in Indian society and widened the gulf between Hindu (majority community) and Muslims (politically powerful as rulers). Still both the communities lived side by side for almost seven hundred years.They contributed to each-other’s culture. Many local customs amongst them are common. But their religious rigidity continued. Animosity amongst them grew to the extent that it led to the partition of India into – India and Pakistan in 1947.

Then, British came to India first as traders. Later on, became its rulers until World War II. It was in 1947 that India gained its Independence. The fundamentalist attitude of Muslims in accepting Modern Education system isolated them. It became one of the reason for their high rate of illiteracy and backwardness even today.

After the World War-II, socialism was the wave that swept the entire world. War made almost democratic government to play the role of a guardian, as far as its economy was concerned.

Objectives of Socialism

The principle of “Laissez faire” was the guiding principle of governance during the 19th century. USA became world’s largest economy having highest per capita income rate. Many European States emerged as great imperial powers. After World War I, it turned many countries to totalitarian regimes. World War-I was the turning point. The first one to opt for totalitarian regime was Soviet Russia. Italy became a fascist nation and Nazism grew in Germany.

By the time, World War-II was over, socialism was the wave, that swept the entire world. War made every democratic government to play the role of a guardian, as far as its economy was concerned. At that time, it was not only a political or economic ideology, but also a radical philosophical alternative, which assured to create a new integrated, caste-less, classless egalitarian society, free of discrimination and inequality.

Socialism was supposed to destroy all inequalities of race, sex, power, position or wealth and to distribute equitably social, material and political resources of the nation. Socialism meant to place in full or in parts means of production and distribution under State’s ownership or control, as against private ownership and free enterprise. It believed in planned development for removing poverty and leading the nation to prosperity. In socialist countries, Government assumes the responsibility of protecting its citizens from the shocks of every day life from womb to tomb..

After Independence in 1947,

As was the trend, in 1947, Socialism and Socialist democracyhave been the buzz words. India could not remain immune from its influence. Many of its political leaders were greatly influenced by the principle of socialism.

Many leaders of free India, under the leadership of Pundit Nehru were very much in favour of pursuing policies based on social justice. According to them, in order to achieve a just and equitable socio-economic order and to remove poverty before long, bending towards socialism is necessary.

However, at that time itself, visionary and able statesman like Sardar Patel lashed out against those, who believed that there could be no justice, unless its economy was based on social economy. Or that freedom was meaningless without economic equality and social justice. He was sure, what the country needs is not “Parrot cry of socialism”, but unity and strength.

Unity and strength not “Parrot cry of socialism

Sardar Patel considered socialist propositions purely theoretical and academic, far away from reality. He said, Unlike many, who indulge in ‘Parrot cry of socialism’, I have no property of my own. Before you talk of socialism, you must ask yourself, how much wealth you have created by your labour. If you have created nothing, the parrot would have flown, and the cage would be empty. By experience, I am convinced that what is necessary for us is to learn how to produce more wealth and thereafter, think what to do with it.”

Sardar Patel asked the people to realize why England took a very long time to become socialist and why America made no mention of it even now.

Gandhiji appreciated socialist leaders desire to bring about equality of living standard in society. But advised them first to come together, think what was in the best interest of the country and set people on to constructive work. He told Manu Gandhi on 15th April 1947, Socialism is a term of modern age, but the concept of socialism is not new. Lord Krishna preaches the same doctrine in Gita. One needs to have in one’s possession, only what one requires. It means that all men are created by God and therefore, entitled to an equal share of food, clothing and housing. He said, Socialism will not come by occupying positions of power and by delivering speeches from the platform.

Giving practical advice to do selfless service to the people and to ensure the straightest and quickest way to achieve a socialist order, Gandhiji said, If you wish to establish socialism, there is only one way, in which it can be done. Go and live among the poor in villages, live as they live, be one with village people, work for eight hours daily, use only village made goods and articles even in your personal lives, remove illiteracy among village people. Gandhiji also upbraided the Communist party workers for, Instead of having faith in India and drawing inspiration from its unrivalled culture, you wish to introduce Russian civilization here, as if Russia was your motherland.

Constitution of India and Socialism

In 1950, when the Constitution was framed, the words, Socialism or Socialist democracy were not included in it in order to keep a balance between the views of towering personalities like Gandhi, Nehru and Patel. The Constitution of India only mentioned To secure to all its citizen economic justice and equality of status and opportunity.

The influence of the socialistic principles is visible in the Constitutional directive to the Government to:

  • Provide adequate means of livelihood to all its citizens,
  • Distribute material resources for common good
  • Avoid concentration of wealth and means of production in the hands of a few,
  • Right to work,
  • Equal pay for equal work, to both men and women,
  • Living wages for all workers, protection of workers especially children,
  • Humane conditions of work, and
  • Provide for right to education and public assistance.

“Democratic socialism” under Pt. Nehru – It was after the death of Sardar Patel that Congress Government bent heavily towards socialist policies. It declared its goal in the form of “Socialistic pattern of society” and subsequently “Democratic socialism” under Nehru’s leadership. Pandit Nehru was convinced, “Political democracy should inevitably lead up to economic democracy. Even in the countries, which are supposed to be highly capitalist, the tendency to economic democracy is obvious. The tendency in other words, is towards some form of socialism.” Many policies to build required infra-structure for the development of the nation and welfare schemes and subsidies were declared for the poor.

Creation of Public Sector

Along with the socialist influence, Pt Nehru favoured the creation of public sector. It was a historical need at that time to speed up nation’s development. Private enterprises neither had the resources, nor the skill, nor inclination to invest heavily in infra-structure, where returns come much later and a huge amount of money locked up without immediate gains. The Government alone had the resources and will to build an infrastructure for development through planned schemes. All industries of basic and strategic importance and those in nature of public utility services were reserved by the Government for the public sector.

Jai Prakash Narayan, a staunch supporter of socialism, criticized Pandit Nehru’s concept of mixed economy and said, “You are trying to ride two horses, which may be possible in circus, but not in historical evolution. You want to go towards Socialism, but you want Capitalists to help in that. You want to build Socialism with the help of Capitalism. You are bound to fail in that”. Nehru’s concept of mixed economy, in which central planning lived within a kind of free market ex-skeleton, later on developed all the weaknesses of socialism and capitalism, with none of the advantages of either. Under the mixed economy, the authorities, who had the power to give permits and licenses, .the businessmen and the industrialist, flourished.

Planned economy

Many plans were developed under planned schemes to transform the backward society into a society of equals in a short time. The original inspiration for planned economy came from the Soviet Union.

Under Indira Gandhi

The word “Socialist” as qualifying the Republic was added in 1975, through 42nd Amendment Act by Indira Gandhi’s government, giving it almost the highest place in the name of equality and “Remove Poverty”.

Politicians defined and interpreted it in their on own way, which created confusion amongst people and divided the people. A large number of politicians are not much interested in tackling the key issues like population explosion, terrorism, unemployment, inflation, jobs especially in present spectrum of slowing economy, law and order, development of educational systems, development of infrastructure for the convenience of public at large. Their main interest lies in creating vote banks.

Parties use it to woo different sections of society like Dalits, tribals, minorities, backward castes, youths, salaried employees in government or public sectors etc.

Under the leadership of Mrs. Gandhi socialistic plans and policies were followed in such a way, that it had done more damage than good. It created a closed, centralized and unproductive system, which suppressed growth. In the name of Welfare State, the Government acquired extraordinary powers to exercise arbitrary control over massive resources. It centralized the planning, controls and ownership, which led those in authority to abuse of power and “Grab more power” attitude.

On the whole, it created a closed, centralized and unproductive system, which suppressed growth of the nation as a whole.

Success of socialist policies in solving nation’s problems

The policy, in real-life situations had done more damage than good. It developed tentacles of corruption, scams, scandals and callousness in almost every sphere.

Arbitrary State Control

The Government acquired extraordinary powers to exercise arbitrary control over massive resources. It created a domineering State controlling the smallest detail of the economic and social life of the people. It closed its economy to the world, nationalized industries and services, initiated rigid controls on the private sector and created monopolies in the public sector.

An unfettered market system led to grave economic inequalities, which got transformed into political inequalities. It developed tentacles of inefficiency and red-tape-ism, corruption, scams, scandals and callousness in almost every sphere. It created the politics of appeasement and vote banks, destroyed the work culture, and encouraged separatism everywhere in the society.

Demoralizing effect on people, made them pigmies

In the name of socialism, it created a domineering State controlling the smallest detail of the economic and social life of the people. People were made pigmies. Though in theory, sovereignty rests in the people of the nation, they find themselves absolutely helpless. They have been enslaved by politicians, planners and bureaucrats. It did not wipe out poverty, nor created an effective distributive system, nor equality, but it had led almost to the loss of economic liberty. It jammed the wheels of morality and conscience. The excessive control made people gradually loose their motivation for hard work.

Divided people into uncompromising compartments

Politicians define and interpret it in their on own way to create confusion amongst people and divide them into uncompromising compartments. Parties use it to woo different sections of society like Dalits, tribals, minorities, backward castes, youths, salaried employees in government or public sectors etc.

Effect on politicians

Some people regard it as one of the most misused terms in present-day political circles. It created the politics of appeasement and vote banks, destroyed the work culture, and encouraged separatism everywhere in the society. It jammed the wheels of morality and conscience.

A large number of politicians are not so much interested in tackling the key issues like population explosion, terrorism, unemployment, inflation, jobs especially in present spectrum of slowing economy, law and order, development of educational systems, development of infrastructure for the convenience of public at large as in creating vote banks.

In short

In short, the nation had made six specific mistakes: –

  •  It adopted an inward looking, import substituting path, rather than an outward looking, export promoting route, thus denying itself the chance to share the world’s prosperity of the 70s and 80s.
  • It set up a massive, inefficient and monopolistic public sector, to which it denied the autonomy of working,
  • It over-regulated private enterprise, thus diminished competition in home market,
  • It discouraged foreign capital and denied itself the benefit of technology and world class market,
  • It pampered organized labor responsible for lowest productivity of labor and capital, and
  • It ignored primary education at the cost of higher education

Opinion of Intelligentsia

In retrospect people realized that a major portion of such policies was proved to be the examples of bookish socialism and had little relation to the burning problems of the country. By 1990, India also realized like many other countries – what it was practicing so far was a phony, fake and tainted social justice.

It was realized, though late, that Democratic socialism itself is a contradiction in terms, as a socialist society or a planned economy cannot be democratic. The experience on this front indicated that probably the objective of social justice was unrealistic. The uneven distribution of economic power and benefits through manipulations of polity had created major distortions and problems for the smooth administration / governance.

Milovan Djilas, a Yugoslavian revolutionary and writer, who predicted the fall of communism and fought both Tito and Stalin, concluded on the basis of his experience, The suppression of classes would be the first step towards the extinction of society… There can be no society without classes. The problem is how to create a balance between the classes, to prevent some from getting rich at the expense of others and to prevent the oppression of one class by another. It must be recognized, however, that it will never be possible to establish an ideal equilibrium among different social classes…The future ideology of the reformist left must not become a barrier to the achievements of capitalism such as efficiency and the profitability of business. The central problem is, how to distribute wealth without disrupting economic activity, while at the same time building a society based on human solidarity…. This idealism should not be confused with the chimera of establishing a society with rigid and permanent forms – I believe the more varied a society is, the better and more creative it will be. There will always be injustice and inequality in the world, which will be the task of the social democrats to combat.

Mr. Paul Johnson, a historian of 20th century says, The more the State grows and impedes the free exercise of market forces, the more the quality of information deteriorates, more likely decisions based on such them would be wrong. A Polish communist Government planner says, In this crazy system, we do not know, the true cost of anything. We do not know which factories are efficient and which are hopeless. So we are continually reinforcing failure and punishing success.

Mr. Subramanyam says, The hypocrisy of socialism developed along with centralization of authority, denigration of democratic institutions and strangulation of Panchayat Raj institutions as part of one integrated political process in the country. J Krishnamurthy said, Working for social welfare is to fill water into a pail that has holes. The more water is poured in it, the more it pours out and the pail remains empty.

The experiences on Socialism along with principle of secularism, equality etc are not very encouraging. Probably the objective of social justice to some extent is unrealistic.

The problem of socialism is of performance, not of faith, and the price paid by the nation for this faith has been efficiency and its future prosperity.

October 31, 2017 Posted by | Reservation/Affirmative action program | | Leave a comment

Reservations giving rise to inter-castes and intra-castes rivalries

“He has a right to criticize, who has a heart to help.”   Abraham Lincoln

Introduction – Anybody has a right to criticize the the original social caste system, who has the capability to help or improve the system. Bringing caste into political arena via Reservation policy has done a great damage to the Indian society. It has increased tremendously inter-castes and intra-caste rivalries. Classification of society into Upper Castes/Caste Hindus, Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, Other Backward Castes and Minorities for political purpose/reservations has done a harm to the whole of Indian society. Such a development created social disorder. It has also made the task of governance difficult. It has also made it almost difficult for real and sustainable development of all poor and deprived persons. In the opinion of MSS Pandian, an academic with Madras Institute of Development Studies, the current inter caste rivalries are part of a series of periodic revolt, whose prime object is self assertion.

About Caste – Each caste is a conglomeration of sub-castes and sub-sub-castes. Indian society has officially been classified into Caste Hindus, Backwards, SCs, STs and minorities for purposes of Reservations and other preferential measures. Different castes bearing the same caste tag i.e. SC, ST, OBC etc  have joined hands superficially in political arena to become a powerful pressure ground. With the increase in their numerical strength though only on periphery under the banner of SC or Backwards, they have become more vocal, and are forcing the government to accept their sectional demands.

Unity of different groups an illusion – But the unity of backward castes on surface under the label of Dalitsor “OBC” is an illusion created by vested interests. The term Schedule caste”, nor OBC nor Dalit makes them a homogenous class. None of them has ever forgotten their separate identities. This has increased the in-fights between different categories and between different groups in each category.

At present, forward castes doubt that they are being treated as second rate citizens in their own country, because they are scattered, while other categories are united, well organised and have the advantage of their numerical strength. In such an atmosphere, it is easy for the state authorities to withdraw opportunities from upper castes and bestow it on Backward castes; not necessarily a real disadvantaged group.

How practice of reservation started? – The Reservation policy initially originated and was practiced in the provinces of India. Informally, the Reservation for Backward Classes began in 1874 in the province of Mysore and gradually spread over other provinces as well.

During the late Nineteenth and the beginning of the Twentieth Century, during the British rule, the idea of Communal Representation entered into the minds British rulers. Quotas were fixed for first backward classes and minorities (Muslims and Anglo-Indians) in Government services/Civil Services, educational institutions and electoral politics.. However, British gave importance to communal representation along with merit in the matter of recruitment in Provincial Civil Services.

Started with the purpose to restrict Brahmins domination in Government jobs, it traveled a long distance. It spread from Government jobs to educational field too, in order to prepare non-Brahmins for Government jobs. After Independence, a major change came in the terms of Reservation Policy. From provincial level, it entered into national level, as well.

British rulers divided the Indian society into five compartments in order to divide the Indian society and prolong their rule in India as long as possible. The demand for Reservation started with the rise of agitation in the minds of influential non-brahmins, living in Southern parts of India, against Brahmins. British Government had introduced modern education in India  in 1834. Also it made knowledge of English compulsory for getting jobs in governments. Brahmins, who had long tradition of learning, opted for getting modern education with the purpose of earning their living respectfully. In a very short time, they were far ahead of non-brahmins in occupying almost all the places in modern callings/occupations. 

In an attempt to get more space in the administration, influential non-brahmins succeeded in forcing the British government to divide the Indian society officially into Brahmins and Non Brahmins (‘Upper Castes’ and ‘backward castes’), and then backward castes into ‘Other Backward Castes’ and ‘Untouchables. British government  started the practice of giving preferential treatment to some sections of society in matter of providing admissions in educational institutions and jobs’. 

But many people wonder why after independence, Government of India accepted and continued  this division of society made by British Rulers. British rulers had knitted a very strong web for the Indian leaders and  trapped completely their mindset after the Independence. It was only after the Independence that Reservation Policy flourished and was acknowledged as unavoidable for uplifting downtrodden and was introduced at national and provincial levels separately. With the passage of time, this  feeling became stronger and stronger.

Provinces on the basis of their experience on reservation can be grouped as under :-    

Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, and Maharashtra, known as Peninsular states, have a long history of backward class movement and Reservations. These states have declared a major segment of their population as Backwards and offered them a wide range of benefit.

Arunachal Pradesh, Chandigarh, MP, Tripura, W.Bengal had no list of the OBCs. They did not take any separate action for their uplift during pre-Mandal era.

States like Assam and Pondicherry offered only some educational Reservations during pre-Mandal era.

Rajasthan, Orissa and Delhi also offered educational concessions, but not Reservations earlier.

Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, MP, J and K, Punjab and UP used Reservations along with moderate concessions. In these states Reservations led to protests and agitation, from time to time..

Apart from continuing the preferential treatment to some sections of society, the Indian government  thought of many other schemes to uplift the downtrodden like legislating laws to ensure, uplift and protect the unfortunate and poor (such as 73rd Amendment Act); or providing free ‘education to all’ in government schools etc.

Politics of revenge – After the government implemented Mandal Commission recommendations in 1990, agitation against each other has engulfed the whole nation. It gave birth to ‘politics of revenge’. Anyone doubting the efficacy of Reservation Policy is labeled as a part of Manuwadi Brahminical system, which has for ages used religious scriptures, injunctions, propaganda and plain force to impose on masses its will and many deprivations. The politics of revenge makes people irrational, and the authorities to opt for reverse discrimination.

Along with OBC, the post Mandal era has witnessed Dalit assertion and a massive shift in power in favour of Dalits as well. With the caste equation hardening, Dalit groups got united. They have come together and are fighting for their rights. Earlier they allowed OBCs to exploit them, now they resent it. Todays’ Dalits are aggressive and militant enough to take the OBCs head on. OBCs are getting it back with the rise of Dalit reprisal attacks, which often results in heavy loss of life and property on both the sides. Dalit militancy is increasing with the rise of new militant outfits like BSP, Devendrakula Vellalar Federation, Thyagi Immanual Paravai, Dalit Panthers of India etc.

The striking feature of New Dalit militancy is their utter disregard for the present set up and their attempt to capture political power. Dalit leaders are pursuing Dalit empowerment with vengeance. 

Intra-castes rivalries – Not only are there inter caste rivalries but intra-caste rivalries exist as well.  It is not that forward castes, SCs, STs and OBCs are rivals of each other. Many emerging castes within each political group are fighting against each other for power  Every caste has both, rich and poor or strong and weak people. Rich and empowered amongst them not only oppress castes lower to it, but also poorer persons of its own caste. Amongst intermediate castes – Jats, Yadavs, Koeries are fighting with each other for power.

Attempt of each political party to woo the same Dalit, OBC or minority group has increased further intra-caste rivalries. In order to be one up each party tries to please different castes within each group by taking up different sectional issues. Each powerful caste now acts independently during elections and seeks political alliance before and after election with other caste groups. Post-election alliances, in an attempt to secure a majority, have escalated more the inter-caste and intra-caste rivalries.

Animosity between OBCs and Dalits – Backwards castes and Dalits do not have much in common among them, except for their hatred for the caste Hindus, especially Brahmins. Intermediate castes (OBCs) have always aligned themselves with power. Earlier in the social sphere, they were the right hand of forward castes. Most of upper castes are non-militant and passive by nature. Instead of confrontation, they look for other avenues. They could not exert force on the lower strata. On behalf of them, it was always the intermediate castes, that exerted force on  lower castes.

Currently, to displace forward castes and to retain their Reservation benefits, backward castes have joined hands with Dalits, in whose favour the wind is blowing. While Dalits are in conflict with OBCs at social level, but in politics, they have no option, but to support them to achieve their mission to change the power equation.

WInd blowing in favour of Dalits and Backwards – A huge social churning is going on the margins of the society. The main fight is for land, jobs, education and other opportunities to ensure security and progress. This fight is moving from the margins to center stage of Indian politics. There is not much in common between a BC landless agricultural laborer and OBC landowner. Very often, rudeness of OBC towards BC is the main cause of social tension in rural India. In rural areas the fight is between poor people – marginal and marginalized. Poor OBCs with a bit of land and some degree of political protection infuriated poorer Dalits, who neither have land, nor education, nor political power. In urban areas the fight is for property and jobs. 

Too much assertiveness of Dalit and backward leaders has already created growing confrontation between the lowest and wide variety of intermediate castes in various parts of the country – Dalits Vs Marathas in Maharashtra, Dalits Vs Yadavs in UP and Bihar or Dalits Vs Thevars in Tamil Nadu.

Caste-Hindus, even Brahmins have been more considerate to an untouchable than intermediate caste such as rich Jat, Maratha, Reddy, or Patel etc. In the post-Mandal era, the intermediate castes have become very strong economically and politically. They own big farmland and employ landless tillers for farming. Their numerical strength gave them the political power in addition to landed property. The economic and political strength made OBCs to exploit ‘have-nots’.

Winding up

Position of Forward castes in post-Mandal era – The animosity of Backward castes and Dalits has tended the forward castes, in post-Mandal era, to withdraw themselves from active politics and bureaucracy. Liberalization and globalization plus good educational background have opened up a new vistas for them. They either join private sector or multi-national companies or go abroad in search of greener pastures. Information technology or software industry is full of such people. The private sector takes good care of them.

The advancement of upper castes again breeds inter-caste jealousy. But instead of working hard and concentrating their efforts for getting good education and skill training, the beneficiaries of Reservations want to continue for ever and more and more castes are clamouring/agitating to be included in the list beneficiary of Reservation.

October 30, 2017 Posted by | Reservation/Affirmative action program | | Leave a comment

Reservations, Quota System and Affirmative Action Policy

“Authority without wisdom is like a heavy axe without an edge.” Anne Bradstreet

“Work is worship. There is no substitute for hard-work”

INTRODUCTION ­

Biggest experiment of Twentieth century – Policy of Reservations in government jobs is one of the biggest experiments in the history of Twentieth Century. It is a very sensitive issue. It was started to uplift the submerged sections of Indian society, to protect their rights and to overcome the cumulative disparities of power, wealth and culture existed among various sections of society. From its very nature, the policy is discriminatory and exclusive. It empowers state authorities to give preference to one or more groups in the society to exclusion of others and encroach on domain of right to ‘equality to all’. Of late, it has become a source of considerable controversy, as it also involves emotional feelings of right-conscious people.

