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“Right Persons at Right Places” – Recruitments in Government Services

“For any administration to be good and efficient, as a whole, we want right type of men. The quality of men placed in position is more important than laying down of rules and methods of operation” Shri C. Rajagopalachari

“Authority without wisdom is like a heavy axe without an edge.” Anne Bradstreet

The saddest part of life right now is that science gather knowledge faster than society gains wisdom. Isaac Asmov

Introduction – Government service is not just another job. It requires a deep sense of commitment to public good. It requires proper understanding and appreciation of indian reality with all its strengths and weaknesses. It needs good inter-personal relationships. It needs to identify itself with ethos of Indian society and its cravings. It needs men and women of real substance, well aware of the changes happening at a very fast speed around the world due to liberalization, modernization, and globalization.

Today’s youth are ready to take up challenges and try their best to emerge victorious. They are willing to learn from their mistakes. It is a real challenge for  upright young men and women to be successful in the general category of competitive entrance examination, which requires regular hard-work, motivation, dedication, and well-focussed effort. They are energetic, hard-working, daring and a the same time very demanding. They value their independence. They want due reward for their efforts – be it monetary, credit, promotions or in any other form.

‘Mores’ – The more the challenges and problems to be tackled, the more is the pressure on government and its institutions, especially its civil services or bureaucracy, responsible implementation of developmental plans and policies. More the government is required to place ‘right men at right time on right places’ in its bureaucracy.

Bureaucracy can, without doubt, be regarded as the pillar, on which the entire structure of governance rests. The quality and success of governance depend on the nature, behaviour, systems and working style of its government services. Weakening of this pillar spells disaster [ii].  For any administration to be good and efficient as a whole, the right type of men placed in crucial positions in the government is more important than anything else.

Strategic posts in administrative set-up – There are certain strategic posts in every bureaucratic/administrative set up, which maintain uniformity, and supervise the working of various organizations in such a manner that public at large can live comfortably and taste the fruits of development. For manning such posts and running the administration in the country smoothly, bureaucracy or government civil services, both at the Local, State and Central, at secretariat or field levels, play a pivotal role. It takes important decisions, formulate government policies, plan, design strategies, initiate actions, execute policies, monitor the progress and taking remedial actions.

Right men at right places – Therefore, as Shri C. Rajagopalachari suggests, “For any administration to be good and efficient, as a whole, we want right type of men. The quality of men placed in position is more important than laying down of rules and methods of operation” Its administrative cadres should have wisdom to sort out different pressing problems and capacity to meet various challenges, a government faces every day. The success of government plans and policies depends largely upon their efficiency.

Position of civil services in the government – In a democratic country, for the governance and delivering goods to public at large, the Government roughly depends on the following two general processes: –

       Process of politics, which consists of activities of the elected representatives of the people, and

       Process of administration which consists of the activities of permanent civil servants.

Most powerful wing of a democratic government – Every democratic government has three organs – Legislature to make laws, Executive to implement them and judiciary to act as a watch dog. Among these three, Executive, comprising of elected representatives + permanent civil servants, is the most powerful wing. It is the executive, as it prepares plans and policies of the government and execute them.

“Authority without wisdom is like a heavy axe without an edge” (Anne Bradstreet) – Henry George comments “When democracy becomes corrupt, the best gravitates to the bottom, the worst to the top.” And then its government becomes “the Government of the poorest, the most ignorant and the most incapable, who are necessarily the most numerous.” (Lackey)

Personnel, of administrative apparatus, i.e. civil servants should be wise enough to shoulder the heavy responsibility of governance.  Any deficiency in its recruitment and training makes the whole system weak and corrupt. Therefore, Government should create sound systems for recruitment and education and training of civil servants ((people responsible for governance).

Position of political-leaders vs bureaucrats – Theoretically the administrative machinery is sub-ordinate to the political arm of a government. The decision making power rests with ministers. Bureaucracy is there to assist elected representatives of the people in governance. But, in practice, its role is very important and influential in governance of a country, because –