“Reservation in Government services” – Reservations in government services involves two contradictory principles – one, the principle of “Efficiency in administration” and the other the principle of “Social justice”. Reservation Policy aims at improving the lot of backward sections of society and empowering them for a better future. For a successful administration the keynote is efficiency, which means right people on right positions at right time.

An efficient administration can provide convenience to the public at large, and attain the developmental and welfare goals of the nation within time and cost parameters. It could secure maximum results with minimum labour and resources. However, Reservation policy suggests, as understood by Indian authorities, to appoint less- qualified persons on the crucial positions of power structure by relaxing the standards and fixing up a separate quota for each of its weaker sections.

Issues

The question arises, is it possible to find out a way, which can keep a balance between the two contradictory principles? Is it not desirable to make weaker sections strong and eligible first and then facilitate their entry into such services of the nation? How can a capable and confident team from amongst vast majority of backward people be prepared to shoulder responsibilities of administration judiciously?

What is Reservation Policy

Dictionary meaning of Reservations – According to the “New Webster Dictionary”, reservation means “Keeping aside something for some specific purpose.” In the Indian context, Reservation Policy refers to a situation, wherein to uplift the sub-merged section of society, some jobs and other facilities are especially reserved in various institutions/organisations, so that they could be brought back into the national main-stream.

Historical background

Social systems and values in India – Hindu society was classified in four functional groups known as “Varna” – the Brahmins to preach, the Kshtriyas to rule and defend the community, the Vaishyas to carryon the business and the Shudras to do the menial jobs for the society as a whole. Ancient Indian society was dominated by Hindu community. It had produced an excellent culture. Though there existed no political entity as an Independent Nation-State except for a brief period, but its culture had bound the people of this peninsula for ages from one end to the other. The system worked well for a long time. So much and so, that India was known as ‘Sone ki Chiriya’ ( A Bird of Gold)

Developed deformity with passage of time – In ancient India, numerous social groups came to India in waves at different points of time and desired to join the mainstream. All of them were assimilated into it without any conversion by giving each one a different caste name. It gave rise to the caste-system.

Then Turks, Afghans and Mughals continuously invaded India. Earlier, they drained out the wealth of the nation to foreign lands. But afterwards, they conquered and made India their homeland. There had been alien rule in the country for centuries, first of Mughals rule and then of British. As time passed, there developed many distortions. The society got divided into innumerable castes and sub-castes within each of four Varnas. Disparity and inequality grew amongst them with the passage of time.

Pathetic condition of Shudras and untouchables – By the beginning of twentieth century, the most pathetic condition was that of Shudras. They were illiterate and economically deprived. There was discrimination against the Shudras in every sphere of life, from living to work to social status. Worst of all was the position of “Untouchability”.

Reformative movements of nineteenth and twentieth centuries – From time to time, nationalist leaders and social reformers tried to remove the inequality and injustice prevalent in the society. At times, the lower caste people themselves rebelled against prejudices. Efforts to uplift them and eliminate all forms of exploitation started with the emergence of Reformative movements during the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth century like Arya Samaj initiated by Swami Dayanand, or “Achutodhar” by Gandhiji.

Intelligentsia of that period gave serious thought to the problem and conveyed the message that the inequality in the society should be finished. It was also impressed upon the masses that “Abhava” (Scarcity), “Agyan” (Ignorance), “Annyaya” (Injustice), and “Alasya” (Laziness) were the sources of all the evils prevalent in the society.

Concurrently, the British government in India chose to help the weaker section of the society by opening up the doors of education for all and bestowing upon them some special concessions and preferences through the policy of fixing up Quotas (former form of ‘Reservation policy’) for different communities in the later half of the Nineteenth century.

Start of ‘Quota system’ in India

Deprivation no longer acceptable in modern world – Various revolutions like the French revolution, Bolshevik revolution, Industrial revolution and other contemporary developments during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries made the people alert and aware of their rights. Misery, ignorance and economic deprivation, which were ear liar accepted as one’s lot, were no longer acceptable.

Masses desired to get benefitted from the resources of the nation – Masses started wishing that they themselves should be benefited, as much as possible, from the resources of their nation. Millions of people started demanding with persisting insistence better facilities in life – they demanded protection from five major evils of an underdeveloped or developing society – want, disease, ignorance, squalor and idleness.

Desire to establish a new economic order – The public desired to go forward quickly and to establish a new economic order, in which common man and weaker section of society could have better deal. It forced the national governments to take upon themselves the responsibility of protecting and nurturing them in such a manner that they got enough opportunities to grow, to their fullest stature.

Scene after World-War II – After World War II, “Laissezfaire” theory of government’s function gave way to the concepts of “Welfare State”, and “Development Administration”. These concepts aimed at bringing about “Social, political and economic justice” and “Betterment to the lot of the submerged sections of the society” by building up a rapidly expanding and technologically progressive economy, in which the downtrodden could have a better deal.

With the general acceptance of these concepts all-over the world, the national governments gradually assumed the responsibility of welfare of all its citizens from “Womb to tomb”. Specific concessions, protections and assistance were given to the weaker sections of society in one form or the other all-over the world. In India, one of such protections adopted has been “Reservation Policy”.

Many Provincial Governments, especially those in the South, had fixed up quotas for different castes and minorities in educational institutions and government jobs. It was done much before Dr. Ambedkar demanded Reservations in Government jobs and separate electorate for the backward castes – a demand conceded by the British Governments in 1932.

Interestingly enough the Government of India Act, 1935, did not contain any specific provision for reservation. It, however, contained a few Sections (Section 275 and 298) which indirectly dealt with the subject through “Negative Protection” to those suffering from disability by reasons of race, religion, place of birth, descent, colour or any of them. The reservations in the Central services started since 1943, whereas the ST’s became eligible for reservations since 1950.

Scene after Independence

There has been a perplexing diversity in geography, culture, caste, religion and language in India. Along with it, there has been a great disparity between different sections of society – socially and economically. The attention of national leaders was drawn towards illiteracy, ignorance, superstitions, and taboos on food, drink and marriages, social segregation, lack of communication, living in inaccessible areas, unhealthy loyalties, continuing discrimination and lack of security­ economic, social and legal.

To give underprivileged a fair start – National leaders desired that in the free nation, every individual should be given fair start, equal opportunity and square deal in the struggle for survival, To give these downtrodden a fair start, the Constitution framers allowed the central and state governments to make provisions for reservations for ten years and empowered the Parliament to extend the period, if required. The aim was purely to uplift and absorb lower strata of society into the echelons of power.

Primary Goals – After independence, India, being a democratic country pursued the principles of ‘Welfare State’ and ‘Social Justice’ after the Independence. The primary goals, set by the Constitution framers, for the independent India were:
•To build a self-reliant nation through optimal utilisation of its resources.
•To establish an egalitarian and tolerant society based on the principles of justice, social economic and political, and
•To ensure to everyone equality of status and opportunity.

Views of some of the members of Constituent Assembly
•BR Ambedkar – According to Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, the founder of reservation policy in India, ‘Principle of Varna’ is responsible for start of reservation as a government policy. ‘Varna system’ has divided Hindu society into four groups – Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas (Savarna Hindus) (Savarna Hindus) (Savarna Hindus) (Savarna Hindus) and Shudras (Avarna Hindus), which included Low Castes, Primitive Tribes, Untouchables and Criminals. It was the pathetic condition of Avarna Hindus, who were far away from the mainstream and progressive influences. Till now, Avarna Hindus were given neither fair start nor equal opportunity nor square deal.

According to Ambedkar, lower castes did not have the courage to demand reasonable wages for their labour. They did not hold property (Land or cash) – they were born to work or starve. They were there only to wait, serve and submit. They were there to do or die.
•Giani Gurumukh Singh Musafir – Giani Gurumukh Singh Musafir, a member of the Constituent Assembly felt that we had made the Harijans live in very poor condition for hundreds of years. He, therefore, observed during the Constituent Assembly Debate on November 29, 1947: “Now when India has become free, it becomes the first and foremost duty of Central and Provincial Governments and of every Indian to see that these crores of downtrodden men are uplifted.”…. “They should be provided water, housing and education.”…. “So long as these depressed classes have this idea amongst themselves that they belong to this particular sect, so long as they think that they have this label affixed to them, it is difficult for them to progress. The very names give them this complex that he belongs to a depressed class.”
•Shri Subhash Lal Saxena – Shri Subhash Lal Saxena, another member of the Constituent Assembly, said during the Constituent Assembly Debate on same day as Giani Gurumukh Singh Musafir i.e. November 27, 1947: “If capable Harijans are available, they should be recruited to superior posts. Besides the ordinary posts, the Harijan should be given all such jobs for which they are eligible. Harijans should be recruited in the Police. They should be given the post of Patwaries, School masters and Head masters etc. These posts would remove the inferiority complex, which is prevailing among them.”

Special clauses in the Constitution to uplift downtrodden

There is a perplexing diversity in geography, culture, caste, religion and language. Along with it, there has been a great disparity between different sections of society, socially and economically. The attention of national leaders was drawn towards illiteracy, ignorance, superstitions, and taboos on food, drink and marriages, social segregation, lack of communication, living in inaccessible areas, unhealthy loyalties, continuing discrimination and lack of security­ economic, social and legal.

Clauses to take special care – For the emancipation of the ‘Submerged people’ of India, the National leaders thought if independent India made the weak to stand and compete with the strong on equal footing, it would be throwing the dice in favour of the strong. Therefore, they authorised the State to take special care of the downtrodden for their advancement through Article 15(4) primarily relating to educational opportunities and Article 16 (4) to job opportunities. Directive principles, through Articles 38, 39, 41, 43, 45, 46 etc. gave some guidelines to the future Government.

In order to bring millions of under-fed, under-read and under-clothed people of free India into the mainstream of national life, Article. 17 of Constitution of India abolished “Untouchability” and made its practice a cognizable offence the most heinous aspect of the Indian society by. Article 15 guarantees equality of opportunity for all citizens irrespective of religion, race, caste, descent, place of birth or any other reason.

Reservations for downtrodden – As the things came up, 15% Reservations are given to SCs, 7.5% to ST, 3% to disabled and 1.5% to ex-army-men in the following areas –
1.Political institutions consisting of the elected representatives of the people.
2.Admission in educational institutions.
3.Reservations in jobs.
4.4. Reservations in promotions.

Reservations in Government jobs – After implementation of the Constitution, 15% reservations are being given to SCs, 7.5% to STs (initially from 1950 onwards 5%, but now) and 27% to OBCs (after 1992) in jobs under central government. Reservations in the Central services started since 1943, whereas the ST’s became eligible for reservations since 1950. All state Governments had their own plans for job-reservations in their respective states and list of beneficiary castes. At provincial level, different state-governments fixed up their own quotas for different castes and communities.

Also, candidates, belonging to reserve quota, if succeed to get jobs on their merit, are not counted in the quota list. That means the number could even be more than mentioned above in a year. Besides if the candidates with required qualifications are not found in a particular year, the unfilled vacancies are carried over and added in the next years. These can not be filled with other qualified persons.

Started as a temporary measure – Reservation was accepted by the constitution framers as a temporary measure. Article 330 provided for reservation in Legislature for ten years, unless at the end of this period the reservation is continued by an amendment of the Constitution. However, the Constitution was amended again and again in 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991 and 2001 to extend this period for another ten years at each instance.

Constitution on De-reservation – Before Independence, there was a provision of reservation in government services for Anglo-Indians. Article 336 of the Constitution provided that for the first two years after its start, reservations (in favour of the Anglo-Indians – a minority community) should continue on the basis as before; then during every succeeding period of two years, this reservation is to be progressively reduced by at-least ten percent, so that by the end of ten years all such reservation might cease.

Reservations for OBC’s – In 1955, Kaka Kalelkar Commission on Backward Classes and in 1980, MandaI Commission, were appointed to suggest ways to improve the condition of poor people in India. On August, 1990, V.P. Singh’s Government accepted to implement, partially, the suggestions made by MandaI Commission viz. reserving 27% jobs for “Other Backward Castes” in all Central Government institutions or institutions aided by the Central Government. It received a great deal of resistance from the people and at the moment the case for reserving 27% seats in jobs for OBC’s is under litigation in the Supreme Court of India.

Condition of Constitution for Reservations

While the Constitution framers were dealing with the topic, special provisions relating to certain classes specifically mentions that as far as the government services are concerned “The claims of the members of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes shall be taken into consideration, consistent with the maintenance of efficiency of Administration, in the making of the appointments to services and to posts in connection with the affairs of the Union or of a State”.

Other Measures taken to uplift submerged sections – Under Article 340 of the Constitution, a Commission is to be appointed by the President to investigate the condition of socially and educationally backward citizens, the difficulties under which they labour, make recommendations for removal of those difficulties and other ameliorative measures needed to be taken.

In 1978, a Commission for SC/ST was setup within the Ministry of Horne Affairs to monitor the comprehensive programme and to ensure their all- round development. The financial allocations for the welfare of downtrodden have been increased tremendously after independence. The sincere effort towards their development began with Five Year Plans, which aimed at reducing the imbalances and disparities.

The First Five Year Plan identified the problem areas needed to be tackled viz absence of communication, paucity of drinking water, supply and irrigation, education and health facilities and universal poverty etc. Accordingly, many Integrated Development Plans and Sub–Plans were initiated besides reservations.

Views of pro-reservationists

Policy of reservation has been hailed by it supporters as a “Historic step” the advocates of reservation. To them policy of reservation has been adopted to break the shackles of caste and to improve the lot of the poor masses. Arguments in favour reservation policy –
•Under-represented in power echelons – Backward castes constitute about 80% of total population (15% Scheduled Caste, 8% Scheduled Tribes and 52% Other Backward classes), but their representation in the Central Group ‘A’ posts is a paltry 4.69%. Therefore, supporters of reservation policy demand that employment in government services should be on pro-rata basis.
•‘Due share’ to lower strata in power echelons – Founder of Bahujan Samaj Party, Kanshi Ram said, “The reservation for SC/ST began with only 2% in 1935. Now it is 22.5%. Gradually all reservations would be according to proportion of different castes in the population. My aim is to give reservation (to the upper caste minorities), not to demand it. V.P. Singh has made my job easier.” Ex Prime Minister, V.P. Singh, Prime Minister from Janata Dal, while implementing the MandaI Commission recommendations in August, 1990 said in his independence-day speech, “We want to effectively give to the depressed, downtrodden and backward people their share in the power structure and in decision-making to run country and improve things.” ◦Suppression of downtrodden for centuries – Lower castes had been treated unequally in the past, now they should be given a more than equal status to make empower them. Competition could be just and valid only among equals. Since upper castes had suppressed lower castes on basis of their birth, present generation has to correct age-old imbalances and make reparations by giving downtrodden advantage through reservations. It is a noble and just cause in return for centuries of oppression.
◦Why merit could be diluted? – Forward castes are better educated and settled because of the environment, in which they are brought up. But deprived castes, in absence of proper environment and economic constraints are unable to compete on equal terms with upper castes for jobs in the government, public or private sectors. Besides educational capabilities and economic status, socio-political dominance of upper caste is a powerful factor influencing selection process. Witnessing all these aspects social justice demands that jobs should be shared with backward even at cost of little dilution of meritocracy.
◦‘No’ to economic criteria – On economic criteria for reservations, V.P and his associates oppose the idea, saying that it was introduced in Tamil Nadu in the past, but did not worked there (Times of India news item on September 4, 1990).
◦Foundations of Reservations social, not economic – “All foundations for government’s reservation policy were social, not economic” says Ram Vilas Paswan “Each caste is standing with one foot on the forehead of the one below it in the social hierarchy…” Shri Ram Avdhesh Singh, a M.P. of Lok Dal says, “Even the rich backwards are not given the social status, which poor forwards enjoy. That is why we need representation in the government on caste basis, where wealth and respect go hand in hand. These reservations are not for the economic good, but to link backwards with the State.” (India Today, September 30, 1990)
◦To whitewash a bitter historical reality – Swami Agni vesh of Bandhua Mukti Morcha had said, “We have created our fractures and schisms – it was not the Mughals, it was not the British, it was the Vedas that consolidated the casteism in Indian culture. We can describe the reservation policy today as palliatives, an attempt to whitewash a bitter historical reality, sitting on a handful of armchair sociologists and pretending the rest of backward India doesn’t exist. That we need is radical social change.”
◦Empowers backwards as a composite pressure group – “Reservations, on the basis of caste, give the backwards an identity as a composite pressure group. This is a concrete achievement, which will help them to unite and fight for equality. Besides, caste is still a dominant factor in Indian social-structure; its existence should be accepted for recognising the under-privilege groups.” (News item in Times of India, September 15, 1990)
◦Merit not a prerogative of upper castes only – Merit is not found in upper castes only. There are many meritorious and talented boys and girls amongst the SC/ST/OBC. They only need proper atmosphere and opportunities for education and employment in order to shine to their full capacity. In old Madras Presidency, there were 100% reservation/job quotas, both for “Forward” and Backward” castes. Today about 68% seats are reserved for SC/ST/OBC in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, and they are far ahead of other provinces in matter of prosperity and good governance, where there is upper caste domination in administration.
◦Norm of ‘pull’ and ‘push’ – Ram Vilas Paswan, ex-minister says, “There is no such thing as merit in India today, there is only “pull” and “Influence”…. “Merit” is only a term used for the purpose of disruption by agitators.” Shri Paswan asks why forward class does not look towards merit in candidates admitted in institutions of higher learning because of capitation fee or selected for influential posts because of their family background.
◦‘Bearer best knows where shoe pinches’ – V.P. Singh told the nation that society would be served best by filling the civil services by downtrodden as they were the bearers who knew where the shoe pinched. They had the qualities of heart, which the administration of the country needed more than the quality of head. They are committed to the uplift of their brethrens. Syed Shabuddin of the “Insaf party” had said, “In a democracy every social group is entitled to share the fruits of development and keep a hand on the levers of power…. Both intra and inter group disparities must be reduced by Legislative policies. If the backward classes come into administrative posts, they may be able to increase efficiency, as they will be having grass-root knowledge of actual problems.” (News item in the Times of India, September 15, 1990)

In short, supporters of reservation consider necessary to empower the downtrodden, to reduce economic inequalities, to give them social respectability, to reduce imbalances created due to upper class influence and to break the psychological barrier, to give downtrodden their due share in power structure

Views of Anti-reservationists

Anti-reservationists doubt the efficacy of Reservation Policy. Reservation has been a source of turmoil in society many a time. They have shown their resentment every-time Parliament had extended the period for reservations. In seventies and eighties, the agitation against reservation policy took a major turn by taking a shape of national movement affecting many parts of the country. The agitation against reservation sparked violently in Gujarat in 1983 and spread to other places when a meritorious physically handicapped student of upper caste was denied admission in MD course and the quota student with much less marks was admitted. Such cases definitely arouse public sentiments and they criticise the government for following the policy blindly.

Somehow the authorities were able to suppress it. But scars were left.
•Contrary to principles of equality – Reservations are contrary to principles of equality, fraternity and social justice. There is something fundamentally wrong with Reservation Policy. In the name of social justice, fundamental rights of many deserving people are curtailed or negated. It benefits and increases the number of those, who are desirous to find an easier way-out. ◦Genesis of Reservation Policy in “Divide and Rule” dictum – Reservations were first introduced by the British rulers to “Divide” the Indian population and “rule” the nation as long as possible. The British government divided Indians on the basis of caste and community. British rulers, who got alarmed about the increasingly power and influence of Brahmins, purposely propagated myth of tyranny of the “Forward Castes”, especially of Brahmins over rest of the society. Therefore, British rulers pinpointed Brahmins as oppressors and tyrants, who wilfully kept others down. They encouraged anti-Brahmin formations in the South. They started the practice of fixing-up quotas in various educational-institutions and government jobs on one side and separate electorate for religious groups on the other.
◦Destroys unity of nation – Reservations were started in other parts of the country as well for backward communities. Now many politicians and their parties want to increase the percentage and extend its time-frame in order to create vote banks. Like Britishers, politicians and supporters of pro-reservation want to divide the nation, on the basis of caste, community or gender. Like British-rulers, they want grab and hold political power as long as possible. Already, there is a perplexing diversity in India along geography, culture, caste, religion and language lines. They are spreading venom in the heart of each identity against other. If not checked on time, communalism and casteism are bound to destroy the unity of the nation and narrow down the aspiration of people.
◦Administration requires services of most talented – The task of administration is one of the most difficult. It is so complex that it requires services of most talented, sincere, hardworking and honest people. A preference to a person with inferior talent over a person with superior talent is not only unjust but against national interests. Reservations in employment contemplates putting those on responsible positions in the government, “Who are not qualified for the job” – (Arun Shourie). And in the process, power passes from meritocracy to mediocracy (Nani Palkiwala). It also means that sub-standard services would be rendered to the general public.
◦Common-men suffer more – The policy of reservation affects adversely the efficiency of administration as a whole. Deteriorating standards of government institutions have already done irreparable damage to the development of SC/ST and OBC communities. The larger objective of eradicating the poverty and bringing the downtrodden in the main-stream could never be achieved by lowering the standards of education or governance. Does reserving a very few places for SC, ST & OBC satisfy the basic needs of millions of underfed, under-clothed and under-read people of India ?
◦Contributions of upper class – Kaka Kalelkar had said in, ‘Note of Dissent of First Backward caste Commission “It would be well, if representatives of the Backward-classes remembered that whatever good they find in the Constitution and the liberal policy of the Government, is the result of the awakened conscience of the upper classes themselves. Whatever Government is doing by way of atonement is readily accepted and acclaimed by the nation as a whole. The upper classes have contributed their share in formulating the policies of the Government. Removal of untouchability, establishment of equality and social justice, special consideration for backward classes, all these elements found place in the Constitution without a single voice of dissent from the upper classes.”

Upper castes are still contributing their share through taxes (the money collected from taxes is supposed to be spent on developmental plans.) Somewhere, they are supporting, elsewhere actively participating in formulating developmental policies of the government.
•Quantity of reservation quota – So long as “only a few places” were kept aside for those severely disadvantaged – Harijans and Girijans, the people tolerated the policy as functioning of institutions did not stand much risk of being vitiated and consideration of caste and community were placed under control. But, when V.P. Singh announced to implement 27% for reservation in jobs for OBCs, in addition to 22.5% reservation for SC/STs in government jobs, heart burning and stir against Reservation Policy passed all the limits. The whole nation was in for caste wars.
•Ignores merit – Reservation policy as it ignores merit. In 1947, when the Constitution framers were dealing with the reservation policy, they showed clearly their concern for efficiency. Art. 335 directs that ‘reservations for SC/ST should be consistent with the maintenance of efficiency of administration.’

In today’s situation when economy is in shambles, inflation has touched 13%, coffers are empty, and common man is suffering due to inefficiency and mal-functioning of the government, the nation can not afford to ignore merit and efficiency. In Private Sector, survival and prosperity depends on merit. It picks up the best talent available in the country from the educational institutions itself by conducting “Campus interviews” and does not allow sub-­standard working.
•Discourages development of skills – Reservation has discouraged development of skills, resources and attitudes in SC/STs needed to succeed without the crutches of reservation and has encouraged backwardness, inefficiency and lack of competitive merit amongst the castes enjoying reservation.
•Making people lazy and increases mal-practices – People of lower castes have taken these concessions for granted and expect it to last for ever. It has made even competent persons amongst them lazy and complacent. Guarantee of share in power structure without much effort develops an attitude never value the dignity of labour and work hard. The reservation policy is adding fuel to this attitude. Obtaining false certification about caste is increasing in order to get the advantage of the limited spoils. It has raised the expectation of others as well.
•Short time measure – In many provinces, scheduled castes were enjoying the benefit of reservation in proportion to their population since 1935. SCs were far away from the mainstream on account of “Untouchability” and STs because of “Social isolation due geographical reasons”. Therefore, Constitution extended State patronage to SC/ST for ten years i.e. till 1960, unless at the end of this period the concession is continued by an amendment of the Constitution, which was not very likely. It was hoped that underprivileged would be at least in a position to stand on their feet by 1960.Since then, everything has been changed.
•Times have already changed – Successive governments have ignored the sweeping changes that have occurred throughout the country over the last 60 years. Through various measures, including Reservation Policy, people of all castes have progressed. Anti Brahmin movements in former Estates of Madras and Bombay had effectively eliminated Brahmins as a dominant political force. Lower strata of society had organized themselves, consolidated their economic and acquired political power. Through reservations they have succeeded in occupying position of power.
•Shift of power in favour of Backwards – Political power has already shifted in favour of backwards, almost completely in the South and in massive strides in Bihar and UP, where they constitute nearly 40% of the Legislative strength. At State and local levels, especially in more populous rural areas their influence is continuously growing. Untouchables have made concerted efforts to mobilize themselves and to secure their upward mobility as may be seen in the case of Izhavas of Kerala, Mehars of Maharashtra, Chamars of UP, Meenas of Rajasthan, etc. Radical movement such as that launched by the militants Dalit Panther in Maharashtra have made the emerging strength of the lowest caste felt with increasing effectiveness.
•Rigidity of caste wearing out – Rigidity of caste has been gradually wearing out. Introduction of railways, opening of hotels and restaurants, radio, TV and cinema houses have contributed to the relaxation of caste prejudices and rigidities. Besides education and training, land reforms, industrialisation etc have brought awareness amongst backward castes. The end of many practices, which created distances between different castes in the past, is a hopeful sign and guarantee for the future well being of every Indian citizen.
•New lease of life to caste – There has been one sphere of Indian life, where caste has not only held its ground but began to strengthen its hold. It has acquired a new lease of life in politics. Politics is the most important sphere of Indian life, where caste has not only held its ground, but began to strengthen its hold. Politicians of Independent India are making its increasing use in politics.
•Time for gradual de-legitimization of caste – Yogendra Singh, Dean of Political Science in the Jawahar Lal Nehru University says, “Forty years have seen enormous differentiation in class and caste division. Caste should not be the central element in dispensing social justice. In fact, there should be a process of gradual de-legitimization of caste by finding scientific methods for the exit of SCs and STs from the reserved quota.” (India Today, September 30, 1990)
•‘Past is past’ – Vasant Sathe of Congress (I) says “Reservation is no solution for a crime so many centuries old. Nor it is ethical to punish our present society for the sins of our fore fathers.” It is a law of jungle to hold responsible the present generation for the follies of its previous generations. According to Rule of law the present generation can not be punished for what their forefathers did.
•Undermines ‘Principle of Equality’ – Anti-reservationists argue that there was a case to end the quota business in 1960 itself. Yet it has been allowed to continue till today. The Indian Constitution is committed to two different principles both of which relate to equality: ‘principle of equal opportunities’ and “principle of redress’.

Now it is over due that ‘principle of equality’ be enforced in its true spirit without any favour. Since policy of reservation undermines the principle of equality, it should be gradually discontinued as had been done in the case of Anglo Indians in accordance with the Article 336 of the Constitution.
•Inter and intra caste wars – Reservation policy does not consider all individuals equal. Instead caste becomes the basis to get this privilege. It leads to inter-caste rivalry. Anti-reservationists accuse the pro-preservationists for inciting the caste war by provoking public feelings. Brahmins and upper castes has been pinpointed as an enemy of downtrodden, who have always exploited the downtrodden mercilessly.
•Distortion of historical facts – Political adventurers, dictators and fundamental fanatics have distorted the history in the past and used it as a ploy to serve their own selfish or partisan interests. It does not even matter to them, whether their own version of history is real or based on fantasy. When Hitler walked into Sudetanland, he claimed historical authority. When Mussolini attacked Ethopia in 30′s, he quoted history. When Zionists claimed Jeruselem, they tried to justify their act by citing history. When Saddam Hussain walked into Kuwait on August2, 1990, He staked his claim on the basis of raking up old history.

And so had happened on August 15, 1990, when V.P. Singh announced 27% reservation for OBCs, it was hailed by his supporters as “A historic decision which will go a long way in giving the rightful share to socially and economically backward castes in the power structure of the country, of which they were denied under the pressure from the vested interests.”
•Reasons of backwardness other than caste – At present, submerged section of society does not suffer so much due to discrimination on the basis of caste as for other reasons. Kaka Kalelkar, first Chairman of First Backward class Commission had said, ““If the backward communities have neglected education it is because they had no use for it (in the past). Now that they have discovered their mistakes, it is for them to make the necessary efforts for making the leeway…As far as the assistance in the matter of education for the backward classes, I am convinced that introduction of basic education in all the states with help the backward communities to cultivate self-confidence. They will also have a better chance of succeeding in life and have the advantage of mixing with other people.”
•Glamorization of Backwardness –Earlier, backwardness was considered as stigma. People of lower castes attempted to improve mannerism in order to climb up in the ladder of social status. These days, many castes claim for a lower status and want to be included in the list of SC/ST, so that they may taste the fruits of reservation as well. No more any caste is ashamed of being called untouchable or backward. Reservations have created vested interests in the “Backwardness.” Now backwardness is a status symbol, because it eases the position, while one is in search of jobs. Therefore, more and more communities are clamouring for the “Backward class” tag.

Those in power find it politically expedient to oblige them. The list of castes wishing for reservations has become very long. Witnessing all this it stands to logic that the beneficiary group should be kept under constant review, so that who have over the years reached a stage where they could survive with dignity without any crutches, could be delisted.
•Creamy layer of lower castes at advantage – Benefits of Reservations are confined within the creamy layer of lower strata, while, it was supposed to benefit ‘poorest of the poor’. How can all the 80% downtrodden be accommodated in power echelons by reserving only 49.552% jobs out of 1% of total government jobs available in the country? Naturally, only few people are benefited, others are given only false assurances during the times of elections.
•Economic criteria as a basis – Anti-reservationists argue that consideration of caste instead of economic backwardness is not just. Reservations, if it is necessary should be given on the basis of ‘economic criteria’ to all the poor regard less of their caste identity. There should also be an income ceiling for SC/ST and others with the entitlement of their children for reservations in job and admission to educational institutions. Then only really deserving people could be benefited.
•Led to Bain drain – Reservation has shaken the confidence of the youth of so called forward class. About 50% reservations in government jobs have left many deserving and intelligent youths unemployed or underemployed. Some of them choose the path of crime or violence. Unemployment has been one of the reasons behind Punjab and Kashmir problems. Many intelligent and hard working youth are losing their interest, rapidly, in government jobs. They prefer to go abroad in search of greener pastures, where they get good return for their talents and hard-work. In addition, they get job satisfaction because of tension free atmosphere at work-place. Reservations have, thus, led to brain drain. It has already squeezed out many meritorious by leading the country to massive brain drain.
•Cry for social-Justice? – The attempt to establish a socialistic government does not carry much weight. The USSR a super power of pre-1990 days collapsed like a house of cards, despite having Socialistic government for last 70 years. With all its State control and public support, it could not provide expected relief to its masses. How could socialistic ideals provide relief to the masses in India, where there exists so much corruption and inefficiency in administration?
•Feeling of alienation – Creation and perpetuation quotas in educational institutions and jobs has made backward classes alienated from the main stream. It is adversely affecting national solidarity. It is sowing the seeds of hatred among the people and put hindrances on the way of mutual help, mutual respect and mutual trust necessary for the development of the nation as a whole. Along with it, efficiency or excellence, probity, integrity of institutions and trust, which are required for overall well-being are adversely affected.
•Reservations in Government jobs not a political program – Reservation in government jobs need not be made a political programme, which must be done according to the electoral mathematics. It was envisaged to uplift the submerged sections of society and make their future better. Governance is one of the most difficult and specialized tasks. Government employees are supposed to have sufficient professional knowledge and expertise in various disciplines – functional, technical, specialist as well as managerial and generalist – so that they could properly aid and advise the elected representatives of the people and dig for them the expert knowledge from the raw material, give it a shape with a sense of commitment. For attaining that expertise, they have to be equipped with knowledge in various educational institutions. Therefore, the government should be very careful while recruiting people in government jobs.
•If reservations politicians are so keen to give lower castes a share in the power structure of the nation, why not quotas are fixed by law that by rotation, President, Prime Minister, Vice President, Cabinet Ministers, Ambassadors, Governors, Chief minister of every state be selected turn by turn from different castes. In these positions, the representatives of the people are elected or selected and entrusted the power to make decisions for a fix period. If their performance is not satisfactory, they may be removed or changed. But government employees get job-security. Therefore, standard of functioning should not be allowed to fall.

Wanchoo Commission Report, 1968, and Railway Reforms Committee Report, 1983, on the working of Railways observed that reservations in jobs and promotions adversely affects the enthusiasm, incentive for hard work and devotion to duty and in-turn the efficiency and the morale of the civil servants. Sikri Commission on Railways, 1968, linked accidents with reservations. These three reports are just about one government department and that too when reservation is only 22.5% for SC/ST. What is going to happen, now when it is 50%? Who would be the ultimate sufferer. It is the innocent public only.

Double standard – The government itself has exempted certain services and posts from reservation in order to maintain efficiency, discipline and loyalty to the nation intact such as all the Defence Services, Scientific and technical posts in the Department of Space, Atomic Energy, Electronics, posts of pilots and top technical persons in Air India and Indian Airlines, all scientific posts of Indian Institute of Science, Banglore, teaching posts in IITs and IIMs, private secretary to the PM and other Ministers, Planning Commission Members etc. (A Handbook on reservation for SC/ST compiled by Sharma and Purohit). It proves that the government maintains double standards.

Reservations for women – If any class in India needs reservation on the grounds of social discrimination or under-representation in power echelons, it is only the women in India. How about reserving 50% seats for them in all educational institutions and government jobs? That would be their just share and will not divide the society along the caste lines either. If it cannot be done, then at least 50% of the reserved quota could always be kept aside for women ofrespective castes. Are the politicians prepared to make such provision for women too?

In short, Anti-reservationists think that there is something fundamentally wrong with the Reservation Policy. It has been criticized for creating many conflicting identities like – majority and minority, backward and forwards, urban and rural, north and south and man and woman etc. It is being extended again and again with an aim to create “Vote-bank” in the garb of helping the needy.

In the name of social justice, fundamental rights of many deserving people are being curtailed or negated. It is a farce in the name of social justice, a slap on the face of education and merit, a vote catching measure and misuse of power by political parties.

Views of prominent persons on Reservation Policy

At this stage, it would be appropriate to know the views of some eminent persons on reservation. These are as follows:
•Mahatma Gandhi – In his book titled “India of my dreams” Mahatma Gandhi wrote: “So far as the reservations in the government departments is concerned, I think, it will be fatal to a good government, if we introduce there the communal spirit for administration to be efficient, it must be always in the hands of the fittest. There should be certainly no favouritism.”… “Distribution of posts should never be according to the proportion of members of each community. “… “Those who aspire to occupy responsible posts in the government of the country can only do if they pass the required test.”
•Pundit Jawahar Lal Nehru – In a letter dated June 27, 1961, addressed to Chief Ministers of various States, Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru, Ex-Prime Minister of India wrote, “I have referred above to efficiency and to our getting out of the traditional rut. This necessitates our getting out of the old habit of reservations and particular privilege being given to this caste or that group. It is true that we are tied up with certain rules and conventions about helping the SC/STs. That deserve help, but even so I dislike any kind of reservation, more particularly in services. I react strongly against anything which leads to inefficiency and second rate standards. I want my country to be a first class country in everything. The moment we encourage the second rate, we are lost.” “This way, lies not only folly but disaster.”
•Kaka Kalelkar – As Chairman of the Backward Class Commission, Kaka Kalelkar expressed his views on reservation in education (Backward Class Commission Report, 1956, Vol. I, page X). He wrote: “As far as the assistance in the matter of education for the backward classes, I am convinced that introduction of basic education in all the States will help the backward communities to cultivate self-confidence. They will also have a better chance of succeeding in open competition and having the special advantage of mixing with people and serving them, they will prove themselves better administrators and leaders of society.”

On page VIII of the same report, he has expressed his views on reservation in government services too, as under: “I am definitely against reservations in government services for any community for the simple reason that the services are not meant for the servants but they are meant for the service of the society as a whole. Administration must have the services of the best men available in the land and these may be found in all the communities. Reservation of posts for certain backward communities would be as strange as reservation of patients for a particular doctor. The patients are not meant to supply adequate or proportionate clientele to all the doctors what ever their qualifications.”
•Chowdhary Charan Singh – Chowdhary Charan Singh, the founder of Lok Dal and charismatic leader of Backward castes and class, wrote: “It must be conceded that reservation on the basis of caste is a vicious principle and creates many problems. More than reservation in recruitment, it is reservation in promotions that has led to great heart burning and great inefficiency in our services. Such reservation whether in favour of Scheduled or Backward castes, was, in my opinion beyond intentions of the founding fathers. Boys belonging to poor families, particularly those, where large section of our people are considered socially inferior for centuries past, are entitled to consideration rather than concessions at the hands of the government of independent India.”
•Chowdhary Charan Singh was also against extending reservation to SC/ST beyond 10 years “The intelligent and hard working youth are losing their interest, rapidly, in government jobs. They prefer to go abroad in search of greener pastures, where they get return for their talents and hard-work. In addition, they get job satisfaction because of tension free atmosphere at work-place. … “The Union Government, however, has for political reasons, been extending the period of reservations decades after decades. There should be bars on children of those who have benefited from reservation and those who are income tax payers, so that other less fortunates could be helped.” (A letter, February 12,1982 to Banarasi Dass, the then Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh)
•Professor Andre BeteilIe – Professor Beteille said: “Once the uneven distribution of caste in public institutions comes to be perceived as a problem of distributive justice institutional well-being takes the back seat.” “Job reservations in public institutions are required to protect the interest of SC/ST, backward classes and minorities – If this argument is believed to be right and acted upon then our institutions can not function as they ought to, their well-being will be irreparably damaged.” … “The best course would be to expand the pool of qualified candidates at the lower level but this would call for patience which no government in India has so far shown.” “A quicker course, whose effects would show immediately in official statistics, would be to alter the proportions directly, through reservation of jobs.” (6th T. T. Krishnamachari Memorial lecture on “Distributive Justice & Institutional well-being”, November 11, 1990, the Institute of Economic Growth)
•Shri H.M. Seervai – Shri Seervai wrote: “Reservations affect five parties adversely: ◦The State – to whose service persons are recruited by open competition in examinations held by independent Public Service Commissions.
◦The public – As the very phrase “Public servant” shows.
◦The persons – Who are discriminated against, by reservations in favour of members of SC/ST.
◦Members of SC/ST – In whose favour discrimination is being made by fixing reservation quota; and
◦The service – That is each service considered as a whole. (“Is an efficient public service irrelevant in India”, Indian Express, September, 1990)

A service which lacks spirit-de-corps, that is, consciousness of and pride in belonging to a particular service, lacks an element essential to an efficient an harmonious administration. The position further deteriorates in a service in which in matters of promotion, people with superior qualifications are subordinate to people with admittedly inferior qualifications.
• Nani A Palkiwala – Shri palkiwala opined that Reservation policy suffers from five fatal flaws: ◦The sub-standard replaces the standard, and the reins of power are to pass from meritocracy to mediocracy.
◦It ignores the reality that there are no backward castes but backward individuals.
◦Reservations in promotion are disastrous enough for the civil administration.
◦It divides the country on caste lines and is against social harmony and social intermingling of various castes.
◦Equality is the very heart of free republic, the foundation stone of true republic, the source of inspiration, the criteria for its citizenship and the hope for its welfare. The bedrock of reservation is discrimination in-reverse: it is discrimination against merit and calibre. (“Unity and security of State at stake”, Indian Express, September 14, 1990)

•Arun Shourie – Arun Shourie, in an Article titled “This way lies not only folly but disaster” appearing in the Indian Express on August 22, 1990, writes: “A job should be something one has to work to get, something which one has to do one’s utmost to retain and advance in. It should not be, advancement in it must not be anyone’s by right”. But reservation definitely develops the ethos that the job, the promotion is mine by right and that too because of by my birth, not work. How can a modern society survive, let alone grow with this as its ethos?
•Shri V.P. Singh – In his independence-day speech on August 15th, 1990, Shri V.P. Singh, ex-Prime Minister of India said: “Bureaucracy is an important organ of the power structure and it has a decisive role in the decision-making exercise. We want to effectively give to the depressed, downtrodden and backward people their share in the power structure and in decision making to run this country and improve things. “
•Ram Vilas paswan – The Dalit Sena president and Janata Party leader, Mr. Ram Vilas Paswan, in his speech at Benipatti, Madhubani, on December 12, 1987 demanded for amendment to the Constitution to end the prevalent reservation system for Harijans and other backward classes in the Government services and replacing it by right to work for every body…. Reservation system had failed to achieve its purpose and had created social tension in the country. Mr. paswan said that despite Constitutional provisions and related laws, the government at the Centre and State had failed to protect the interest of Harijans.

Later on, Paswan became the champion of reservation policy. He advocated reservations in jobs and educational institutions on permanent basis. It should continue till the caste system persists in India. Since caste system can not be put to an end, therefore, there is no justification for finishing the reservation for the downtrodden.
•B.D. Sharma – Shri Sharma, the Commissioner for SC/ST has pointed out in his 29th Report, tabled in Parliament on August 31st, 1990, as under: “The policy of reservation in government jobs has not improved the lot of the bulk of SC/ST in the country. In fact, in many cases, their condition has further deteriorated. “It is quite clear that even if the policy of positive discrimination were to succeed fully, it could benefit only a small section of these communities. On the other hand, if inequality continues to increase in our country or continues even at the present level, the maximum damage will” befall on the members of these communities themselves, because their condition is already the worst as in the case of the SC or because they are facing the most severe backlash of development as in the case of the S.T……” ” The policy of reservation is ironical, as it demands a share for the weaker section” in the gains of iniquitous system, which in the ultimate analysis cannot be anything, but the proceeds of exploitation of other poor belonging to the same group who remain at the bottom.”

An analysis of the issue

There are certain basic truths, which needs to be accepted and pay attention to, before taking policy-decisions. Such as:

Society as an organic body – Society behaves and develops like an organic body. Each organ does a particular function and coordinated working of all organs together keeps the whole body fit and alive. Like other organic bodies, each and every section of society is an indispensable part of the society, which needs equal attention and proper care for the balanced growth of the society as a whole.

Just like in an organic body, weaker parts need special care, but not at the cost of others. So is in the society. Each and every section of the society needs to be assigned a specific function. Each one should perform its respective job. Society needs the services of all sections of the society. The work of any section is neither inferior nor superior to other. Each and every section of society needs to be aware of its indispensability to the whole. A society can move and prosper to its fullest, when each and every section of society does its functions well and lives in harmony; and when there is mutual help, respect and trust amongst the various sections of the society.

Society as an organisation – For an efficient and smooth functioning, like an organization, society also needs –
•Division of labour – Nobody can do all the work by himself. Division of different functions required in a society is the first requisite.
•Grouping of activities – All functions and activities should be so grouped as to avoid confusion. Activities of similar nature or having same objectives are grouped under one section.
•Structure – An organization needs a structure with well defined functions. The structure must be simple and easy to understand. It should also ensure continuous growth and, therefore, should not be rigid.
•Balance of activities – Proper weight-age to different activities, in proportion to their contribution to organization as a whole, is necessary. No activity should either be over-valued or under-valued.
•Team spirit – Relationship between various groups within an organization should be based on the principle of “mutual help, mutual respect and mutual trust”. It facilitates better coordination of diverse activities performed by different sections. Smooth relations amongst its constituent’s leads to optimal utilisation of resources and to satisfaction of all its constituent members.
•Specialisation – Concentration of a section on the performance of a single task, leads to greater efficiency and more specialisation. Functions need to be assigned on the basis qualifications, skills, attitude and aptitude of its employees.
•Creative thinking – A good organisation encourages initiative and creative thinking.
•Satisfaction – Organization must be able to satisfy the biological as well as psychological needs of its employees as an individual as well as a group.
•Adoption of new technologies and development – An organization helps adopts new improved means of doing things, permits prompt adoption and optimum use of technological advancements. It must avoid nepotism, favouritism and must give an upper hand to merit and talent.

Indian society contains all the essentials of a good organisation.

Truth about “Varna-system” – “Varna system” along with its castes and sub­-castes is not as bad as has been portrayed earlier by British rulers, now by some leaders and the pro­-reservationists. It is based on principles ‘mutual respect, trust and tolerance for each other’, ‘There is enough for everybody’s need, but not enough for anyone’s greed’ or ‘To each according to his needs and from each according to his capacity’. ‘Division of work’ was based on attitude and aptitude of an individual. It has given to India a solid social-structure, which is simple to understand. Above all, it has provided unity of culture which has been able to bind the people of Indian peninsula from one end to the other.