  • Need of expert knowledge to run the Government – Due to exclusive and specialized nature of work and the need for more and more expert knowledge in governance for improving the quality of service, the responsibility of political chiefs becomes exceedingly formal in matter of governance. They are forced to listen the advice of the bureaucrats, who dig the expert knowledge from the raw material, give it a shape with a sense of commitment.
  • Bureaucracy’s importance, is of influence and not of power – The civil services role in relation to the ministers is that of influence and not of power. Owing to other preoccupations of elected political leadership and its lack of technical know-how, the responsibility of bureaucrats in governance, policy making and its implementation, has become a determining factor. Converting available into policy, plans, programs and projects is an inevitable function of an action-oriented administration.
  • Bureaucracy a permanent link between successive elected governments – Elected representatives come for a fixed period. They come and go. But Bureaucracy is permanent, It maintains continuity and forms a link between successive elected governments. Therefore, it can visualize the whole scenario before taking decision on any vital issue and in guiding the social changes and development in desired direction, especially in the case of less developed or developing countries, where society is in a state of transition.
  • Ultimately, responsibility of Decision-making on bureaucracy – Governance is about taking tough, even unpopular, decisions. Usually elected representatives hesitates taking tough decisions, as they have to please the voters. There never is a good time for politicians to take tough decisions. In reality, this responsibility also falls on the shoulders of permanent bureaucrats, whose position is constitutionally safeguarded.  Most of political leaders remain busy in vote-bank politicking, distribution of pre-election and after-election freebies, pleasing their voters through adopting populist measures and techniques to polarize public opinion, create different conflicting social groups and create vote-banks for themselves.
  • Create conflicting groups in society – Self-aggrandizement, inflated ego and recklessness are the reasons for polarizing different social groups instead of working to bring disparate together, create an inclusive society and lead them to live in harmony.
  • Three ‘I’s for taking right decisions – Taking right decisions at right time is a very tough job for Politicians. For taking bold decisions, three ‘I’s are required – ‘Intention’, ‘Initiative’ (courage to take bold steps), and novel ‘Ideas’/Vision.  Therefore, this responsibility also falls on the shoulders of civil servants.

Very few political leaders have courage and time to take bold decisions, as Modi government took in India in 2016, like surgical strike against Pakistan’s terrorist training camps, or demonetization with an aim to control terrorism, drug-mafia, human trafficking, Naxalism, and control corruption in one stroke. Both these acts of present Modi government have been appreciated by majority of the people living in India.

Being so, as far as governance in a country is concerned, bureaucracy could be regarded as the pillar, on which the entire structure of governance rests. The quality and success of governance depend on the nature, behaviour, systems and working style of its government services. Weakening of this pillar spells disaster [ii]. For any administration to be good and efficient as a whole, the right type of men placed in crucial positions of bureaucracy is more important than laying down rules and methods of operation.[iii]

Future lies not in jobs but on job-holdersFuture of any country lies not in jobs, but on jobholders. A well-equipped administrative machinery is needed to face day today challenges of governance, to solve the issues and to improve the quality of governance.

The report of Inquiry on Public Service Personnel, appointed by Social Science Research Council of USA in 1935 says, “No element of career service is more important than the recruitment policy.” [iii] Gladden also points out that on recruitment rests, “The nature and degree of the usefulness of administrative machinery, to the service of which the human elements are dedicated” [iv]

Recruitment in government services 

 It is one of the primary duty of the government to spot out good candidates and nurture them to acquire the skills, which are required to supervise their staff ably with sense of responsibility. Initial selection of the services, if properly conducted, can provide the government efficient and effective managers, bringing positive results within who can implement its policies purposefully and achieve the goals within time and cost parameters.

For smooth functioning of governance and successful operation of its developmental activities, it is must for a nation to have an efficient civil service. Initial selection of the services, if properly conducted, can in more positive terms, provide the government with the type of officials, who can implement its policies and program in a systematic and purposeful manner. Therefore, it becomes one of the primary duty of the government to spot out good candidates and nurture them to acquire the skills necessary for higher posts.

Nothing damages governance more than faulty recruitmentNothing damages the administration more than faulty recruitment.  A solid permanent structure cannot be built on weak foundation.  Any system can be strong, only when its foundations are laid strong. Any laxity in the recruitment and performance of this Service jeopardizes the objective and pushes the developmental goals behind.

Entry of sub-standard persons into administrative cadre, inflicts a permanent, cascading and damaging effect on the system.   No amount of training or coaching, pre or post, can convert the inherent weaknesses into strength within a short period. Today’s wrong selection could be tomorrow’s organizational problem.

How to find out and recruit ‘Mr. Rights’ – It is one of the prime functions of any national Government to recruit, retain, train and retrain the best talent of the nation for its administrative work at every level and then make all the feasible arrangements to train its recruits well, so that they can shoulder the heavy responsibilities of governance judiciously.