Mahatma Gandhi said “The main reason of our economic and spiritual degeneration is that we have not correctly followed the “Varna System”. This is the main reason of poverty and unemployment and one of the main reasons that there is untouchability”. He suggested to encourage education amongst the masses for the growth a self-contained and self-regulated society; all occupations to be given equal respect; people to be encouraged, not to be forced to adopt their hereditary occupations; and difference of income derived from various occupations should be narrowed down to the minimum.

“Policy of reservation” lost its validity – “Policy of reservation” adopted by the independent India has lost its value and justification now. Reformatory movements of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, attempts of constitution-framers spread of education and awareness amongst general public. Many changes have come about in the whole atmosphere, in thinking, attitude and aspirations of common-men. Recent technological advancements have made the life of common-men easier and created enormous opportunities to earn more. The experiences of recent past reveal that Policy of reservation has lost its value and justification now because –

SC/STs and OBCs emerged as powerful pressure groups – After the green revolution of sixties, the economic and political status of people engaged in agriculture India has improved tremendously. India being an agricultural country, 75% of its population (mostly belonging to SC and OBC categories) is engaged in agricultural sector only. Reforms gave them permanent rights as owners or otherwise. New agricultural technologies, backed by administrative and financial support by governmental agencies, helped them the chance to get out of the trap of poverty. They have organized themselves and emerged as a very powerful pressure group both in the fields of economics and politics. Still, if many SC/STs and OBCs have not been able utilise this opportunity fully, fault lies somewhere else and not in caste system. In their under-nourished faces are written the failures of the successive Governments and their policies that have ignored their actual needs.

Caste is no longer a barrier in the matter of jobs – Doors of education have been opened for all. Many scholarships, loans, hostel facilities, and admission in select institutes of the country (Where the whole expenditure is borne by the government) are being made available to them. Many Integrated Development Programmes and Sub Plans have been initiated to improve their position – socially and economically.

Immense choices in matter of occupation – Earlier people were forced to earn their living only by doing their hereditary jobs. But the Constitution of India gave everybody freedom and equal opportunity to select one’s source of earning. Society has accepted the change-over to any profession a person wishes to pursue and for that he has to prove his suitability in the job market. Educational facilities have been provided to them. Many scholarships, loans, hostel facilities, and admission in select institutes of the country (Where the whole expenditure is borne by the government) are being made available to them. Many Integrated Development Programmes and Sub Plans have been initiated to improve their position – socially and economically. However, sub-merged people of SC/ST community have not so far been able to utilise this opportunity fully. Benefits are benefitting the creamy layer amongst them.

Label of Brahmin or Shudra meaningless today – Today, the label of Brahmin or of Shudra does not matter much in choosing a profession. There is no dearth of employment opportunities. From all sections of society, people are acquiring necessary qualifications and are entering into areas of their choice. Experience shows that all are doing well in almost all spheres.

Increasing opportunities in service sector – A vacuum has been created in the service sector, when many traditional jobs became obsolete. Jobs in service sector could also fetch a handsome amount of money. Recently some people engaged in this field such as tailors, carpenters, dyers and drycleaners, owners of hotels and restaurants, owners of video libraries, scooter and taxi drivers even Paanwalas are doing much better than ever before. The key to their success appears to be the very same as elsewhere – hard-work, excellence, maintenance of standard or quality and entrepreneurial skill. Today, in the lure of safe and secure job, easy and quick money, government jobs in local, state or central levels are becoming very popular.

That day appears not to be far off when in complex technological society, the white-collared jobs would loose their present attraction and the service sector would get a prominent place. An excellent plumber then may become more admirable than an incompetent scientist. Therefore, instead of disturbing the efficiency and working of the organized sector, the government could concentrate on enormous opportunities of self­ employment available in this sector, and thus helping the downtrodden to establish well themselves in the society.

Creamy layer amongst beneficiary groups – On the one hand, it has been experienced that Benefit of reservations is confined within a few dominant and prosperous SC/ST and OBC castes. They have now acquired economic, political and above all muscle power. Many of them make vote banks for the politicians, capture booths during elections and could ask their unfortunate brethren to shut their mouths or to meet the consequences. In certain regions, they themselves have become the exploiters of their unfortunate brethren – suppressing the agricultural labours and are heaping atrocities on Harijans.

Efficiency in administration – A service which lacks spirit-de-corps, that is, consciousness of and pride in belonging to a particular service, lacks an element essential to an efficient an harmonious administration. The position further deteriorates in a service in which in matters of promotion, people with superior qualifications are subordinate to people with admittedly inferior qualifications.

It is feared that relaxation in matter of recruitment standard, as reservation policy suggests, adversely affects efficiency of administration. It creates a distance between quota officers and non-quota officers, adversely affects integrity and coordinated efforts of services for development of the nation as a whole. Merit oriented approach in matter of filling crucial and important posts, in principle, opposes reservation of any kind, which gives preferences to a person over a more talented person. It is a humanitarian obligation of a civilized society to uplift and empower the weaker sections of its society. But it should not be done at the cost of efficiency in administration. Mal-administration or ineffective and inefficient administration makes the life of common people more miserable.

False assurances – Politicians and political parties with vested interests are luring the poor masses by promising them to give government jobs through reservations. Government jobs still fascinate the masses as with it are attached the attraction of fix salary, prestige, power, influence, security of employment and scope to distribute patronage. If without acquiring the needed qualifications and without much effort one can get all these things, no body minds it.

Vast reservoir of talents amongst the lower strata of society – There is a vast reservoir of potential/talent amongst backwards as well, only they need opportunities to grow. Their hidden qualifications and capabilities Sound education and training would make aware them aware of their hidden qualifications and their capabilities. Their confidence can be restored, only when they are brought to the level of forward castes people so that they could compete for jobs and promotions on equal terms.

Hurt feelings of poor belonging to upper castes – The deprived and poor people, belonging to so called “Forward caste”, feel betrayed by their own Government. They are being victimised because of no fault of their own. ‘Economic criteria’ offers a general formula to help to all extremely poor and underprivileged individuals irrespective of their caste or creed. Many dynamic and talented youths have lost their faith in the government and interest in government jobs. Upright officers do not get a proper atmosphere in the office or reward for their merit, intelligence, hard work and honesty. On the contrary, due to politicization, growing disregard for the work-culture and overstaffing, upright officers are sidetracked. Fixed salary is just sufficient to keep them from hand to mouth. They have to struggle all through their lives – after paying the taxes, meeting their children’s school fees and coping with ever increasing prices of essential items to maintain a decent life style.

Backwardness of some, not unique in India only – Backwardness of some sections of society having such massive demographic entities is not peculiar to the Indian conditions only. It is universal phenomena. Every nation has it and adopts its own ways to uplift the sub-merged people. The Chinese approach, in this regard is through education and not through unmeritorious reservation of jobs, as there is no need to create vote banks there. Grooming of downtrodden in India could also be done by providing sound education to them. Already there are many institutes and some more may be opened especially for lower strata of society, where they could study the same syllabi and to go through the same courses as other students from a good background. The students from poor background may take more time to go through the same courses and reach up-to the same standard as others. The process may be slow but is steady. The quality of education should not be allowed to deteriorate at any cost as is being done.

Times when Governmental intervention needed – When individuals are proved to be working under special handicap or are not allowed to function freely as citizens, then only the government may intervene irrespective of caste or creed so that deserving persons from all sections of the society may get the needed help. It should punish the culprits strictly and make special provision for advancement of under privileged or handicapped persons. It need not necessarily be in the form of reservations. Reservations have been proved to be disruptive to the peace of the society and unpractical.

Conclusion and suggestions

The past experiences have made it clear that the remedies suggested through reservation proved worse than evils, the leaders were out to combat. To some, this discrimination is positive and to others, negative and contrary to principles of equality, fraternity and social justice.

Deserving people get lost amidst the gore and gusto – The faces of poor people, really deserving support from the government, have been lost amidst the gore and gusto of pro and anti-reservationist movements. ‘Shudras’ have been the life and blood of the Indian society for centuries in the past and led the nation to the ‘Golden Era’. They still provide essential services to the whole community in different disciplines. But in exchange, today, they get very little – not even enough to satisfy their basic minimum needs. Reservation made no difference in their lives.

There is no denial to the fact that for centuries, Shudras have been the life and blood of the Indian society. They have been performing certain traditional standardised services for the whole community. In exchange, as usual, even today they get very little – not enough even to satisfy their basic minimum needs. Reservation made no difference in their lives.

Side effects of Reservation policy – Reservations have developed many side affects. Instead of becoming a viable instrument for the upliftment of the submerged section of the society, it has created vested interests of the powerful lobbies of society. It is serving the interest of those people who do not need it any more and making the administrative machinery sick. Giving additional weapon in weak hands is no remedy. First the hands need to be made strong enough to hold and use the weapon properly through awareness of the surroundings, sound education and-training. Then they themselves without any help from an outside agency will pick up the weapon in their hands and protect themselves and others in the society with it. Education alone can make them more knowledgeable in the fields of their works, more laborious and more confident, so that they could earn enough to live with honour and dignity.

Plans needs to be based on real issues – Witnessing the various views and past experience, it becomes clear that instead of reservation, other development measures should be tried after identifying the real issues and actual needs of these people. Downtrodden must be made capable to stand upon their feet and make their due place in the society. Policy of generating confidence and inculcating skills, knowledge, attitude and habits through sound education should be pursued, so that they could be brought to the required intellectual level, do justice to the jobs assigned to them, hold their positions without any complex and live in the society with honour.

Only two ends in Governance, ‘nation, and ‘individual’ – The unity and solidarity of the nation demands that its population should not be divided along the lines of different identities i.e. caste, region, language, religion or base – rural or urban – by giving preference or over- protection to one section or group over the other. As Kaka Kalelkar had suggested, while framing policies, government should recognise only two ends – the individual on the one hand and the nation as a whole on the other. No sectional or communal grouping should be encouraged to flourish itself in between the two, which could undermine the equality, liberty and freedom of the individuals and the solidarity of the nation.

Result-oriented action programmes needed – Issues should be identified rationally and result-oriented action programmes needs to be implemented sincerely as suggested by the Planning Commission, various government departments and voluntary organisations. The backwardness of most of the people is due to poverty, illiteracy and many evils that go with it such as ignorance, superstitions, mal-nutrition, lack of access to shelter, clothing, health, hygiene etc. These problems can never be solved by making policy of reservation as a major remedial measure. Other remedial measures are required for the development, which could produce desired results within time and cost parameters. More stress should now be given to fair distribution of surplus land and other anti poverty programmes, which could benefit a large number of poor people everywhere if honestly pursued.

Reservations as “Disastrous”, “Fatal” and even a “Vicious principle” – Witnessing the various views and past experience, it becomes clear that instead of reservation, some other measures should be tried after identifying the real issues and actual needs of these people. It was not only the first Prime Minister Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru, but Mahatma Gandhi, the Father of the nation, and Chowdhary Charan Singh, the charismatic leader of backward caste, considered reservations as “Disastrous”, “Fatal” and even a “Vicious principle”.

Positive steps needed to be taken – More than Reservations is needed to the inculcation of concentrate on skills, knowledge, attitude and habits through sound education. It would make weaker sections to stand upon their own feet and to survive without the crutches of Reservations. It would bring backwards to the required intellectual level, make them capable do justice to the jobs and fulfil their responsibility without any complex. It would ultimately generate confidence in them and live in the society with dignity and honour.

Vision of Nehru – The vision of Nehru suggested putting emphasis on education – “The real way to help a backward group is to give opportunities of good education; this includes technical education, which is becoming more and more important. Everything else is provision of some kind of crutches which don’t add to the strength or health of the body. We have recently made two decisions: one is universal free elementary education that is the base and the second is scholarships on a very wide scale at every grade of education to the bright boys and girls and this applies not merely to literary education but much more so, to technical, scientific and medical training. I lay stress on the bright and able boys and girls, because it is only they who will raise our standards.” …. “But if we go in for reservation on communal or caste basis we swamp the bright and able people and remain second rate or third rate.” (Chief Ministers Conference, June 27, 1961,)

Authorities like Shri B.D. Sharma, Commissioner for SC/ST, and many others have also opined that policy of reservations in government jobs has not improved the position of the bulk of SC/ST and CECs. Instead it had further developed many problems.

Winding up
•If India wants to emerge as a strong nation in the world, it should give preference to efficiency, motivation, discipline, tenacity of purpose and will to achieve the desired goals.
•It is not the policy of reservation which is required but a policy of generating confidence in backward caste.
•Stress should be given to basic education.
•No sectional or religious group be allowed grow between the government and the individual.
•Really-deserving individuals needing special attention must be identified by assessing their economic condition without any bias.
•All help, such as free and extra tuition, subsidised and extra nourishment, residential accommodation etc., to overcome their disabilities and to acquire requisite abilities should be provided
•Abilities to shoulder responsibilities at entry point and performance throughout the career should always be given importance.
•In postings and promotions, Standard set should apply equally to all and strictly to all.
•At no time and at no level, the standard should be allowed to deteriorate.
•The method of assessment should be continually honed, so that more meritorious persons could be selected.
•Wages should be enough to enable them to work honestly and live in the society with dignity without clamouring for dishonest money.

In the words of Shri C. Rajgopalachari, which he said long ago that for any system “To be good and efficient as a whole we want right type of men. The quality of men placed in position is more important than laying down rules and methods of operation. The caste consciousness is a hard reality. It unites and divides in a very real manner today whatever be our goal and today is most important in matter of administration. Short sighted favouritism and concessions to produce contentment among classes and castes will be very short-lived and will deteriorate into a constant pondering to intrigues and factions, if we do not look to the real efficiency.”

October 29, 2017 Posted by | Reservation/Affirmative action program | | Leave a comment

Say “NO” to Reservations/Quota-system

 

‘When it is obvious that the goals cannot be reached, don’t adjust the goals, adjust the action steps.’  Confucious

“Mediocrity can talk, but it is for the genius to observe” Benjamin Disaeli

“Man’s greatness lies in his power of thought.” Blaise Pascal

A pessimist sees difficulty in every opportunity; an optimist sees every opportunity in every difficulty.” Winston Churchil

“Seven social sins –

:Wealth without work,

: Pleasure without conscience,

: Knowledge without character,   

                                       : Commerce without morality,

                                       :  Science without humanity, and

                                               :  Politics without principles,

                                               :  Worship without sacrifice.” Gandhi .

“All good things are difficult to achieve, and bad things are very easy to get.”          Confucius

  • “Success formula – C3 (Commitment, Confidence, Compassion) + I2 (Integrity, Ingenuity)”    Apache

  “No amount of politics would be of any avail, until the masses in India are once more well educated, well fed and well cared for” Swami Vivekanand

Who does not fight each day for freedom, does not deserve to be free.” Readers Digest

Introduction

Some Important news items from Times of India’s – The division bench of Rajasthan High Court (Justice GK Vyas) advised Hardik Patel who spearheaded the Patidar movement to work for the unity of the nation instead of a community or its reservation, saying “you belong to the community and state Sardar Patel belonged to. He had worked for the integration of the entire nation and not for a community. … Is it becoming of you to work for a specific community despite being from Patel’s land and his community? He has put his entire might and life for this nation.” (On September 6, 2016, P. 9)

In January, 2016, after the suicide by a Dalit student of Hyderabad, things went out of control. Potests started all-over the country. Almost all the political parties criticized Modi’s BJP government. Congress demanded to sack the minister. It said, “The last 19 months have repeatedly witnessed the anti-poor and anti-Dalit agenda of the Modi Government” (TOI, p, 11, 19.1.2016).

A true Indian. Too proud to ask for help – A Dalit man in drought hit Maharashtra, has given casteism a befitting reply. Stung after his wife was refused permission to draw water from a well owned by upper caste neighbours, Baburao Tanje felt insulted because he is poor and Dalit. He then resolved he will never beg any one for water, and set to dig one of his own and struck water digging six hours each day within 40 days everyday, after working 8 hours as a labor. Not only this, he refuses to name the neighbors who denied his wife water, because he does not want bad blood in the village. (On May 8, 2016, P 12, TOI) 

But when day in and day out, general category candidates from so-called upper castes,  commit suicide, nobody bothers. In recent past, within last 3-4 months, 6 students in Kota (known for its coaching centres for young students aspiring to join the higher civil services or institutions of higher studies at national and provincial level) had committed suicides, They feared that they were average students and won’t be able to compete successfully in the competitive examinations, where at least 50% quota exists for SC, ST, OBC and others.

Many young students belonging to upper castes work very very hard at various pre-entry coaching centres, which maintain very high standards and a good faculty.  They spend thousands of hard-earned money of their middle class parents. These coaching centres do not believe in any short-cuts make students work hard for achieving success and give to students individual attention. Also, these institutions try to understand the psychology of the aspirant, dreams of their parents and the changes government brings in from time to time for getting admissions in institutions of higher studies or getting entry into higher government services. They encourage students to share their knowledge and at the same time ask them to pen down their own thoughts. There is a very tough competition amongst amongst stuents.

Role models for others in society – Media should project persons like Baburao Tanje as the role model for others, a captain in army who had sacrificed his life, while fighting with terrorist, rather than highlighting the activities of persons like Hardik Patel, Kanyhia or Rohit Vemula. Political leaders had projected Kanhaiya case as harassment of students at the hands of the administration and Rohit Vemula case as a conspiracy against Dalits.

Vote-bank politics lays stress on Quotas – Recently, in provincial elections in Bihar and now in Gujrat State Assembly Elections, reservations in jobs and admissions in educational institutions have become one of the main issues for many political leaders and their parties. They talk about discrimination against Dalits, backwards and minority communities and their marginalization. They say that Caste-Hindus  look down on Dalits and backwards as sub-humans and often taunt, humiliate, victimize them and have kept them away from mainstream.

Therefore, underprivileged/underdeveloped/marginalized sections of society deserve special consideration, privileges and concessions for their development like special quotas for them in education and employment as well as in promotions. They say until the feudal mindset comes to an end, quota system/reservation policy must continue. Seeing that many people oppose the reservation in promotions, the present BJP’s social justice and empowerment Minister Thawar Chand Gehlot said, “The government favours reservation in promotion, (But) we need to create the right atmosphere.”  (TOI, 3rd May,2016, p. 12)

True development – People expect too much from the government for their uplift, while they themselves have stopped making their own efforts to move forward and join mainstream. As Julius ‘Mwalimu’ Nyerere (Tanzania) comments on true development, “Man is developing himself when he grows or earns, enough to provide decent conditions for himself and his family; he is not being developed if someone gives him these things.”  Jacques Santer says, “A quota is always something artificial that can last for a certain period of time.”  The political leaders need to understand that expanding quotas can not address the problem of underdevelopment, unemployment or youths’ frustration arising from the growth of  jobless youth..

Issue

Is it right to give caste-colour to every sad event? Is it crime to say that reservations was accepted as a short-term measure to boost up the morale of marginalized sections of society? Are reservations in government jobs in the interest of the long term development of the nation?

Bihar Assembly elections 0f 2015, the pressure in favour of reservations is so strong on politicians that a group of Member from Rajya Sabha has started collecting signatures of fellow members (50 MPs) for impeachment of Gujarat High Court judge criticizing him for “behavioural misconduct”. Justice JB Pardiwala during the hearing on Hardik Patel, leader of the Patidar agitation for job reservations observed that “corruption” and “reservations” are two villains that have destroyed the country or not allowed it to progress in the right direction. He called it shameful that a citizen should ask for reservation after 65 years of independence, further noted that quotas were initially to stay for 10 years, but continued for more than six decades since. A senior Congress member said reservations were the part of constitution. The concern is that observations are now    part of judicial proceedings and can be cited as precedent. The supporters of reservations said that the plea for impeachment would act as a deterrent for judges to not mix personal views with judicial work. (TOI, pp. 1 & 21, dt. 18.12 2015)

Everybody can not be accommodated in the corridors of power or become PM, CM, DM or GM. A few people may be on the top, who can do exceedingly well in life, few may remain at the bottom reluctant to get education or acquire right skills and work-hard for their social-well-being. Majority may better-fitted and more content by joining a career suiting to their attitude  and aptitude. Can caste-based reservation give a sense of achievement, social well-being and job-satisfaction to all? What the country needs today is a sense of responsibility and ‘give and take’ attitude.

   Reservation Policy, before independence – Reservation Policy, before independence known as “Communal Award”, has always been a very complicated and controversial issue in India right from its inception in the early twentieth century. Confucious has very rightly “When it I obvious that the goals cannot be reached, do not adjust goals, adjust the action steps” For getting success in life, introspection is necessary to find out what one is best at.  Clarity of purpose is very necessary. Next comes chasing one’s vision, not positions of power (PM, CM, DM or GM) or money.

The purpose of reservation is to uplift the marginalized section of society and bring them back into the mainstream. Except for a few fortunate ones, whose families are taking the advantages of Reservation again and again and mostly needy masses  remains deprived of it. As the result the position of marginalized castes and communities has been the same a wa at the time of independence. Their absolute numbers have multiplied considerably now. Besides more and more castes and group are clamouring for inclusion in beneficiaries list and be declared as ‘backward’ label.     

 Very recently, Hardik Patel from Gujrat has started agitation for including ‘Patels’ in ‘OBC’ beneficiaries’ list for admissions in educational institutions and employment in government services. He has threatened the government to take quota stir nationwide. Again Vice President of India comment (on the occasion of 50th anniversary session of All India Majlis-e-Mushawarat on 31st of August, 2015) on the need of reservation or Muslim community to ‘correct the state bias’ against them raised a controversy. He said, “The default by the state or its agents in terms of deprivation, exclusion and discrimination – including failure to provide security – is to be corrected by the state; this needs to be done at the earliest and appropriate instruments developed for it.”….”…, a pre-requisite for this is affirmative action – where necessary – to ensure a common starting point and an ability in all to walk at the required pace.”

People have very strong views in favour or against it. A web of lies and half-truths has been created. While, some hail it as a historic step to break the shackles of caste, to bring the downtrodden into the corridors of power, to empower them and thus set right all social and economic imbalances. Opponents of Reservation think that for sustainable development of the submerged society and making them capable to join the mainstream of society, it is not so much protective/paternalistic policies of the government, which are required, but it needs a sincere effort by the government to provide for a sound system of education and training for all.

Social changes can not be brought overnight by favoring Reservations for weaker sections of society. It can be brought by changing the mindset of poor people and making them aware, capable and strong enough to be self-reliant. Protective policies like Reservations not only affect adversely the systems, the functioning and efficiency of the institutions responsible for good governance, but also shatters the self-confidence of backward section of society – to stand on their own feet without the crutches of Reservation.

Issue

It is a humanitarian obligation to think about weak and plan for their uplift. But for removing social and economic imbalances, the path of reverse discrimination should not be adopted. The Government has to pay equal attention to the elite sections of society, as well. While uplifting the submerged section of society, the Government should not block their progress/advancement. Besides, one finds many contradictory statements/diverse principles in the Constitution of India. Question arises how to do it?

Indian Constitution on Reservation

The Constitution framers have dreamed to keep a fine balance between various diverse principles and thus lead the nation to prosperity. Various statements mentioned in the constitution leaves much to the discretion and fair-mindedness of the authorities. However, the ideologies that guided the Constitution framers, at the time of Independence, have more or less run out of steam today.

One of such example is the principle of equal opportunities (Art 16) in direct conflict with the principles of redress (Articles 335) directing the authorities to make Reservations for SCT in consistent with the maintenance of efficiency. It is up-to the honesty and vision of authorities in power, not to over look the national interest for their political expediency and not to misuse these clauses on efficiency and social-justice. Reservation policy should not be converted into quota system.

‘Reservation’ Policy being ‘politicized’

In recent Bihar State elections, to woo the voters, political parties have made reservations and beef as main issues, forgetting all about development agenda. So much and so that When Mohan Bhagwat, RSS Supremo said to review and  evaluate rationally the Reservation policy in an interview,  Politics on quota system started. RSS had to revert back. Its regional head in Bihar and Jharkhand, Mr. Mohan Singh had to say to avoid ‘Reservation issue’ to catch the imagination of people and benefit the grand alliance in elections, RSS “is ‘committed’ to existing quota policy for the sake of ‘social justice’ in the country. ” …He clarifiedued, saying, “The RSS considers that constitutional arrangement of reservation should necessarily continue for social justice and social homogeneity.” “The facility of reservation should be for scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, extremely backward classes and other backward classes in a manner, that is suitable for them so hat the aim of constitution -makers is fulfilled.” (TOI, P. 11, October 19, 2015)

Diverting public mind from real issues to abstract ones

With the passage of time, they proved to be ineffective to solve the real issues of over-population, poverty, inflation, deteriorated law and order situation, violence or general coarsening of moral fiber of the Indian society. There is a small, well-organized and influential group of people speaking in the name of majority. In its self-interest, it has spread many myths and illusions to divert public mind from real issues to abstract ones. It has disfigured certain aspects of reality, flared up emotional issues, tried to unite the people by diagnosing “A common enemy” to be defeated and put the blame on the unverifiable past. In the absence of independent records of events, around which its arguments are woven, its own analysis becomes the only record. The emotional issues earn for it the faith of the people and help it to further instigate the feelings of the people. Through Reservation Policy, it has exploited for its personal benefits the principles of equality, secularism, social justice and unity – the four pillars of Indian Constitution.

“Mistake of one time, being repeated several times”

It is said, “After every ten years, when Reservations were to be reviewed on the floor of Parliament, every time, reservations has been extended for next 10 years. Many politicians of the day show scant regard to the spirit of the Constitution. Unfortunately, the objective of uplifting the downtrodden and absorbing them into the mainstream has become secondary for them. The means i.e. Reservation Policy, through which the vote-banks can be created, has become the primary and most important mission for them.

Throughout, politicians have been propagating that Reservation has been sanctioned by the Constitution and it is their duty to abide it. Series of amendments of the Constitution, in extending the time-frame Reservation for another ten years, appears to be nothing but “Mistake of one time, being repeated several times”. In fact, the whole exercise of extending it is non-researched and is based on hollow grounds.

Therefore, some people demand for total abolition of Reservation, some for keeping Reservation exclusively for needy persons on the basis of economic criterion. They suggest fair and open mechanism to eliminate gradually the affluent sections from the lists of backwards.

“Rob the Peter and give it to Paul”

Any attempt to reverse the position of forward castes or letting them down could not succeed much, because they have the vision, knowledge and awareness to find out alternative routes to progress. It should boost up their initiative, courage, intelligence and talent, so that the nation could compete confidently with developed nations of the world.

Critics of Reservation say that Reservation Policy has no place in a true democracy. It is nothing, but to “Rob Peter and give to Paul”. In his book “Theory of Justice”, John Rawls discusses in detail equality, liberty, rights and role of the State. According to him, liberal democracy strives for an equality of opportunity and equality of results. Rawls says :-

  • Nature itself takes care of the distribution of natural assets and abilities, intelligence, strength and the like, which is going to determine the class, income or the status of an individual in society,
  • Every-one should have the maximum liberty, compatible with the same liberty for others,
  • People prefer equality over inequality. Inequality can only be tolerated, when it helps everyone, including the worse off. Inequality in any form is against common good, efficiency or good performance. Inequality could be made fair and just, if everyone had an equal start in life. The key to “Equal start” is education for all and an open primary school system.

Positive motivation and vision

It is not that only people of forward class have the proper qualifications, competitiveness and positive motivation, and the backward class people do not. It is only a question of providing sound education, training, proper atmosphere to grow and enough opportunities to all get proper employment according to their qualification. During British period, sensing the demands of the time, the upper and middle castes opted for English education and occupied Government jobs, which were the seats of power. At that time, lower castes were on the way to attain freedom and educational awareness, but remained outside the power structure. Now again the situation has changed.

With the start of the third great revolution – the Information Technology revolution – and the collapse of super power USSR, there is a wave in favor of knowledge-based systems and free economy. Again the cream of the society has changed its focus from Government jobs to economic enterprises. The upper castes are adapting themselves to the culture of free economy, while the lower castes are clamoring for the secure salaried jobs, whether in Government or in the private sector.

False promises

In order to lure the masses and capture power, many politicians make false promises. How to get out of the clutches, false promises, manipulations and twisted ideologies of the politicians is a major task ahead the people. Once the uneven distribution of different sections of society is perceived as a problem of distributive justice by the State authorities, institutional well-being takes a back seat. Fair-minded persons accept to provide enough opportunities to submerged sections of society to rise. But they do not consider fixing-up quotas in public institutions as desirable.

Doles/Freebies Cripples people

Policy of Reservation does not appear to be a practical proposition but only an ideological slogan. The beneficial or protective nature of political authority lulls the people to make efforts for self-development. They look towards authorities for everything. They expect change to originate at the apex and not at the base. It veers the nation towards paternalistic-totalitarianism and cripples the public consciousness.

Importance to caste-considerations over economic backwardness

Poverty is a universal and secular phenomenon. It prevails everywhere in all the categories of Indian population. Reservation Policy may benefit the affluent members of the beneficiary castes whereas millions of other deprived and low income people remain bereft of the benefits of Reservation. The later are also deprived of the access to education and other facilities. The founding fathers dreamed to provide equal opportunities and equal protection to all under the law. The State was directed to provide within 10 years free and compulsory education to all children below 14 years and to promote with special care educational and economic interests of weaker sections.

However, the focus of politician remains on Reservation, which is based on discrimination. It violates the egalitarian principle – the very base of Democracy. It is alleged that the Indian society is iniquitous, because it puts too many restrictions on lower castes. However, restrictions on an activity of a person do not mean necessarily depriving or denigrating him. It could be to protect people from mental conflict, to discipline them or to maintain order and harmony in the society. When a person is not mature enough, these restrictions control his impulses and guard him against wrong actions. A matured person attains self-discipline, which restricts his actions. Above all, in Indian society, the higher caste and purer a caste is, more are the restrictions on its activities in the form of self-discipline.

Negative influence on national psyche
There is more stress on Reservation rather than improving the capability of youth through sound education and training and on creating jobs. Leaving Reservation to the discretion of Power- hungry politicians makes it a ploy in their hands, to be used for political expediency, Present-day politicians do not care for principles, or are concerned about downtrodden. Distributive justice means to them fixing up quotas for different sections of society.

Attempt to establish firmly separate identity
Reservations have misled/divided the society into uncompromising water-tight compartments today. Anti-Brahmin Movement of Periyar in 1926, Mandalization of society of 1991, or militancy of Dalit Movement – their transformation from untouchables into Harijans, Depressed class or now Dalits are all examples, where sectional interests have led them increasingly distancing themselves from the mainstream and establishing firmly their separate identity.

A ploy to build electoral base

Policy of reservation has created a highly vitiated//intolerant atmosphere in the nation playing blatantly caste and communal cards. At present, Reservation policy has become a high level strategic ploy to build an electoral base. The most common abuses of Reservation Policy, according to the critics of Reservation, both at the backward class people find it difficult to get an entry Central and State levels are:-

  • Started as a temporary measure, it has become a permanent feature of Indian polity by amending the Constitution every 10th year.
  •  SCT list is lengthened by the Center and state governments numerous times,
  •  Some States are allowed by the Center to exceed 50% limit,
  •  Reservation is extended to advanced castes as well,
  •  Creamy layer rule is disregarded,
  • Quite often, government scraps cut off marks for SCT in entrance examination,
  • Manipulations in recruitment process by political authorities to recruit their own persons Backwardness no longer remains a social stigma, and
  • Many people produce fake certificates.

Resentment against Reservations in higher posts in bureaucracy

So long as, “Only a few places” were kept aside for severely disadvantaged people, people accepted it. But 50% or more Reservation created agitation among a section of people. In 1970’s and 1980’s, with the emergence of many sectional political parties in the states and their growing emphasis on Reservations generated resentment against Reservation Policy. In 1990’s, after Mandal, it took a major turn by forming a shape of national movement, effecting many parts of the country. Though the authorities were able to suppress the agitation, however, it has left deep scars in public mind.

Game of numbers

Reservation has degenerated democracy into a number game and palliatives. It has undermined the universally accepted democratic principles of organizing, regulating and distributing power with an aim to achieve growth targets effectively, legitimately and with dignity. It has pushed the real issues, principles and ideologies into the background.

The outcome of that it is not based on sound principles. The policy has led the nation to build unbridgeable political identities in most insensitive manner, which are based on negative exhortations and condemns all traditional values and structures. Too much stress on their rights, fragmented from duties has created agitation and confrontation leading to further fragmentation. The new culture of consumerism adds fuel to fire.

Reservation on wrong Ethos

Critics say that Reservation Policy is based on negative ethos, defective database, and wrong perception of social structure, wrong methodology and wrong principles. Access to public office through quota is sought more with an aim to get authority and control over public funds than a desire to serve the national interests. VP Singh had, on 15th August, 1990, clearly said, “In my views, the question of poverty is not financial in nature…The issue does not relate to the treasury but to the throne and whosoever occupies the throne, will also control the treasury.” According to them, the following arguments given in support of Reservations are most illogical and inaccurate. Questions arise: –
 Is it a poverty-elevation program?
Are present generation youth accountable and punishable for sins of our ancestors?
 Should there be dilution of minimum professional standards?
 Does it perpetuate casteism? and
 Can it remove the difference between ‘haves’ and ‘have-nots’?

Ideologies around which Reservation Policy revolves
Reservation Policy revolves around the following principles:-

 Principle of Equality
Social justice,
 Exercise of power, and
 Efficiency and merit.

Principle of equality

Reservation Policy believes “All are equal in the eyes of law, but some are more equal” The Constitution itself gives equal opportunity to all its citizens irrespective of caste, creed or gender, descent, place of birth or any of them. The constitution clearly lays down through Article 16, that there shall be equal opportunity for all its citizens, relating to employment or appointment to any office under the State. This aspect has been already discussed, in detail, in Chapter V. So long as the applicant, along with others under consideration had been given his chance, it cannot be claimed that equal opportunity had not been given to him. While the authority has been given the freedom to make selection from numerous candidates offering their services, the selection must not be arbitrary. It has to be based upon some reasonable principles required for efficient performance of duties and obligations of a particular service or post.

Article 16(4), on the basis of which the Reservations are given, is an exception, which is to be read along with Article 335. The selection procedures for implementing Reservation Policy could be of four types: –

1. Selection should be among equally qualified persons,
2. Selection among comparable candidates,
3. Selection among unequal candidates and
4. Selection among qualified and unqualified candidates.

The selection procedure, as is practiced in India, does not believe in former two procedures, which fit more with Art 16(4) along with Art. 335 and adopts the later two, which are against the dictates of the Constitution (Art. 335) and the principles of equality Art. 16). The backward candidates, who compete on equal footing, are included not in reserved quota, but in general category. The full quota is filled on relaxed standards.

Consideration of caste instead of economic backwardness does not give the benefit of Reservation to all the poor people on equal terms. Therefore, it undermines the principles of equality.

Ideology of social justice

The main argument in favoring Reservation is “Social justice”, the need to emancipate the under-privileged from centuries-old discrimination and bring them back to the mainstream. By the World War-II, socialism was the wave that swept the entire world. It was supposed to destroy all inequalities of race, sex, power, position or wealth and to distribute equitably social, material and political resources of the nation. In 1947, many leaders of free India, under the leadership of Pundit Nehru, thought that they would be able to achieve a just and equitable socio-economic order and to remove poverty before long by pursuing policies based on social justice.

“Parrot cry of socialism” – However, at that time, able statesman like Sardar Patel, considered socialist propositions purely theoretical and academic, far away from reality. Sardar Patel ridiculed the “Parrot cry of socialism”. He lashed out against those, who believed that there could be no justice, unless its economy was based on social economy. Or that freedom was meaningless without economic equality and social justice. He said, “Unlike many, who indulge in ‘Parrot cry of socialism’, I have no property of my own. Before you talk of socialism, you must ask yourself, how much wealth you have created by your labour. If you have created nothing, the parrot would have flown, and the cage would be empty. By experience, I am convinced that what is necessary for us, is to learn how to produce more wealth and thereafter, think what to do with it. What the country needs is not “Parrot cry of socialism” but unity and strength. Patel asked the people to realize why England took a very long time to become socialist and why America made no mention of it even now.

Views of Gandhiji, ‘The Father Of the Nation’

Gandhiji also said, “Socialism will not come by occupying positions of power and by delivering speeches from the platform.” Gandhiji appreciated socialist leaders desire to bring about equality of living standard in society. But advised them first to come together, think what was in the best interest of the country and set people on to constructive work. Giving practical advice to do selfless service to the people and to ensure the straightest and quickest way to achieve a socialist order, Gandhiji said, “ If you wish to establish socialism, there is only one way, in which it can be done. Go and live among the poor in villages, live as they live, be one with village people, work for eight hours daily, use only village made goods and articles even in your personal lives, remove illiteracy among village people”.

Entire population cannot be accommodated in power echelons – Equality combined with social justice does not mean that every-body should share political power equally. 900 million people cannot be accommodated in power echelons of the government. It means a harmonious partnership between the public and the Government officials. Every-one should do one’s duties sincerely and contribute for social cause according to one’s capacity. Good governance means managing effectively the common affairs of individual citizens and institutions, be it public or private, Without any bias, continuously conflicting interests and diverse needs of different sections of society should be looked-after.

Constitution on social justice

When the Constitution was framed in 1950, the words, “Socialism” or “Socialist democracy” were not included in it. It mentioned only “To secure to all its citizen economic justice and equality of status and opportunity”. The influence of the socialistic principles is visible in the Constitutional directives to the Government to: –

 Provide adequate means of livelihood to all its citizens,
 Distribute material resources for common good,
 Avoid concentration of wealth and means of production in the hands of a few, Right to work,
 Equal pay for equal work, to both men and women,
 Living wages for all workers, protection of workers especially children,
 Humane conditions of work, and
 Provide for right to education and public assistance.

Word “Socialist” as qualifying the Republic, added in 1975

It was after the death of Sardar Patel that Congress Government bent heavily towards socialist policies. It declared its goal in the form of “Socialistic pattern of society” and subsequently “Democratic socialism” under Nehru’s leadership. The word “Socialist” as qualifying the Republic, was added in 1975, through 42nd Amendment Act by Indira Gandhi’s government, giving it almost the highest place in the name of equality and “Remove Poverty”. However, it was followed in such a way, that it had done more damage than good.

Exercise of power

The problem of socialism is of performance, not of faith, and the price paid by the nation for this faith has been efficiency and its future prosperity. The change centralized the planning, controls and ownership leading to abuse of power and “Grab more power” attitude. It closed its economy to the world, nationalized industries and services, initiated rigid controls on the private sector and created monopolies in the public sector. In the name of socialism, it created a domineering State controlling the smallest detail of the economic and social life of the people. People were made pigmies and enslaved by politicians, planners and bureaucrats. It did not wipe out poverty, nor created effective distributive system nor equality, but it had led almost to the loss of economic liberty. The political system increased corruption, inefficiency and red-tape. It created a closed, centralized and unproductive system, which suppressed growth. In the name of Welfare State, the Government acquired extraordinary powers to exercise arbitrary control over massive resources. The excessive control made people gradually loose their motivation for hard work. An unfettered market system led to grave economic inequalities, which got transformed into political inequalities.

India practiced so far only phony, fake and tainted social justice

What India has practiced, so far, is a phony, fake and tainted social justice. It has created the politics of appeasement and vote banks, destroyed the work culture, and encouraged separatism everywhere in the society. It has jammed the wheels of morality and conscience. It has developed tentacles of corruption, scams, scandals and callousness in almost every sphere. J Krishnamurthy said, “Working for social welfare is to fill water into a pail that has holes. The more water is poured in it, the more it pours out and the pail remains empty.” The great lesson of the 20th Century, which has been learnt the hard way, is that the government of a nation should not become so beneficent that it undermines people’s will to help themselves and tends to develop inaction and parasitism.

‘Sabka saath, sabka vikaas’ –  All the citizens of India work together to take the nation ahead. Therefore, the government of the nation is not expected to discriminate against any one. The deprived individuals belonging to economically weaker families of any caste, community or region including upper castes, should get help in the form of affirmative action. But in order to garner votes, steps to appease any caste or community should be avoided by the party in power, opposition or other regional political parties.

Principle of Efficiency

Pr. Betielle comments, “None knows, where the struggle for social justice ends and the scramble for power begins. But one thing is definite, that in between the casualty becomes merit and efficiency”. The principle of efficiency comes into direct collision with the methods adopted to bring the downtrodden into the power corridors. A policy aimed at welfare, which forgets efficiency and growth, neither achieves welfare, nor efficiency nor growth. Similarly any policy aiming only on efficiency and growth, to the neglect of welfare, causes so much unrest, that nation will achieve neither efficiency nor growth, nor indeed welfare.

Article 335 of the Constitution – With the growing expectations of various emerging groups, too much consciousness about one’s rights, spread of education and awareness among general masses, the challenges before government have become very complex in nature. While the administrative work requires the services of bright meritorious, hardworking and sincere people, Reservation favours laxity in appointments/recruitment of officials. Any laxity in the qualifications of officials could lead to inefficient or mal-administration and substandard services to general public. The private sector survives and prospers, only because it does not allow substandard working. It picks up the best talent available in the country, from educational institutions itself, by conducting campus interviews. While dealing with Reservation Policy, the framers of the Constitution were concerned about the efficiency of administration. That is why, there is Article 335. The way the Reservation Policy is being implemented affects adversely the efficiency of the institution.

Variables on which efficiency depends – Efficiency of any organization depends on:-

 Stress on Quality,
 Merit, and
 Work-culture

• Stress on Quality – Quality is never an accident nor is there any short-cut to it. It is always the result of high intention, sincere effort, intelligent direction and skilled execution. It represents the wise choice between many alternatives. Quality or efficiency is more needed in government sector than any other in order to achieve desired targets within time and cost parameters and provide good service to public at large. There could be no prosperity for the nation as a whole, unless and until efficiency is ensured in all its activities, be it innovation in administration, economic or social reforms, establishment of institution or implementation of developmental programs. The nation has to develop an uncompromising attitude on efficiency and quality management. In a product, it is easier to monitor and ensure quality at all stages, than to judge the efficiency of administration.

How to judge quality? – Administrative process operates on heterogeneous human variables. It is operated on by a group of personnel with time-varying abilities through a time-varying and updated tasks/responsibility. Creativity, originality, vision and innovative ability, the desirable attributes of efficient administration, are difficult to assess for the lack of quantitative methodologies or qualitative procedures. The efficiency, quality and attainments in administration are quite often judged through evaluation of performance of officials rather than through the achievements of targets.

 Team-work for efficient working, a must – Efficiency definitely requires teamwork. The team, at every level, should be up to the mark. For efficient and effective administration, the performance of the service as a whole should not only be of high quality, but also be reliable, friendly and cost effective. Reservation Policy has sown the seeds of separatism in the cadre of administrative officers too. It blocks mutual help, mutual trust and mutual respect in administrative work.

Regular supply of high level manpower, properly educated and trained – For providing an efficient administration, the government requires a regular supply of high level manpower, properly educated and trained. The development of the nation depends not only on the optimal utilization of physical, natural and financial resources, but human and intellectual resources as well. Among man, material and money, the maximum importance should be given to men, because man is the instrument, which gives highest possible returns and makes the proper utilization of other resources a reality. Therefore, the basic requirement for efficiency is ‘the man’ with merit.

Reservation Policy compromise with efficiency – Reservation Policy has made compromise with efficiency in administration and developmental process. Such a step, along with many other reasons, has been taking the nation to perpetual Backwardness. Ju stice Gajendra Gadkar had cautioned long ago, “It must not be forgotten that efficiency in administration is of paramount importance, that it would be unwise and un-permissible to make any Reservation at the cost of efficiency in administration…”. C Rajagopalachari has warned the nation, “Short sighted favoritism and concessions, to produce contentment among classes and castes, will be short lived and will deteriorate into a constant pondering to intrigues and factions, if we do not look to real efficiency.”

Ill-effects of this compromise – Objective of improving the status of Backwards could not be done by lowering the standards of governance, especially when the nation is passing through a very difficult time. The net-effect of this compromise is, that economy is in shambles, coffers empty, inflation and price-rise touching new heights, law and order position disturbed and divisive forces getting stronger every day. Confucius has rightly said “When it is obvious that goals cannot be reached, don’t adjust the goals, adjust the action steps.”