These Mr. Rights could either be recruited directly and then be trained or could be selected from amongst already trained, experienced and skilled persons. New entrants should be told clearly about their role in administration, their responsibilities, key result areas and impact of their working on the whole system and the general public.

Study of Job requirements a must for recruitments at every level – Before working on recruitment policy, a thorough study needs to be done on job requirements, in the context of present and future roles.  The candidates should be selected on the basis of their capabilities, attitudes, aptitude and adaptability to meet the position profile.  The focus should not be only on job skills, but on attitude and behavior as well.

There are certain strategic posts in every set up for maintaining uniformity and high standard in the administration, so that public at large can live comfortably and everybody, irrespective of caste or creed could taste the fruits of development. For manning such posts and running the administration smoothly, civil servants, who hold strategic and top most posts in different departments, both at the State and Central at secretariat or field levels, play a major role. These are the people who are responsible for taking important decisions, policy formulation, planning, designing strategies, initiating actions, executing policies, monitoring the progress and taking remedial actions.

‘Merit concept’ for recruitment in career services -The need for a sound recruitment policy was first realized by China, centuries ago, which started the adoption of merit principle based on competitive examination.  Prussia was the first country, in modern times, to evolve a sound recruitment system.  Later on, the principle of merit was adopted by India in 1853, Britain in 1857 and U.S.A. in 1883 (through Civil Service Act of 1883).  Now all the nations accept that a good initial selection in positive term provide the Government with the right type of officials to implement its plans, policies and programs in a systematic and purposeful manner.

Right men at right places – C. Rajagopalachari suggests, “For any administration to be good and efficient, as a whole, we want right type of men. The quality of men placed in position is more important than laying down of rules and methods of operation” Its administrative cadres should have wisdom to sort out different pressing problems and capacity to meet various challenges, a government faces every day. The success of government plans and policies depends largely upon their efficiency.

About Government/Civil Services

What is ‘Civil Service’ – The administrative machinery or Civil Service is a Professional body of officials, permanent, paid and skilled.[i]  The main characteristics of any administrative services are its efficiency, predictability, impersonal nature, and its impartial and speedy working.  It is always associated with exercise of authority.  Theoretically, the administrative machinery is subordinate to the elective body i.e. the Council of Ministers. But in practice, it plays a different role. The responsibility of political chiefs becomes formal, as they are forced to listen to the advice of the civil servants, which can dig and present data in a matter as they consider fit. The service role in relation to the minister is that of influence and not of power.[ii] It is this administrative apparatus that has all the authority and responsibility to run the government.

Bureaucracy according to Max Weber – According to Max Weber2, whose study on bureaucracy has become a base for the modern exponents of the science of administration, the main characteristics of a civil service are as following:

  • Merit based selection and training – technical competence as a formal condition of employment;
  • Promotions regulated by merit and seniority;
  • Division of labour – defined rights and duties prescribed in written regulations;
  • Hierarchy – (a) Systematically ordered authority relationship;
  • Full time career-based service with fixed monetary salaries;
  • Impersonality – strict separation of office and incumbent in the sense that employee does not own the means of administration and cannot take the advantage of their position for promoting self-interest.
  • A system of rules and files – its operations are government by a consistent system of abstract rules.
  • Team-work – One of the important feature of bureaucracy is team-work, i.e. ability to work together toward a common vision. It is ability to direct individual accomplishment toward organizational objectives. It is the fuel that allows common people to attain uncommon results.” (Andrew Carnegie, TOI, P.18, Feb 7, 2017)

Job-requirements for administrative apparatus to be well-equipped – “Life is not going to be the same as the world move to the 21st century, ” says Philip Crosby. (Ascent, TOI, 20.9.2000, p.1). Civil Service is a major instrument to effect the change and translate the developmental plans into realities of life. Therefore, it goes without saying that the civil servants should possess certain personal qualities to face the challenges of modern times. These are –