Work Culture

It is alleged that besides other factors, Reservation policy adds in deterioration of work culture in the government sector. It ultimately effects the efficiency of administration adversely. The work culture of an office depends on the caliber of its employees, freedom of purposeful working, active involvement of the employees in decision making, cooperation of colleagues, an open, impartial, transparent evaluation of performance, encouragement to good performance and reward for efficiency etc. It is said that Reservation policy has made even competent persons among them lazy and complacent. Those, who get positions as a matter of right without much efforts, develop a habit of not working hard and do not value the dignity of labour. The government, which believes in social justice and creating jobs for the people, never bothers to create systems to make them work too.

Many Government employees are appointed just to lessen the problem of growing numbers of unemployed. Many government employees just withdraw salary every month without responsibility and enough work at their hands. The glorification of white collared jobs and contempt for some kind of work has eroded the dignity of labour immensely. How to put people to work is a riddle, nobody can solve. Calling certain menial jobs inferior or unclean and unsavory and asking people to withdraw from it, is something not rational. If the women, who clean the night soil of the children and ill persons in the family and keep the house tidy and worth living for human beings, also start thinking the same way, what would happen to mankind? The economic and other social needs of modern society are multitudinous. These are divided in to many tasks. Each task is assigned to individuals or group of individuals according to their capacity – learning, aptitude and attitude.

The Principle of Merit

 Super symbolic electronic revolution – At present, the world has been passing through a great revolution – a super symbolic electronic revolution. In it, the changes are too swift for a human being to adjust accordingly. It demands an extra intelligent network. Swift changes, rapid advancement of knowledge, growing awareness of people and new technologies in computers and communications have changed the complexion of work culture beyond recognition in less than a decade. Being so, the modern administration needs more than anything – a high capacity to understand the current waves and changes and ability to adjust harmoniously with changed circumstances. How can one expect that candidates selected on relaxed standards would be able to face the enormous changes?
 The principle of “Meritocracy” gives people access to power at low cost and with honor. It also saves them from manipulations or misuse of money or muscle power. Few years back, it has ensured the entry of middle class people, who neither have capital nor landed property, entered into civil services through competitive examination. A merit based entrance examination into civil services gave them opportunity/incentive to work hard, gain knowledge and get access to power.
Merit neglected in the name of social-justice – For last four-five decades, the “Merit” in Indian education and administrative system has been neglected in the name of equity and social justice. Weak commitment of authorities to merit, efficiency, productivity, and innovation has slowed down the progress of the nation. Therefore, any program or reform must strengthen the foundation of meritocracy through sound system of education and training, ensuring equal opportunity and honour to all. Earlier the opportunities for joining modern callings were based on principle of merit and appreciation for knowledge. After developing their faculties, people with talent and enterprise competed on equal footings with white men and made a place for themselves in powerful institutions of governance. For example, even British rulers opinion about Indian administrator VP Menon was quite high. Lord Mountbettan, the last British Governor General in India, is on record to have called VP Menon as a man of unusual caliber. In him, he found a great and good character merged with a first class brain, possessing power of logical deduction and the ability to gauge the future with a rare degree of accuracy. VP is remembered even now as one of the principal architect of Independent India. He was the master hand that integrated the princely states into the Indian Union. Robert Fulghum also comments about him, “Menon was a rarity – a self-made man. No degree from Cambridge or Oxford graced his wall… He talked his way into a job as a clerk in the Indian administration and his rise was meteoric – largely because of his integrity and brilliant skills in working with both Indian and British officials in a productive way.”

Trend of mediocrity – It is said that an efficient administration requires right type of men at right places. Toffler suggests that “Power” is interplay of three main variables – force, money and knowledge. “Force” was dominant factor in the agricultural societies, “Wealth” in the industrial societies, now as a nation moves into “Information technology” era, the stress will be on knowledge. Without knowledge, it will become very difficult to achieve something worthwhile now. Being so, any nation, which dreams to emerge, as a world power cannot afford to ignore “Knowledge” and “Merit”.
Preference to a person with inferior talent over a person with superior talent, on the ground of Reservation, is not only unjust, against the principle of equality, but also against national interests. Reservation in employment contemplates putting those men in responsible positions, who are not adequately qualified for the job, and in the process, power passes on from “Meritocracy” to “Mediocrity”, which means sub-standard service to general public.
Make weaker sections capable to handle the weapon of power properly – Instead of making administrative machinery sick, by giving additional weapons in weak hands, it is desirable that the hands should be made strong enough to hold and use the weapon properly through education, awareness and training. Then and then only, without any outside support, the weak will become strong to pick up the weapon properly in their hands and use it judiciously and protect themselves and their near and dear ones from oppression and exploitation. It will make them confident citizens to live with honour and dignity along with others.
Talents in India – Today India has the second largest pool of scientific and technical manpower. There is no dearth of talents in other areas too. Lately in 1980s and 1990s in corporate and financial world, the first generation of businessmen, entrepreneurs and managers have demonstrated their capabilities and earned their reputation in global market. Lately in 1980s and 1990s in corporate and financial world, the first generation of businessmen, entrepreneurs and managers have demonstrated their capabilities and earned their reputation in global market.
Brain drain – At present, Reservation has shaken the confidence of meritorious students in the government and its work culture. Fifty percent Reservation in government jobs snatches half of the opportunities for deserving candidates. The bright and intelligent people compete for 50% of jobs in government – the left over after the reservation. A medical student share his feelings as, “I applied for civil medical job and was second best medical graduate… Naturally I felt cheated by my own country (when he could not get the job) and as a disillusioned doctor left the country of my birth (in 1970) … A country, where merit has no value … can never prosper. One can not do away with injustice by creating more injustice.”
They prefer private sector or go abroad in search of greener pastures. At present, many of them are making valuable contribution to US space program and Silicon Valley’s electronic breakthroughs. Abroad, they find a creative outlet for their talents/skills.

Every year a large number of highly trained Indians go abroad and are settled there. It is a matter of national concern. The reasons of brain drain, are as following: –

 Wider and better job opportunities abroad,

 Good initial opportunities of career,

 Exposure of knowledge,

 Good working conditions,

 Comfortable standard of living, and,

 Escape from stifling and unresponsive working conditions at home.

Principle of unity – Reservations undermines the principle of unity. The origin of Reservation Policy lies in “Divide and rule”. It has always divided the workforce by creating new political identities. Earlier British rulers got the benefit of this disunity through “Communal Awards” and now Reservation has become life-saving prescription for recent politicians to garner votes and create vote banks. Reservation generates a feeling of separatism among people. The access to power is sought by raking up emotional issues. Loyalty of a particular group (or groups) is earned by inciting people of one section against other sections of the society. All this entails fractured mandate, negligence of principles, ideologies and national interest, weak Governments, perpetual fights, increase in bitterness, suspicion against each-others and polarization on caste and communal lines, Repeated fractured mandate after l990 confirms that instead of uniting people, divisive politics has taken firm roots in India due to Reservation Policy.

Spreading Casteism

In reality, still caste continues to be an individual’s primary identity. But entry of caste in electoral politics has divided the society.  Developments like spread of casteism in politics, collective caste identities or rivalry between various groups do not have a very long history. Caste tensions had a self-limiting character earlier, because caste in terms of social structure was a very local institution. Varna model gave an abstract idea of social hierarchy. Therefore, the conflict based on caste ties or caste identification had a self-limiting quality. This rivalry was the result of British design, pursued to divide Indians. Initially, the British tried to convert Indians into Christianity. Their conversion activities were focused on upper castes. They thought that once the upper castes opt for Christianity, other castes would follow. But it did not work, because of the strong character of caste Hindus and faith in their religion.

1860 onwards, British missionaries made the lower castes their target for conversion, who, they found, could easily be swept in large numbers. In order to influence them, British highlighted the evils of caste system and portrayed the upper caste as their exploiters. The result was anti-Brahmin movement of early twentieth century. The gap between upper castes and lower strata of society further increased due to land revenue system, which gave birth to economic disparities. On one hand, were the upper castes, having direct or indirect control over land and its produce, on the other, the masses including craftsmen, who worked for them.

However, after the independence, the government tried to reduce the disparities through various legislation. Recently, caste has become the main malady of Indian politics. The renewed emphasis on Reservation with the implementation of Mandal formula in 1990 once again whipped the caste tension. The forward castes are fearing reverse discrimination and are withdrawing gradually themselves from public scene. The anti-upper caste wave forgets that the nation also needs the depth of forward castes. They are the agents of national development and national unity. While most of the Backward groups are localized, the upper castes are spread all over India, linking all parts of the nation from Kanyakumari to Kashmir.

Polarized the Indian society along caste lines – To a great extent, Reservation Policy , its eligibility criteria being based on caste, is responsible for polarizing the people along caste-line. There is a sharp socio-political divide. Reservations have carved out a new caste alignment by politically dividing people into forward castes, scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, other backward castes and minority. The authorities, while implementing or extending Reservations are ignoring, the sweeping changes that have occurred in the caste system and its equations throughout the country, after independence. With the sincere efforts of reformers, process of modernization, education, introduction of railways, communication, etc., before the Independence and liberty and Constitutional fundamental rights after the Independence have contributed in lessening the rigidities of caste system and gradually wearing out the caste prejudices in social arena to a great extent.

Supreme Court in 1992 had observed in Indira Sawhney judgement on Mandal Commission the government should consider criteria other than caste for identifying backward classes. Now NCBC chairman, Justice V Eswaraiah said that occupation-cum-income could be one such option. Now the commission is ready to include economically backward classes (EBC) as well under quota ambit, noting that occupation like caste is also a marker of backwardness. EBCs also face the similar hardships without the economic means.

Today the political power has already shifted in favour of Backwards, almost completely in the South and in massive strides in Bihar and U.P. OBC castes has emerged as a dominant force with Zamindari abolition, land reforms and green revolution of l960s. They control about 5l% of the land in the North as against about 39% retained by large landlords. They constitute about 40% of the legislative strength. In modern society, where social status is judged by economic and political power, they are the strongest castes having replaced the upper castes as landowners. Scheduled castes are also making concerted efforts to mobilize themselves and secure their upward mobility. The uplift of OBCs, SCs and STs and migration of many lower castes people to urban areas brought changes in the earlier social symmetry.

Venom against upper castes – The critics of Reservation allege spread of venom against caste-Hindus and forward-castes. The leaders of casteist political parties forget that whatever good they find in the Constitution i.e. removal of untouchability, establishment of equality and social justice or special consideration for the downtrodden – in the social reforms or in the liberal policies of the Government, is the result of the awakened conscience of the forward castes itself. Whatever the Government has done, so far, has been accepted and acclaimed by them, sometimes readily and sometimes with resistance. At present, the forward castes contribute their share through taxes, active participation in formulating developmental polices of the country and working through NGOs for the amelioration of downtrodden. All sections of the society will always remember contributions made by Gandhi, Nehru, Patel, Rajendra Prasad, Tilak, Gokhale, Justice Ranade, Rammohan Roy, Ishwar Chandra Vidya Sagar, Dayanand, Vivekanand, Ambedkar and many others with respect. Only the politicians pursuing sectional interests should stop spreading venom against upper castes and making increasing use of caste in politics.

‘Backward castes’ glued to castes identity more firmly -The advocates of Reservations bitterly criticize caste system and desire to establish a casteless society. They want to annihilate caste system, but have failed to find a viable alternative to it. The lower castes are glued to castes more firmly than upper caste. In a particular case, a BC officer complained that in the office, an upper caste peon refused to bring a cup of tea for him or clean his cup. One day, when this officer went to his colleague’s room, the later called a peon belonging to a caste lower than the BC officer, to bring two cups of tea. The BC officer hesitated in drinking the tea and made some excuse. Two things came out clearly – the upper caste officer had no hesitation in drinking tea brought by a low caste peon, whereas the the BC officer had reservations. It shows that Backward castes are not free from caste prejudices and treat persons belonging to castes lower than their own, with contempt.

Past Experience – Politicians with vested interest think that Reservation policy could be milked at will to gain political mileage and push the real issues in the background conveniently. Failure of Justice Party in 1926 elections or the fate of Janata Party in 1991 elections shows, that they cannot fool the people for long. Experience of a century old Reservations in the South and half a century old at national level shows that still: –

  • As Times of India (May4,2016, p. 15) reports Vijay Sampla on 3rd May 2016 has informed Lok Sabha “The centre has included 124 and 104 more castes into the list of OBCs and SCs categories respectively. The highest number of inclusion among SCs are from UP 17, Bihar 16, Haryana 15 . Chandigarh 14, and Orissa 13. In OBC list 91 inclusions are from Telengana, followed by 11 in MP and 9 from Andhra. Ever since 2010, 656 castes were included in OBC category.
  • More than half the Indian population lives below poverty line, though official figures are about 40%, about half of the population is illiterate. Official rate of literacy is only 52% after 50 years of independence. The number of educated people is much less. More than 60% of Indian children are mal-nourished and about 7% of all infants die shortly after birth. Less than 30% of populace has access to sanitation and clean drinking water. Maximum number of poor, and people living below poverty line are in the south excluding Kerala.
  • Reservation policy has not benefited those, for whom it was introduced. The masses are still there, where they were before the introduction of Reservation – deprived and fighting for their survival, and
  • Modernization process has made the poor people destitute, living now without the support system, which the traditional societies provided earlier.

These are a few examples of non-governance.

Who gets benefited? – One of the major contentions against the Reservation policy is on account of the identification of its beneficiaries.

Supreme Court in 1992 had observed in Indira Sawhney judgement on Mandal Commission the government should consider criteria other than caste for identifying backward classes. Now NCBC chairman, Justice V Eswaraiah said that occupation-cum-income could be one such option. Now the commission is ready to include economically backward classes (EBC) as well under quota ambit, noting that occupation like caste is also a marker of backwardness. EBCs also face the similar hardships without the economic means.

According to Eswariah, Socio-Economic- Caste census provides a critical tool in deciding new categories for reservations since the survey gives a comprehensive status of a household’s economic status, occupation and caste. “Among non-OBCs, if there are claims to backwardness, we can check the socio- economic census and decide on their inclusion in the backward list.” Such a step will require sub-categorization of OBC into sub-groups of castes based on their socio-economic status and apportioning 27% quota among them in proportion to their population. When there are sub-groups, an EBC can be included in the appropriate category says NCBC chairman Justice Eswaraiah. NCBC aims to ensure equitable distribution of quota benefits, since some dominant OBCS are cornering the quota benefits at the expense of their weaker brethren. It has proposed division of OBC List into “backward classes”, “Most backwards” and “extremely backwards”. (TOI, p 11, Dec 7, 2015)

The Reservation policy is supposed to benefit the submerged and deprived people. Instead it helps the elite of some castes declared backward. Caste-based Reservation benefits only a few individuals not necessarily the needy ones and not the entire group. It has been observed that the same families, which had come up after the reformatory process of late 19th century or with the introduction of the protectionist polices, have been cornering the Reservation benefits again and again. The individuals benefited by Reservation are usually cut off from their social bases. In the name of social justice and equitable distribution of power and dignity, vested interests have been created and the masses, reeling under poverty, is being cheated.

In 1990, the National Center for Human Settlement and Environment, Bhopal, conducted a detailed study in the districts of Betul, Chindwara, Seoni, Balaghat etc., in Madhya Pradesh. It shows that the biggest land owners are Kurmis and Pawars. There are very few Rajput, Brahmin, Kayastha or Baniya land owners in those districts. In the Tawa Command Area of Hoshangabad district, the biggest land owners are Jats and Vishnois. As it is, the Kurmis, Pawars and Vishnois have been identified as Backwards. In Narsimpur district, Lodhis, who appear in the OBC list, are the biggest land owners. If an honest district by district survey is conducted all over India, it may be found that in terms of economic and social status, many of the people belonging to groups listed as backward class are much better-off than many of the upper-caste people, in different regions. Many well established communities have been included in Backward caste list. Mr. Vishva Bandhu garduated with MBA degree from Eastern Michigan University and works as a Deputy Commissioner, Income Tax. He says, one day, “I was pleasently surprised to hear… that as per listings of the Mandal Commission, I was Backward… My being treated as a Backward is nothing, but a slur on my name and that I do’nt wish to be listed as Backward.” Like him, there are many people belonging to different castes, for whom their inclusion in Backward class list came as a shock.
There is a large number of people, for whom, 100% job reservation makes no difference. In a study conducted in 1990, the National Center for Human Settlement and Environment, Bhopal, shows that in the tribal area of Jabalpore, Mandla, Raigarh, Sarguja and Siddhi districts of Madhya Pradesh, the literacy rate is only 5.6%, the female literacy rate 1.03%, the average land holding is less than two hectres per khatedar, in the case of 75% of agriculturists. 20% tribals are totally land-less… They have no access to help, communication, education or other ciivc facilities. 85% of the population has an income below the poverty line. However, only 8% of the rural poor had any access to the anti-poverty program of the Government. These statistics assume vital importance, when one analyses, what the policy of Reservation has done for these people? It leads to think, whom is the Government and the politicians trying to fool? It is for the lower castes themselves understand that Reservation does not serve their permanent interest. In real life, neither it is possible, to create a totally equalitarian society, as is demanded by the supporters of Reservation, nor power and authority could be distributed equally at will. It could only be acquired through one’s own efforts. Therefore, people should discourage those leaders, who give false hopes to people.

Winding up

Process of dereservation should start – Earlier some sections of society were lagged behind the forward castes in education and employment, not because they were deprived of the opportunities, but because they did not see any immediate use for it. Now they have realized the worth of education and bureaucratic powers, they should be allowed to come up on their own. Dr. Yogendra Singh, Dean of Political Science in JNU says, “Forty years have seen enormous differentiation in class and caste division. Caste should not be the Central element in dispensing social justice. In fact, there should be a process of gradual dis-legitimization of caste by finding scientific methods for the exit of SC and ST members from the reserved quota.” There existed a case to end the quota business in l960 itself. Not only that the restriction has been allowed to continue till today, but to multiply irrationally. The dependence of caste for the purpose of Reservation has also increased, because the politicians are unable to look beyond electoral compulsions.

Division of labor – Division of labour according to the attitude and aptitude of individuals – be it menial or intellectual – is natural, and just.. Only freedom of opportunity to explore the pastures of one’s choice should be there for everyone, which has already been given by the Constitution itself, in 1950. Each type of work has its own value and contributes to total growth of society. No work is superior or inferior. Only the hard work, devotion to duty and sincere efforts are required for progress. At present, many people engaged in professions like tailors, carpenters, dyers and dry-cleaners, owners of hotels and restaurants, owners of video libraries, scooter and taxi drivers even paanwalas are doing much better than educated unemployed, who have left their traditional occupation, in the lure of Government jobs in urban areas or in desire to earn quick and easy money. The key to the success in any area appears to be the very same hardwork, excellence, maintenance of standard or quality and entrepreneurial skills. An excellent plumber is more admirable for the society than an incompetent administrator or scientist.

Development needs coordinated working of all sections of society – A society grows and develops like an organic body, in which each organ is equally important and valuable, but is assigned a different function to perform. The coordinated working of all the parts together keeps the body fit and alive. True, the weaker parts of the body need special care, but not at the expense of healthy organs of the body. Similarly, a society functions smoothly and moves constantly towards development, if all its constituents work in harmony with a feeling of mutual help and trust. Both weak and strong sections of the society are taken care-of by the State authorities properly. No work is superior or inferior in comparison to any work. There should be a balanced distribution of work between them. Each type of work is valuable and contributes to the total growth of the society. Undue weight or prestige given to any particular work does not improve the quality of every day life of its people, as has happened in Japan. Too much attention of the Government on economic and technical work has made its people miserable even in midst of affluence and abundance. The Japanese have created an economic miracle. The per capita income in Japan is one of the highest in the world. It is a world leader in technology, its electronic and automobile industries being the wonder of the world. But Japanese are frustrated as they are missing something vital in life i.e. quality of life. Japan is prospering, Japanese are not. Therefore, due attention should be given to all kinds of work. Each and every section of the society and its work should be acknowledged, as indispensable and proper care should be given to all, for the balanced growth of society as a whole. The society as a whole needs the services of all the sections of the society. There are many advantages of division of labour, like it : –

 Increases productivity. A lone worker has many limitations,
 Increases dexterity and skill. Practice makes an individual perfect. After repetitive performance of the same task, a worker becomes an expert,
 Inventions are facilitated. While working, new ideas often occur leading to inventions,
 Introduction of machinery is facilitated. When a man is doing the same job over and over again, he tries to think of some mechanical device to relieve himself,
 Saves time. A worker has to do only one process or part of process. Therefore, less time is needed by him to learn a specialized process,
 Employment is diversified. It increases the number and variety of jobs,
 Large scale production in quantity as well as in quality becomes possible, which is economical too, and
 Under division of labour, workers are so distributed among various jobs that each worker is put in the right place.

At the end it can be said that some people dream of success and spend their energy in finding out easier way out, while others wake up and work hard at it.

Emerging economic super powers concentrated on development of human resources – The new economic super powers, Japan and Germany and nations like South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore etc., have risen to their present status of economic affluence within a relative short period, mainly because these nations concentrated primarily on the development of their human resources and insulated their economic processes from political pressures. They encouraged a relatively higher egalitarian distribution of incomes and lowered levels of socio-economic inequalities. Human Resource Development with high levels of education and skills led them to overcome problems of poverty, illiteracy, and hunger, unemployment, inflation and population growth. India lags behind, in spite of having talented and industrious people and good natural resources (fertile land, water, sunshine and various minerals) in abundance, lags behind, only because of under-utilization of its most valued resource- human capital. People are the nation’s most basic resource in terms of productivity, creativity, innovation, economic achievements, social success and technological developments. Only their energies have to be channelized towards national goals.

In the end it can be said that the government of a democratic country, for its prosperity can guarantee equality of opportunity, and not the equality of conditions. And as Swami Vivekanand has said, “No amount of politics would be of any avail, until the masses in India are once more well educated, well fed and well cared for.”

October 29, 2017 Posted by | Reservation/Affirmative action program | | Leave a comment

Similarities between Reservations in government jobs and story of ‘an ant and ‘a grasshopper’

“Work is worship. There is no substitute for hard-work”

Introduction

The similarity between the story of an ant and a grass hopper and present scenario of sharp contrast and disparities existing in the position of well-educated, enlightened people or intelligentsia and forward sections of Indian society, mostly belonging to upper castes, (demographically small in size like ant of this story) and poor masses (mostly belonging to lower castes and demographically large in numbers, like a grass-hopper of this story). During the whole of 19th and first half of the 20th centuries, people mostly belonging to upper castes, shaped the course of events for decades to come and even beyond by taking initiative to challenge the imperial power. They faced all the brunt of the British ruler’s anger, while engaged in the national and reform movements, worked hard, made many sacrifices to break the vicious web created by the British rulers for economic exploitation and their intrusion into Indian culture on one hand and on the other internal weaknesses of Indian society engulfed in evil practices and superstitions.

Old story of the ant and the grasshopper with new interesting twist (Quoted from rajesha.ind@gmail.com)

Old version of the story

The ant works hard in the withering heat all summer long building his house and laying up supplies for the winter. The grasshopper thinks the ant’s a fool and laughs & dances & plays the summer away. Come winter, the ant is warm and well fed. The grasshopper has no food or shelter, so he dies out the cold.

Modern version of the story

The ant works hard in the withering heat all summer long, building his house and laying up supplies for the winter. The grasshopper thinks the ant’s a fool and laughs & dances & plays the summer away. Masses have been happy with the small favors bestowed on them by the rulers and short-term benefits by giving them an opportunity to be equal in social status with the advanced sections of society. They are totally unmindful of the after-effects and cruel intentions of the rulers to “divide” the Indian society and “rule” it as long as possible.

Come winter, the shivering grasshopper calls a press conference and demands to know why the ant should be allowed to be warm and well fed while others are cold and starving. NDTV, BBC,CNN show up to provide pictures of the shivering grasshopper next to a video of the ant in his comfortable home with a table filled with food. The World is stunned by the sharp contrast.

The present political scenario of the country as how the government deals with the issues controlling the fate of the nation and millions of its citizens is quite similar to it. How can this be that this poor grasshopper is allowed to suffer so? Arundhati Roy stages a demonstration in front of the ant’s house. Medha Patkar goes on a fast along with other grasshoppers demanding that grasshoppers be relocated to warmer climates during winter.

Amnesty International and Koffi Annan criticize the Indian Government for not upholding the fundamental rights of the grasshopper. The Internet is flooded with online petitions seeking support to the grasshopper (many promising Heaven and Everlasting Peace for prompt support as against the wrath of God for non-compliance).

Opposition MP’s stage a walkout. Left parties call for “Bharat Bandh” in West Bengal and Kerala demanding a Judicial Enquiry. CPM in Kerala immediately passes a law preventing Ants from working hard in the heat so as to bring about equality of poverty among ants and grasshoppers. Lalu Prasad allocates one free coach to Grasshoppers on all Indian Railway Trains, aptly named as the ’Grasshopper Rath’.

Finally, the Judicial Committee drafts the Prevention of Terrorism Against Grasshoppers Act [POTAGA]”, with effect from the beginning of the winter. Arjun Singh makes Special Reservation for Grass Hopper in educational Institutions & in Government Services. The ant is fined for failing to comply with POTAGA and, having nothing left to pay his retroactive taxes, his home is confiscated by the Government and handed over to the grasshopper.

In a ceremony covered by NDTV, Arundhati Roy calls it “a triumph of justice”. Lalu calls it ‘Socialistic Justice’. CPM calls it the ‘revolutionary resurgence of the downtrodden’. Koffi Annan invites the grasshopper to address the UN General Assembly.

Many years later … The ant has since migrated to the US and set up a multibillion dollar company in silicon valley. 100’s of grasshoppers still die of starvation despite reservation somewhere in India. As a result of losing a lot of hard working ants and feeding the grasshoppers, India remains -a developing country!!

Demand for national solidarity

On the issue to uplift of weaker sections of society, observations, comments and suggestions of Kaka Kalelkar, Chairman of the First Central backward Class Commission, 1955, goes well with the story told above. In his note of dissent, ha had expressed his views on the issue of Reservation in class I, II, III and IV Services of  Government of India.

  • According to him, “National solidarity in a democratic set up demands Government to recognize only two ends – the individual at one end and the nation as a whole at the other. Nothing should be encouraged to organize itself in between these two ends to the detriment of the freedom of the individual and solidarity of the nation. All communal and denominational organizations and groupings of lesser and narrower units have to be watched carefully, so that they do not jeopardize the national solidarity and do not weaken the efforts of the nation to serve the various elements in the body politic with equity. Mutual help, mutual respect and mutual trust are the touchstone, on which all communal and denominational activities will be tested and anything that undermines it, will be expected and brought to book.” …
  • “Communalism and casteism are bound to destroy the unity of the nation and narrow down the aspiration of our people.” I
  • “The special concessions and privileges accorded to Hindu castes acted as a bait and bribe inciting Muslim and Christian Society to revert to caste and caste prejudices and the healthy social effect by Islam and Christianity were thus rendered null and void.” (Para iv)
  • When to bestow special concessions? – In his note of dissent, Kaka clarifies that “It is only when a community is proved to be working  under a special handicap and is not allowed to freely function as a citizen, that the state may intervene and make a special provision for the advancement of such under-privileged and handicapped communities or persons… A general formula for helping all persons to whatever caste or community, they may belong, should be made.” (Para viii)It is not enough to prove that one community is regarded inferior by another. The Christian may look down the Jews and the Jews may retaliate with the same feelings. The Brahmins ‘Learned section of society’ may regard ‘Banias’ (business community) as inferior and the ‘Bania’, in his turn, may regard a ‘Brahmin’ as a mere social dependent. Such opinions and prejudices do not come in the way of the full growth of the backward communities either educationally or economically….. It is for them to make necessary efforts for their prosperity. They will naturally receive whatever help is available to all citizens.” (Para vii and viii)
  • Views on caste structure – “We are not blind to the good intentions and wisdom of our ancestors, who built the caste structure. It was perhaps the only way, through which they could teach the nation to forget and rise above racial clan-ship, tribal and similar biological groupings of society and to accept a workable arrangement of social existence based on cultural hierarchy and occupational self-government.” iii
  • Contribution of ‘Upper Classes’ in uplift of weaker sections – He said “It would be well, if representatives of the Backward classes remembered that whatever good they find in the Constitution and the liberal policy of the Government, is the result of the awakened conscience of the upper classes themselves. Whatever Government is doing by way of atonement is readily accepted and acclaimed by the nation as a whole. The upper classes have contributed their share in formulating the policies of the Government Removal of untouchability, establishment of equality and social justice, special consideration for backward classes, all these elements found place in the Constitution without a single voice of dissent from the upper classes.” iv
  • Need to introduce sound system of basic education – “If the backward communities have neglected education it is because they had no use for it. Now that they have discovered their mistakes, it is for them to make the necessary efforts for making the leeway…As far as the assistance in the matter of education for the backward classes, I am convinced that introduction of basic education in all the states with help the backward communities to cultivate self-confidence. They will also have a better chance of succeeding in open competition and having the special advantage of mixing with people and serving them, they will prove themselves better administrators and leaders of society.”v
  •  ‘Services are not meant for the servants but for the service of the society as a whole’ – He also said very clearly, “I am definitely against Reservations in Government services for any community for the simple reason that services are not meant for the servants but for the service of the society as a whole. Administration must have the services of the best men available in the land and this may be found in all the communities. Reservation of post for certain backward communities would be as strange as Reservation of patients for a particular doctor. The patients are not meant to supply adequate or proportionate clientele to all the doctors, whatever be their qualifications.’ vi

Suggestion

Criteria of backwardness other than caste – “It would have been better, if we would determine the criteria of backwardness on principles other than caste.” (Para vii) According to him, “caste test was repugnant to democracy and the objective “to create a casteless and classless society by perpetuating and encouraging caste divisions.” (Para viii)

Kaka Kalelkar concluded that giving an additional weapon in weak hands was no remedy. The remedies the commission had suggested in its main Report were worse than the evil, they were out to combat. In his letter forwarding the Report, Kalelkar remarked, “I am definitely against Reservation in Government Services for any community for the simple reason that services are meant for the service of society as a whole.”

Reference:

Note of dissent, Paras i, iii, iv, v, vi, vii and viii, Report of First Backward Class Commission, 1955.

 

October 26, 2017 Posted by | Uncategorized | Leave a comment

First step towards Reservation Policy in India

“A voyage of a thousand miles begin with a Single step. Make sure that the step is in right direction.”  A proverb

Introduction – In case of reservation policy/Affirmative Action Policy in India, the first step itself was taken  in the wrong direction during the imperialist British rule in India. Instead of its being taken for the amelioration of submerged sections of society, it had been taken with an ulterior motive to perpetuate its rule in India as long as possible by adopting the policies of ‘divide and rule’ and ‘balance the power’.

Issue – How can such a policy be successful in its mission, which was mooted with the intentions to create a split in the society?

A novel method to distribute and balance power – British Raj spread its Empire and perpetuated its rule by taking the path of discrimination. British rulers devised a novel method to distribute and balance power on ‘preferential basis’ in the form of ‘Communal Awards’. 1905 to 1940 was the period, when idea of Reservation/positive discrimination was conceived, experimented and established firmly. It opened up various channels of confrontation.

Competition to secure jobs in the government – In the near absence of industrial, commercial or social service activity, Indians depended on modern education for securing jobs or to earn their living with respectfully. This led to a keen competition between different sections of Indian society. Muslims and non-Brahmin castes resented dominance of Brahmins in advancement in education, administration and other modern callings. The British took advantage of it.

Beginning of the practice of ‘Preferences’ – To restrict Brahmin’s entry in Government jobs, to weaken national movement mainly guided by Brahmins and make it available to non-Brahmins communities, British rulers started practice of “Preferences” by giving them financial assistance and preferences in education and Government employment at local and provincial level. It served double purpose for them – getting credit for amelioration and protection of downtrodden and keeping natives busy in their in-fights.

Anti-Brahmin Movement in Madras – The outcome of Anti-Brahmin Movement started by Periyar in 1926, rejection of casteist policies by the people in 1991 and now the militancy of present Dalit Movement show that the first step taken in favour of reservation policy was not taken in the right direction. It has misled and officially divided the people of India into watertight compartments.

As an Affirmative Action Program, Reservation Policy should work for the sustainable development of the sub-merged sections. It should bring the submerged sections of society into the mainstream by making them strong enough to stand on their own feet. Instead the practice of preference, which later on gave birth to the Reservation policy, has made submerged sections so weak that they have not been able to sustain themselves, till now, without the  crutches of reservations and try tooth and nail to depend on it permanently.

Created vested interests for politicians – Leaving the discretion to continuance of Reservation policy on political authorities after Independence has made it convenient for political leaders  a weapon to create vote-banks for themselves and be in power. It is now based on political expediency, not on principles. Concern for downtrodden have been mixed up with gaining power. Distributive justice has been linked with fixing up quotas for different political groups.

Self-contradictory arguments in favour of continuing it indefinitely – The ideologies put forward in support for continuing quota system now are mostly self-contradictory, illogical, half-cooked and not based on present real life situations. It is presented before public by twisting or distorting the facts. On surface, everything appears fine, but actually Reservations on caste-basis has done a great damage to the unity of the nation. It has degenerated democracy into a number game and palliatives. It leaves a negative influence on national psyche.

The ideologies of Constitution framers run out of steam – The Constitution framers, at the time of Independence, dreamt to constitute India into a sovereign, secular Democratic Republic and to secure all its citizens justice, social, economic and political, liberty of thought, expression, belief and worship, equality of status and of opportunity and promote among all fraternity assuring dignity of individual and the unity and integrity of the nation. These ideologies have more or less run out of steam today.

Reverse discrimination, not a good solution – In the governance of a democratic country, discrimination of any kind – be it positive or negative – or anywhere is the most objectionable thing. It has become one of the big challenges before the government to reconcile the claims of growth with the claims of equity. With the spread of education and awareness, aspirations and demands of people are at rise. Growing needs and aspirations of the people as a whole, not of any specific section should be taken care of by the government without any bias.

The problem of discrimination can not be tackled by adopting the path of discrimination. Reservation works on the basis of reverse discrimination. It makes lower castes entitled to get preferential treatment by the government or be treated more than equals in different spheres. It has resulted in a tough competition amongst various castes to demand a lower status, so that they can also avail more facilities. The voice of upper castes mostly belonging to middle class or lower class is being continuously throttled mercilessly. They stand nowhere in present day vote-bank politics, because of their decreasing number and following sincerely family-planning norms. It has even not helped much the deserving candidates belonging to lower castes.

Comments of the Chairman of First Backward Class Commission – First Backward class Commission’s Chairman Kaka Kalelkar had very wisely advised the government in mid fifties, that “National solidarity in a democratic set up demands Government to recognize only two ends – the individual at one end and the nation as a whole at the other. Nothing should be encouraged to organize itself in between these two ends to the detriment of the freedom of the individual and solidarity of the nation.” All communal and denominational organizations and groupings of lesser and narrower units have to be watched carefully, so that they do not jeopardize the national solidarity and do not weaken the solidarity or efforts of the nation to serve the various elements in the body politic with equity.

It is dividing the society – The transformation of untouchables into Harijans, Depressed class and now Dalits is an example, where a fraction of society is increasingly distancing itself from the mainstream and establishing firmly its separate identity. A strong political will and courage is needed to finish all kinds of discriminatory attitudes, repressive laws and practices.

Ossification of caste-system fallen into the hands of power brokers and vote guzzlers – Officially recognizing the grouping of various castes or sub castes into bigger unbridgeable political lobbies for reservation purposes – Upper castes, Scheduled Castes, Scheduled tribes, Other Backward Class and Minorities can hardly be called a transformation of society. The stratification has been done in most insensitive manner and is based on negative exhortations, condemning all traditional values and structures. Reservations on the basis of caste has given the backwards an identity as a composite and powerful political pressure group. It has helped them to unite organise and fight vigorously for the seats of power. It may be called ossification of caste-system fallen into the hands of power brokers and vote guzzlers.

Undermines concept of ‘Merit’ in governance – Reservation or quota without merit undermines the universally accepted principle of organizing, regulating and distributing power, which endow democracy with effectiveness, legitimacy and dignity. It pushes into the background the real problem areas like population-explosion, poverty, inflation, deteriorated law and order situation, increasing violence or general coarsening of moral fiber of the Indian society.

Against the principle of natural ‘justice’ –  Justice ‘Social, economic and political’ never allows to punish somebody for the crimes committed by somebody else. The supporters of reservation claim that in return for centuries of suppression/oppression of the ancestors of lower castes on the basis of birth, present generation of upper castes is accountable and punishable and make reparations for sins/historical wrong done by their ancestors.

Meaning of wider participation – Wider participation in governance does not mean everybody sharing power equally. More than thousand million people can not be accommodated in power structure. It means a harmonious partnership between the public and the authorities responsible for governance. Governance has to be done on the basis of mutual help, mutual respect and mutual trust. Governance is a continuing process, through which conflicting interests and diverse needs of all the people are looked-after and a cooperative action is taken. Above all, spreading knowledge and awareness amongst masses are required – knowledge which is the source of power and is derived from sound education, and awareness which comes from information. True empowerment depends critically availability of information.

Equality can not be enforced – Equality can not be imposed or enforced by any outside agency or authority. Such a step may prove to be a cause of social unrest. It has to be in-built in the social economic and political system of a country. Policy of reservation can neither convert an iniquitous Society into an equitable one, nor does it help in any way the vulnerable, oppressed and submerged masses, who day in and day out suffer due to basic issues like poverty, unemployment, inflation, deteriorated law and order situation, no control over anti-social or misguided elements, or harassment/violence by insensitive but powerful lobby of that area etc.

The supporters of reservation give more importance to distribute seats of power on pro-rata basis through reservations rather than improving the capability and qualifications through education and training. Access to public office through Reservation is sought more with an aim to get throne/power/authority to rule and control over treasury/public funds.

Conclusion – It is not the Reservation, which is necessary. As Swami Vivekanand had said long long ago, “No amount of politics would be of any avail, until the masses in India are once more well educated, well fed and well cared for”.

October 26, 2017 Posted by | Reservation/Affirmative action program | Leave a comment

Discrimination, Dalits, equality, caste and quotas

“I am thankful to all those who said NO to me. It is because of them I did it myself.”    Einstein 

“The worst form of inequality is to try to make unequal things equal”                                                                                                                                                   Aristotle 

Introduction – There  is no need to publicize or justify the irrational or irresponsible  acts of irrational persons by any political party or intellectuals. Invariably, their actions create misunderstandings and atmosphere of tension in the society and put unnecessary pressure on the government.

Opinions, national policies and plans can not be formulated on the basis  irrational opinions, speeches or deeds of a few cynic/irresponsible persons. Also it would not be right to blame the whole system or a society for such actions/speeches of a few. It is not desirable to pass on comments based on half cooked information, half a truth, partial or incomplete knowledge, which could be harmful for the whole society.

Reality is much deeper than what is seen on the surface. One should not form an opinion or take a decision without analyzing rationally the whole scenario. In modern society, vested interests of certain people in power echelons have spread many misconceptions about caste-system of India, its nature and values.

Issue

Many political parties, intellectuals, Dalit activists, their leaders and pressure groups are deeply influenced by the Western culture and criticize ‘Caste system’ for its being highly discriminatory and keeping a large section of Indian society away from the mainstream.  Therefore, they advocate to fix a quota  on pro-rata basis through Reservation policy to make the entry of different unrepresented sections of society in power echelons/government, including government services.

Blaming caste system for all discriminatory practices and therefore, quotas and suggesting bringing to an end a well established and accepted social system (caste-system) in the name of discrimination, needs to be given a second thought. For understanding the problem, answer of the following questions with an impartial, rational, sensitive and perceptive mindset is required –

  • Are really the practices and values of caste-system problematic and complicated?
  • Is it the caste-system or its malpractices and rigidity developed into the system to retain its Hindu-identity during the alien rule, which is responsible for discrimination and exploitation of weaker/ unprivileged sections of society?
  • What is the position of different castes as it exists presently in ground realities?

Dr. Dean Harmison  says that Discrimination in India is ‘Class-based’. So is all-over the world. “I have travelled to nearly all the states,n visited villages and slums, temples, mosques and churches, shared meals and conversations with people there of all stations in life. I have not experienced discrimination to the extent, it is being painted here; but what I have seen is class discrimination, Yes I have seen economic poverty.” (quoted from his speech at 53rd session of Sub-commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights, N Delhi Aug., 2001)

Caste system and British rulers – Like all other societies elsewhere, Indian society is also stratified socially and economically. There are social, economic, cultural and educational hierarchies – some explicit and some implicit.

In the past, British rulers in India, while laying foundation of democratic institutions of India, started many discriminatory practices. In order to keep balance of power and counter Brahmins hold on Indian society passed some discriminatory Acts like Act of 1919 (Minto Morely Reforms)or Communal Award of 1932.Till 1947, they even kept their railway compartments, waiting rooms, parks, clubs, hotels, places of other entertainment and residences segregated.

Two aspects of caste system have amazed the British rulers in the past –

  • Influence of Caste system on Indian society;
  • Reluctance of its people to convert into other religions, on the ground that all religions are valid.

Reverse Discrimination – As far as discrimination is concernedit exists to some extent everywhere in the world. Till recent past, discrimination  could be seen in one form or other, in any institution – let it be big or small; or it may be seen in a social, political and economic. lt can even be seen within a family, society or a nation.

Fear of being discriminated or exploited springs from ignorance.  Vulnerable individuals or weaker sections of society have been an easy prey for discrimination. Within a family, it is vulnerable family members like children, women. old or widowed parents. In social circle, poor relatives or unemployed youth have been discriminated against. Poor, illiterate and ignorant people quite often become victims of exploitation.

In recent past, under the pressure of various newly emerged of political pressure groups, it has been seen that government policies leave the poor and deprived people of upper castes out. Dalit cause has become more about vote-bank politics than about real social issues. Pr. Dean Harmisan says, “I have been in the homes of wealthy Dalits , where servants, cooks and cleaning people have been of upper castes.”

No power on earth can ever bring total/overall/complete equality in status or conditions for all in reality. Yes, but equality of opportunity can be given to all. It is the birth of right of each and every individual. The truth is that socio-political heavy-weights and those in power-echelons at the base of social discrimination is poverty, illiteracy, ignorance and unemployment. Through sound education, skill training and awareness, poor people at grass-root level can be truly empowered. It is the responsibility of the government to enact and and enforce laws to protect the vulnerable people from exploitation.

Intolerance reason behind discrimination –Usually, in every society, differences in behavior, character, education, language, way of life, culture, social background create a distance between two individuals or groups. Resistance to tolerate, adapt or appreciate each other widens the distance. Some become so aggressive that they openly abuse or oppress others. In order to be one up, either they let down others or try to control their destiny by adopting discriminatory practices. And in this rat-race, stronger always wins and weaker suffers.

 

Grounds for discrimination – In every society and a nation there exists numerous identities based on factors like race, class, caste, religion, gender, language or region. Craving for more power – muscle, money or political – of some individuals or groups tends people to adopt discriminatory practices. Discriminatory practices work on whims and fancies/likes and dislikes of strong persons. Controlling the destiny of others satisfies their ego and serves their interests.

 

Racism and Western World – Racism is a much more serious problem than caste in matter of discrimination, as it is based on the color of the skin, which can not be hidden. Societies in Western World are divided sharply into four water-tight compartments. “Whites” at the top of social hierarchy, then comes Yellows (Japanese, Chinese or Philippines) followed by “Browns” (Indians, Pakistanis and people from other South-Eastern nations and at the bottom “Blacks”. The western world is witnessing a rise in white supremacist movements. Last two categories have always been humiliated. They have to struggle to get suitable jobs according to their qualifications. They are forced to work for less money, accused for snatching jobs from “whites” and having slavish mentality.

Treatment to Indian students in western nations – Every year, on an average 430,000 odd Indian students go to Western nations for further studies. Recently in Australia, Indians, Pakistanis along with Vietnamese students of middle-class background are being targeted, racially abused, insulted, ridiculed and assaulted physically now and then by Whites. They take bank loans, borrow money and pass through many difficulties to get a degree from foreign university. Life is not easy for them in any way. They have to work very hard to fund their education there.

Despite everything the exodus of students from upper castes continues because due to reverse discrimination policies, they are being treated as second rate citizens in their own country. It is an anomaly that Western society, where discrimination on racial grounds has always been a part of life (only it is being highlighted by media now), wants to reform India.