  • Knowledge – Knowledge is the most precious requirement/asset for a person willing to join Government service. It inculcates spirit of learning, insights, understanding, flexibility, practical know-how that makes one to function intelligently, effectively and efficiently. Along with it it can bring in power, monetary benefits, and leverage over others. How one handles it, holds the key to success in future. Knowledge means full utilization of information and data, coupled with potential of his skills, competencies, ideas, intuitions, commitments and motivations. It protects intellectual assets from decay, and enhances decision making capacity. Knowledge leads to effective practices, processes and technology used to collect, organize and distribute knowledge to people, who need it. Four steps are required to use knowledge positively –
    • Capture in the form of Data.
    • Think in what form captured Data to be stored processed, secured and used to benefit all.
    • Processing information by grouping, filtering and analyzing the database.
    • Communication – Share assimilated knowledge with others by using information systems.
  • Quality of Leadership – The term leadership has been defined by Dimock as, “all the means by which individuals are motivated to achieve group goals”1.  Haimen claims “Leadership refers to that process, whereby an individual directs, guides influences or controls the thoughts, feelings or behaviour of other human beings”2.  Brown and Cohen define, “Leadership as a process of influencing the activities of an organised group in its efforts towards goal – setting and goal achievements”.

As a leader, an officer needs to inculcate a sense of commitment among his colleagues and staff and influence the process of setting and achieving goals. Leadership is most effective, when a degree of congruence exists between the characteristics and demands of the following four variables –

      • Leader himself
      • His subordinates,
      • Tasks to be done and
      • Environment or organizational setting of any activity.

In government, a leader should be committed to the welfare of the masses, courageous, radical, humble, trusting, accountable, open, patient, sensitive to public needs and aspirations and self-confident.  He should have desire to assume responsibilities, possess critical knowledge and ability to organize himself with subordinates and with the people.  He must avoid fear of people, impatience and a show-off of authority.  His attitude should be positive and action oriented.   He should possess the quality of decision making.  He must be aware of his environment, views of the people, and principal aspect of the contradiction that is oppressing to the people at present.

The success of welfare and developmental plans depends on many factors, but none more important than the qualities of leadership exhibited present in its senior level civil servants.  To provide the administration with a sense of direction, purpose and priorities, they are required to encourage and control the staff and colleagues in a way that optimizes the performance of organization.  They have to see that right men are engaged in right job at right time.  Will, judgement, commitment, vision and initiative are required here.

The Middle level civil servants are the agents of development. They executive authority to supervise the implementation of policies and program.  Therefore, leadership capabilities are required at this level also. But the maximum leadership quality is needed at local field administration, where civil servants come into direct contact with people and take positive steps to create an appropriate atmosphere and attitudes, perceptions and relationship among their staff to make the local governance effective.

  • Quality of Supervision – Supervision is another important administrative task to implement the plans and policies properly.  As a supervisor, he should have command of job-content; ability to communicate his ideas to subordinates and make them understand the government’s point of view; wider outlook; courage to take decisions and assume responsibility; knowledge of administrative technology and intellectual alertness and receptivity to new ideas.  According to Halsay, a civil servant with supervisory role should have the qualities of thoroughness, fairness, initiative, tact, enthusiasm, emotional control, etc.

   As a supervisor, an official is responsible:

    • To arouse the feelings of the subordinates of their personal worth and their importance to the success of the organization.
    • To encourage subordinates to develop mutually satisfying relationship.
    • Emphasize the importance of organizational goals and encourage, within his groups, the desire for excellence.
    • Facilitate such performance by ensuring that the organization’s task can be performed under congenial conditions. These can be achieved by adequate cataloging, coordinating and planning of resources.

Besides, a supervisor should has an educative as well as consultative role too.  He should be capable to teach his subordinates the best way of doing their work and give them proper advice and guidance from time to time.  He should be smart enough to select right person for each job and to arouse in each person an interest in his work.

  • Quality of Coordination – Larger the size of administrative machinery greater is the demand for coordination to avoid conflicts or duplication of efforts.  As a coordinator, an officer should be able to prevent or discourage concentration on one aspect of work at the cost of exclusion of other aspects and to curb the greed for power in different units of the government.  Difficulties arise on the way of coordination due to uncertainty of future; the lack of knowledge, experience, wisdom and character; confused mind-set or conflicting ideas and objectives; lack of administrative skill and techniques; the vast number of variables involved; and lack of orderly methods of developing, considering, perfecting and adopting new ideas and programs.
    Coordination, largely depends upon the effectiveness of verbal and written communications which channel information and ideas up and down and across the chain of Command.
  • Quality of communication – Communication is the “blood stream of administrative organization”or “the heart of management”.  Apart from imparting knowledge or transmitting information, it includes interchange of thoughts for taking of ideas and a sense of participation and sharing.  The essence of communication is, therefore, not information, but understanding.