Dalit Activists and caste system – Dalit Activists criticize caste system vehemently and hold it responsible for keeping 750 million Hindus – dalits, tribals and other backward classes – poor, “subjugated, discriminated against and humiliated.” “Technologies for human survival …. were all developed by lower castes”, but “upper castes took away the fruits of their labour and invention.” “In the hearts of the oppressed castes, there is anger and hatred.” ‘Social-justice’ demands their emancipation by ending all kind of discrimination.

There are two options: “either complete equality to Dalit Bahujan communities or their conversion into other religions.” Such comments of Dalit Activists and political leaders arouse emotional sentiments of poor masses, generate venom in their heart and create a feeling of ‘otherness’.

According to Pr. Kancha Ilaiah, an activist, complete equality means –

  • Embracing all lower castes,
  • Eating with them,
  • Treating them as their equal, and
  • An end to the allegation that they are merit-deficient.

Inspite of all such comments, it is the lower segment of society, which is sticking strongly to its caste-identities.

India and ‘Caste’ as a ‘System’ 

Caste is a very old and indigenous system, conceptualized, developed and practiced exclusively in India. It is difficult for the western world to understand its role – past or present – in Indian society or because of its complete localization and unfamiliarity to see it in its totality.

Strong features of ‘caste-system’

The strength of caste system has been proved by the following facts:

  • Despite centuries of foreign rule over 75% of Indian population remains Hindu and have strong feelings for caste-system.
  • Had caste system become obsolete, it would have given place to other system.
  • Caste system has influenced all other communities living in India.

Following are the strong features of ‘caste’ as a system –

  • Assimilation of different social groups without conversion– In the past, caste assimilated numerous social groups – immigrants, locals, tribal, professionals or others into its mainstream without any conversion. It assigned each incoming new group a separate caste identity and made them its integral part in due course of time.
  • This way, neither it disturbed its existing internal social order nor prevented new groups to join the mainstream. It did not annihilate their faith, way of living, internal order, customs, culture or language. Instead, it gave them freedom to prosper according to their internal rhythm.
  • Caste regarded as a natural institution by Hindus – Indian society regards family, extended family, Kula, Caste and religion as fundamental social institutions. An individual is a natural member of a family, which is a unit of an extended family, extended family of Kula, Kula of a tribe (Vish) – and a tribe of a Jana of Jati (Caste). Caste is second only to the family in widening a person’s social radius and in getting importance in his/her private and occupational life.
  • Equal status to all within a caste – All the members within a caste enjoy equal social status vise-a-vise other castes. Caste values, beliefs, prejudices, injunctions as well as distortions of reality become an indivisible part of a person’s psyche and conscience. They share moments of joy and sorrow.
  • It is a common sense that a person’s relation with his own caste-members is closer than with those belonging to other castes. Internalized caste norms define an individual role in the society. A person feels good and loved, when he lives up to these norms, and anxious and guilty, when he transgresses them.
  • Caste, providing social security and stability – Earlier, instead of government, elders of each caste (having sense of belonging, not a desire to exercise authority) used to take care of maintaining discipline within the caste and helped its destitute/helpless members.Caste provided to all its members social security and stability. Even as today, it does so in rural areas. Each caste still maintains its own rules, regulations, customs, and way of life and controls the conduct of its members. It encourages self-discipline, conscious, self-control, and self-direction.
  • Castes as a series of vertical parallels – The key, to understand the caste system, is not in seeing it as a framework of hierarchical layers of social order, each fitting neatly below the other, as pointed out by census operations done during imperial rule, but as a series of vertical parallels. Each caste is an independent entity, with its own hierarchy, based either on a tribal identity or an occupational identity.
  • Inter-dependence an integral part of caste system – In ancient and medieval India, all people living in a village or city were bound together by economic and social ties. All castes living in a local area, whether high or low, had a strong bond of mutual dependence, caring, sharing and supporting each other in fulfilling different kind of needs. There was hardly any room for any section of society to consider itself, as being placed in greater or lesser disadvantageous position with reference to another. Concept of forwards or backwards or feeling of exploitation of lower strata by upper castes was almost non-existent at that time. Industrialization and modernization have changed the scene.

Criticism

Some people blame Caste system for its being ‘discriminatory’ in nature. They say, it serves the interests of “haves “and enhances the agonies of “have-nots”. But it is an anomaly, that still it is only the ‘have-nots’, who cling more tightly to their caste identities today.

Caste system has been criticized for –

  • Giving importance to birth -_Caste system has been alleged for giving rise to disparities in the society, because it gives importance to birth in determining social status of a person. But same is the position in Western world also, where wealth determines social status. Wealth is also acquired through birth. There also exists a sharp distinction between the Aristocratic/elite society and common man.

Critics claim that for centuries in the past and even at present, people born in lower castes have been suppressed or oppressed by people belonging to upper castes. Upper castes are accountable and punishable for the miseries of lower caste. They should make reparations for the sins/historical wrong done by their ancestors.

How far this allegation and its remedy is correct? Justice ‘Social, economic and political’ never allows punishing somebody else for the crimes committed by others.

  • No access to education – It is alleged that upper castes has kept its monopoly on education to reinforce its traditional dominance and prevented lower castes from getting educated. When British rulers allowed legally admission to all irrespective of caste or creed in government schools, higher castes opposed admission of the children belonging to lower strata.

It is only a half truth. British rulers did not bother much about mass education. It was not so much because of discrimination, that backward castes were debarred or denied access to education, as for –

Modern education system was very costly and therefore, unaffordable by masses. The costly nature of education tended to make it a monopoly of the richer classes and city dwellers.

  • The medium of instruction was a foreign language – English.
  • Lower-castes did see any immediate use of education. It was more important for them to work and arrange two square meals day rather than spending on education.

However, an impoverished group caste Hindus in search of livelihood looked upon modern education as means to earn their living respectfully and devoted their scarce resources on it.

The relentless effort of missionaries and the reformers could educate a very small number of people from lower-castes.

  • Ranking

In the past, ranking of different social groups was done on some principles. Self-discipline, hygiene, cleanliness, morality, knowledge, spirituality of different social groups i.e. castes and usefulness of their work to the society as a whole were the considerations, which determined the social, economic or political status of a group in society vise-a vise others. Higher a caste, purer it was considered, and greater were the self-restrictions on its behavior through rituals.

  • Mobility

Mobility of individuals from one caste to another was restricted in the past. But upward mobility of a group in the social scale was though difficult, but not impossible. Ancient India had allowed upward mobility of a caste through good deeds – by adopting more orthodox practices, cleaner habits, self-discipline and observance of rituals or the position of a caste could be improved. This way, lower-castes were encouraged to follow discipline in life.

Now different castes prefer to be called backwards. They are racing to get a tag of backward castes, so that they can avail the benefits of quota fixed for backward castes in jobs an.

  • Wealth – Doors for honor or wealth were always open to deserving individuals/groups of any caste. History is the proof that even the lowest rank attained even sovereignty in India such as Maratha Kings, who fought their way up-to the throne against Mohammedan and commanded respect of all Indians. From fourteenth to the eighteenth century, soldiers came from all strata of society including the lowest in the ritual term. There was no discrimination in the recruitment and treatment of soldiers on caste basis. Rajput status was given to soldiers.
  • Occupation –  Critics of Caste system allege that there was no freedom/choice to individuals in matter of occupation in the past. They were forced people to employ themselves in hereditary occupations. This allegation is not wholly truth.

In ancient Europe and Asia also, occupations were not only hereditary, but also limited it to be followed by specific classes only. It was considered natural and convenient for a person to do a job, which he knew, the knowledge of which, he acquired in a natural way.

Changes brought in by Industrial revolution

It was the industrial revolution, which had changed the trend. Now total aversion of modern youth from their traditional occupation has rendered millions unemployed or underemployed or confused about what they want to do. They waste their time, energy and efforts in search of white collared jobs rather than pursuing jobs, which suits to their knowledge, aptitude and qualifications. There is more job-satisfaction, happiness, success or contentment in doing a job, one knows well rather than in stepping on someone else’s toes.

Sir John Shore, who was Governor General of India during 1793-1798, observed that there was considerable latitude in matter of work in India. Among many castes, it was constantly found that one brother pursuing hereditary vocation and another entering army. HT Colebrooke also confirms it, “It may be received as a general maxim that occupation appointed for each tribe is entitled merely to a preference. Every profession, with few exceptions, was open to every description of persons and the discouragement arising from religious prejudices is not greater than what exists in Great Britain from the effects of Municipal and Corporate laws.”

Alternative ideologies to provide breathing space

In the past, whenever rigidities and discriminatory practices of society in the name of caste system suffocated Indian society, there arose alternative ideologies or styles of life, which gave people breathing space. Rise of Buddhism in Ancient India, Sufi tradition of Islam and Bhakti movement of Hindus in medieval India (around 10th century), and reform movements of 19th and 20th centuries taught sympathetic attitude towards lesser human beings, brotherly love for each other and fellowship, love and respect all human beings irrespective of caste or creed and rejected practice of elaborate rituals and caste pretensions.

Modern India 

Most of the allegations against caste system, which were there in the past, can not be justified now in modern India. Process of modernization, industrialization, spread of education and growing awareness among masses have already brought to an end slowly but steadily many of the discriminatory practices of Caste system. It has become more liberal and less restrictive in all walks of life. Castes no longer enjoy legal or religious sanctions. Expulsion from castes means little, while earlier it meant complete social ostracism. Old style of authority and power exercised by caste-elders has already diminished. Restrictions or interactions between different castes arising due to considerations for purity and pollution are fading away from public life even from rural areas. Traditional barriers on marriage, hereditary occupations and commonality are loosing its importance.

Constitution of India

Preamble of the Indian Constitution promisesto secure to all its citizens: JUSTICE, social, economic and political; LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation. Article 15 of the Constitution prohibits any kind of discrimination on grounds of caste, race, religion, gender or place of birth; Article 16 gives equality of opportunity in matter of public employment, Article 338 creates National commission for Scheduled Castes to safeguard their interests etc.

Legislations for equal opportunities

A number of amendments in the Constitution and legislation have been passed to remove the disabilities of backward people. Un-touchability has been declared a crime. Bonded labor is abolished by law. Civil Rights Act, 1955, aims to eliminate injustice against weaker sections. Amendment to Prevention of Atrocities Act (SCT) 1989 provides for stern punishments for offenses committed against SCT by Upper Castes. Special Courts, under SCT Act, have been established for punishing officials, if found guilty. Still, there is no respite from discriminatory practices. Why?

Reasons for the miseries of downtrodden

There are many reasons, why people do not get respite from discriminatory practices. There is no denial of the fact that with the passage of time, and for a long time, living under alien rule, caste system had developed many deformities. The system became too rigid to keep its identity continuing. Still it is not so much because of the caste-system, but because of bad politics and poor governance, that millions of people have still to suffer discrimination and exploitation in modern India. Some of the causes are as following –

  • Emergence of Political Identities

During their imperial rule, the British had divided the Indian society into five major groups, giving each one an independent political identity based on the political power and the amount of wealth, they hold. The water-tight compartmentalization of Indian society had been done by Censuses during British rule into Minorities, Scheduled Castes, now popularly known as Dalits or SCs, Scheduled Tribes (STs), Other Backward castes (OBCs) and Higher Castes.

  • Political compartmentalization of Indian society

Modern Indian society has been polarized on caste and communal basis into following unbridgeable sections – Upper castes, Scheduled Castes, Scheduled tribes, Other Backward Class and Minorities. Stratification of Indian society has been done in most insensitive manner for the purpose of balancing the power. It has become a bye-word for Indian politicians.

  • Poor execution of rules and regulations

Indian society is sharply divided into two broad divisions- “haves” and “have-nots”. The most important factors responsible for disparities are present-day-politics, irrational and corrupt ways of pursuing the paternal policies of the government at cetral and State levels and government’s failure to address real issues.

  • Use of ‘Caste’ as the most powerful tool to create vote-banks

‘Caste’ has become for the present-day political leaders as the easiest and most powerful tool to sway public emotionally and to create a larger vote bank. It may be called ossification of caste-system fallen into the hands of power brokers and vote guzzlers.

  • Priority to abstract issues in order to divert public attention

Day in and day out, public attention is being diverted from real issues and public sentiments are aroused by floating in political world abstract issues like discrimination, social justice, affirmative action/reservations, secularism. Sectional interests are being promoted on caste basis. Real issues like mass-scale illiteracy, poverty, unemployment, inflation, deteriorated law and order situation, increasing violence or general coarsening of moral fiber of the Indian society are pushed into the background.

  • Centralization of control systems

There is complete centralization of control systems in the hands of a few individuals, families and groups irrespective of castes or creed. They have enough money, muscle and political power plus and the support of criminals.  They are flourishing day by day and control almost all the national resources. They enjoy life at cost of tax-payers. This very small section of society virtually controls the destiny of millions. They have a say in almost every walk of national life.

  • Corruption

Corruption has become a major/perennial impediment to implement various developmental schemes. Ignorance and pessimist attitude of masses makes corrupt persons bold. Once the public raises its voice against arbitrary behavior/actions of powerful lobby, all discrimination and malpractices would get automatically controlled.

  • Aversion form human, moral or traditional values

Aversion of people from human, moral or traditional values has aggravated the problem. The total concentration of educated people is on pursuit of money and materialistic pleasures by hook or crook. Favoritism, in-discipline, violence, corruption, and chase of materialism based on ruthless competition have given sharp rise to disparities and discrimination. It leads to cut-throat competition and creates rift amongst different groups. Political expediency and opportunism has made sectional forces more assertive/aggressive in attitude and vocal about their rights but ignores duties.

  • Reconcile the claims of growth with the claims of equity

It is one of the big challenges for the government to reconcile the claims of growth with the claims of equity. Compassion, sensitivity, equality or fraternity can not be imposed or enforced by any outside agency or authority. Such a step may prove to be a cause of social unrest. It has to be in-built in the social economic and political system of a country through education and awareness – education, which is the source of knowledge and power; and awareness, which comes from availability of information.

  • Narrow loyalties of caste and religion

Narrow loyalties of caste and religion are encouraged generating sub-cultures like caste-ism, favoritism, and lure for easy money, nepotism, parochialism, communalism, regionalism, bigoted sentiments and irresponsible comments, spreading in-discipline in the society. The rising aspirations and demands of people, with the spread of education and awareness, has created added problem for the government.

  • Discriminatory measures taken by the Government

In Independent India, Governments at centre and the provinces are continuously thrusting upon the public many discriminatory/lofty/populist rules, regulations and policies in the name of helping “poor masses”. Common men especially belonging to upper castes feel threatened, helpless and suffer from discriminatory policies of the government. Protective policies and laws can neither convert an iniquitous Society into an equitable one, nor does it help in any way the vulnerable, oppressed and submerged masses.

Most of measures taken by the Governmental authorities touch the problems superficially at its periphery only. Most of the solutions pursued by the government are totally unrelated to day to day problems of common man in real life. Instead of benefiting or helping the poor, on one hand such developmental programs increase corruption, and on the other it encourages lethargy, agitation and attitude to depend on authorities for each and everything.

‘Reservation policy’ as means to end discrimination

Successive governments both at the centre and provinces are trying to tackle problem of discrimination and disparity by openly favouring policies of ‘reverse discrimination’, which give more importance to distribute power on pro-rata basis by fixing quota. The sustainable development of submerged sections can be achieved by providing quality of education to everybody and making people aware of different opportunities available to them.

Reservation policy can hardly be able to bring in desired transformation in the society. In a democratic country, discrimination anywhere or in any form – be it positive or negative – is the most objectionable thing. The problem of discrimination or disparities can not be tackled by fixing up quotas or by adopting the path of reverse discrimination or treating a few sections of society more than equals by entitling them for preferential treatment by the governmental agencies in different spheres of life.

Political leaders of various political parties desire to fix up quotas in all governmental institutions for different sections of society on pro-rata basis. Such a demand is based on negative exhortations. The government’s policy of Reservation in jobs and education has resulted in a tough competition amongst various castes to demand a lower status, so that they can also avail more concessions and facilities.

Under-currents of caste politics have made the government incapable to solve the burning national issues. It has made to maintain law and order difficult. Inter-caste and intra-caste, inter-community and intra-community and inter-tribal and intra-tribal conflicts are increasing day by day in order to get more space in the corridors of power.

Meaning of ‘No Discrimination’

‘No discrimination’ does not mean sharing power equally. More than thousand million people can not be accommodated in power echelons. It means a harmonious partnership between people belonging to different sections of society and the authorities responsible for governance. Governance should be done on the basis of mutual help, mutual respect and mutual trust. Governance is a continuing process, through which conflicting interests and diverse needs of all the people are looked-after and a cooperative action is taken.

Pathetic condition of upper castes belonging to middle class

Middle class has always been the backbone of society. Now the voice of upright and honest people belonging to middle class is being continuously throttled mercilessly. They are being punished for following sincerely family-planning norms, which has decreased their numbers. In present day vote-bank politics based on game of numbers, it is very easy now for the pursuers of political power to sideline them.

Lower castes more tenacious about their caste-identity

Today lower castes, which are more tenacious about their caste than the higher, could be easily swayed emotionally in the name of caste-based reservations. Reservations Policy has given the ‘backwards’ an identity as a composite and powerful political pressure group. They have grouped together and increased their numerical strength. It has helped them to emerge as a powerful and assertive pressure group and unite, organize and fight vigorously for the seats of power.

A large number of educated people of so-called ‘Backward-castes’ have already entered into the corridors of power and are occupying important places, exercising authority. Dalits and Muslims are being wooed with vigor by all major national political parties. Even Naxalite groups find in Dalits an allies, as most of their action squads are formed of Harijans. No political party could dare to annoy them. All concede to their demands openly or discreetly.

The transformation of untouchables into Harijans, Depressed class and now Dalits is a classic example, where a fraction of society is increasingly distancing itself from the mainstream and establishing firmly its separate identity. The organized intolerance of some groups due to over-consciousness about their separate identity has grown out of proportions now, perpetuating agitation and violence. They desire a complete hold on political power plus protection of those laws and policies indefinitely, which were started sixty years ago for enabling them to join the mainstream. They want to have a cake and eat it too, but without much effort or blending their ways.

Conclusion

India has covered a long distance since its Independence. For political opportunism, its culture and traditions should not be blamed. Indian culture has always preached, “whatever the colour of the cow,the milk is always white. Whatever be the background, lifestyle, race, religion or caste, each human is an image of God and a foundation of love, therefore, deserved to  be honoured.”

It is a matter of shame that after 70 years of its self-rule and giving so much protection to weaker sections, incidents of discrimination are reported to be increasing day by day. Instead of defaming it or single-it out for exploitation  or discrimination, it is desirable that law-implementing machinery should get tough on perpetrators of injustice. Discriminatory practices or oppression of weaker sections of society is unacceptable to the whole of humanity.

Instead of blaming an invisible institution (caste-system) for discrimination, deep wisdom and honesty of purpose is needed to find out right methods and courage to strive for it sincerely. To fight caste-ism, it is important to economically uplift the poor and prepare them through sound system of education and training and also making them aware of their rights and duties to fight their own battles and pave their way towards sustainable development.

So-called ‘Backward castes’ need to understand the spirit of Indian Constitution and try to adapt thinking, culture and life-style of the mainstream of the nation. Otherwise, there will always be cultural rifts, both in their lives and minds, threatening the unity of the nation from time to time.

Today, when the whole world is reeling between economic depression and and terrorism, people expect from the government to bring in change in economic situation and in fight against terrorism. Hate, jealousy, anxiety or fear leads to violence and give rise to wars, riots, antagonisms and class or caste conflicts.

After-effects of the great economic depression of 2008 has brought many social and economic changes and aggravated the problems for present government. The GDP growth has fallen there, business investment has dipped alarmingly. Unemployment has risen.

Therefore, Government needs to be very careful, while planning for measures – developmental or punitive – to be taken. The needs and aspirations of the people as a whole should be taken care of by the government, not of any specific section of the society.

Present atmosphere demands to resolve sensibly the differences and clashes of interests peacefully with rational thinking and understanding for each other. For a change, India needs collective nation building efforts of both the authorities and the public with a sense of justice, commitment to the nation, understanding for each other and consciousness about duties along with rights.

Winding up

Following steps could to be taken to bring to an end discrimination of any kind –

  • First of all, government should find out root causes of discrimination and deprivation,
  • Government should identify without bias vulnerable groups, which are discriminated against by the present modern society. It should not be on the basis of caste.
  • Identify the special needs or problems of each group separately,
  • Accordingly plan about the measures to be taken to protect the interests of vulnerable individuals.
  • Well meaning judicious laws, which could directly improve day today life of common men, should be carefully legislated.
  • Such laws should not remain only on papers but have to be executed/implemented in real life for dealing with social injustice effectively.
  • To give relief to ‘Have-nots’, the way out is to tackle effectively local crimes against common man whether in rural or urban areas and improve law and order position.
  • The money meant for the development purposes should actually be spent for which it is intended i.e. the betterment of submerged sections of society.
  • Power generally rests with physical strength, wealth and knowledge. Knowledge brings in both physical strength and wealth. Therefore, stress on knowledge through ‘education for all’ should be the top priority for the government for empowerment of weaker sections, which are victims of discrimination.
  • Widespread human rights violations should be stopped by punishing the culprits.
  • It is necessary to put honest and right persons at crucial positions. There are very few people, who have the knowledge/understanding what to do, how to do and when to do;

A strong political will and courage is needed to bring to an end caste-ism and with it all kinds of discriminatory attitudes, repressive laws and practices. For the prosperity of the nation and tension-free/stress-free life of common man, as suggested by First Backward class Commission’s Chairman Kaka Kalelkar in mid fifties, “National solidarity in a democratic set up demands Government to recognize only two ends – the individual at one end and the nation as a whole at the other. Nothing should be encouraged to organize itself in between these two ends to the detriment of the freedom of the individual and solidarity of the nation. All communal and denominational organizations and groupings of lesser and narrower units have to be watched carefully, so that they do not jeopardize the national solidarity and do not weaken the efforts of the nation to serve the various elements in the body politic with equity. Mutual help, mutual respect and mutual trust are the touchstone, on which all communal and denominational activities will be tested.”

October 26, 2017 Posted by | Reservation/Affirmative action program | | Leave a comment