 For effective communication, a civil servant should be clear, consistent with the expectation of recipient, adequate, timely, uniform, flexible and acceptable.  An official should be well-informed. He should be able to establish a mutual trust in each other within his team; find a common ground of experience; use mutually known words; have regard for context; secure and hold the receiver’’ attention; employ examples and visual aids and practice delaying reactions.

The main difficulty on the way of communication is the complexity of language.  The problem becomes more complicated in a nation like ours with fourteen officially recognized languages and several dialects.   The lack of common experience and common background, difference in background education, lack of will or desire to communicate, size and distance and lack of definite and recognized means of communication add difficulties to existing barriers.   Good and well planned system of education and training may make officials good in communication.

  •  Quality of decision-making –Quality of taking right and timely decision is a must for smooth and effective governance. Decision-making requires careful collection of detailed facts, their analysis and interpretation, the use of broad concepts of human and physical behavior, ability to predict future developments etc.  Decisions are constantly made and remade in response to changing requirements.  It is a plural activity in government.  One individual may pronounce a decision but many contribute to the process of reaching the decision.   The factors, which influence decision-making are – Legal Limitations, Budget, Facts, History, Internal Morale, Impartiality, Future as Anticipated by Supervisors, Pressure Groups, Staff, Nature of Program and coordination of subordinates.
  • Efficiency – For securing maximum result with minimum labor and resources – fiscal and material – in the least possible time depends on the efficient working of civil servants.  Efficiency in civil servants is very necessary for effective planning and direction of governmental activities.  It is required at all the levels of administration.   A group of civil servants headed by an inefficient official is as bad as an inefficient group headed by an efficient leader. To increase the overall efficiency in government, it is necessary to keep up the morale of the civil servants.  The morale is concerned with minds, attitudes, emotions and motives of the employees.

Besides, there should be –

  • Mental framework – it should never be conservative. It should have a scientific outlook and should be progressive, innovative, reformist and even revolutionary in mental attitudes and approaches.
  • Knowledge – it should have knowledge of science, technology and social sciences.
  • Skills – it requires conceptual skills (ability for innovative problem – analysis), planning skills, technical skills, managerial skills and human skills.
  • Vision – A development bureaucrat requires the vision of a statesman and not that of either narrow-minded politicians or a rule-minded bureaucrat.
  • Structures – it requires less hierarchical and more team-like structures such as Commissions, Boards, Corporations etc.
  • Behavior – The behavioral pattern should consist of (a) action and achievement orientation (b) responsiveness (c) responsibility (d) all round smooth relations inside with juniors and seniors and outside with clientele and the public (e) commitment to development ideologies and goals.

At organizational front, there should be –

  • A working partnership between the civil servants, elected representatives in the government and the people.
  •  A sense of service, a spirit of dedication, a feeling of involvement and a will to sacrifice for the public welfare.
  •  A pragmatic application of the basic democratic principles. Higher civil servants should provide the required leadership to the lower levels of administration.
  •  Constant field inspection by senior officials.
    • to provide the government with the ability to be in constant contact with the people; and
    • to make the people conscious that the government is alive to their problem;
  •  A smooth and harmonious relationship between generalist administrators, experts and specialists is a must.
  • Witnessing the fast modernization and technological advancement process, willingness to upgrade one’s knowledge and competence.
  • Training from time to time to understand the success already achieved in the field of development administration and the efforts to be initiated in future.

Recruitment in government services in India

 In India, its recruitment policy is a product a long experience.  It evolved gradually and always tried to give nation a well-equipped and intellectually brilliant administrative frame-work. Recruitment in its government services has been done through open examinations conducted by an autonomous body long.

During British rule – Nobody has ever had any doubt about the efficiency and effectiveness of its civil services. In the past, it had even puzzled many bigwigs like Stalin, Von Ribbentrop and many other foreign observers…. They wondered how was it possible for British administrators to administer such a big empire in India  with such apparent zeal, efficiency, high-mindedness and impartiality? Even Indian nationalists were more likely than not to agree with such an assessment. … Or how barely a thousand British ICS (Indian Civil Service) personnel managed to rule both British India and the princely states with a combined population of well over 300 million during the first part of the twentieth century. It became possible only because British rulers managed to recruit in its bureaucracy ‘Mr. Rights’ at its supervisory levels of its bureaucracy, whether at national level, provincial level or district level.

Historical Background – When British East India Company consolidated it power in India, there had been different opinions on the matter of selecting the administrators. Some preferred military men and thought them to be best qualified for the job of administration, while others thought that administrative posts should be exclusively filled by civilians.  It was argued that noblemen, carrying with them the impression of high rank and birth, having served the Company for some time and possessing local knowledge and acquaintance with the affairs and people of India, should alone be appointed. However the rulers preferred to employ the most loyal persons for its administrative work.  It gave rise to spoil system/patronage system of recruitment.

Rise to spoil/patronage system in recruitments – From 1805 to 1885, the higher civil servants were nominated by the individual Directors of the Company.  From 1858 onwards, in order to make the civil services in India efficient and well equipped, the British Civil Service Commission created in 1855, was given the Charge to select officials through competitive examination.   During this period the main task of the administration was to maintain law and order intact at any cost. The appointments of covenanted civil servants were made by nomination by the individual Directors of the East India Company.  But it did not work very well.

When British Crown took over the charge in 1858 from East India Company, the British Government felt that favoritism, patronage or promotion of personal interests in recruitment would deprive the Government of the services of bright youth, who otherwise could have been selected. The realization, that Civil Service was not the conglomeration of individuals or groups, and it should comprise people with talent, integrity, dedication and apolitical and impartial approach, gave rise to the principle of Merit. The British Government desired to have a well-equipped and intellectually brilliant administrative framework.  They felt, If a succession of men of great talent and virtues cannot be found, or if the operation of any influence or party feelings and principles prevents their being chosen, we (the British) must reconcile ourselves to the serious hazards of the early decline, if not the loss of the great power, we have founded in the east.[i]

Therefore, the nomination system was abolished in 1855 by the Parliament in England and it was decided that the induction would be through competitive examinations of all British subjects, without distinction of race. The direct recruitment by competitive examination was envisaged with the idea that very brilliant person can be shaped into efficient officials suitable for holding senior positions.

Beginning of the system of recruitments based on “Merit” – Lord Maculae initially shaped the recruitment policy in 1854, which was based on the ‘Principle of Merit’ for higher services. He recommended for an open competitive examination, which should be conducted by an independent body. The procedures needed to be open, transparent and generally trouble free. Idea of direct recruitment through competitive examination was envisaged with the purpose that very brilliant person can be shaped into efficient officials suitable for holding superior/managerial positions in the government. The basic ingredients of this system were:

  • Selection of really brilliant young people – the caliber of direct recruits was ensured by their success in an open competition.
  • An intensive training program for new recruits– An intensive training either formal or informal for two years; and
  • Stress on Field Duties – Actual field work for at least a period of five to seven years, during which officials were supposed to be fully molded to suit the needs of the organization, they were serving.

Selection and nurturing ‘Mr. Rights’ –

  • From 1858 onwards, in order to make the civil services in India efficient and well equipped, the British Civil Service Commission created in 1855, was given the charge to select officials through a competitive examination every year.
  • Till 1922, the entrance competitive examinations for selection of senior officials were conducted only in England. Since 1922 onwards, India was also included as one of the competitive examinations centers.
  • So far, British Civil Service Commission was conducting the competitive examination for recruiting officers of covenanted civil service. From 1926 onwards, the newly formed public service commission was constituted for India and it began to conduct ICS examination on behalf of British Civil Service Commission. This position continued till 1937, when the Public Service Commission (India) was replaced by Federal Service Commission under Government of India Act 1935.  After 1943, the recruitment to ICS was stopped.

Intake in higher government services – British Government was particular about the intake of the material into its elite service. It firmly believed in the ‘concept of Merit’, thinking that if recruitment was done properly, the person would develop the capacity to become a good bureaucrat.[ii]

It did everything to have –

  • British Government for Principle of Merit – British government strictly followed the principle of merit while recruiting personnel for its bureaucracy. Any other system, which excluded knowledge, talent and virtue was not acceptable to British rulers. Qualifications to do a job well appeared to the British, the only worthwhile principle to select administrators. Their aim was to locate the administrators, “Capable of fulfilling duties of a nature, so particularly delicate and important, both as they respect the peace and happiness of Indian subjects and the rights and privileges of the European Community in our eastern dominion.”[iii]
  • Esprit d’ corps amongst its officersPhilip Maser said that there was esprit d’ corps amongst the officers. Lines pointed out, It is the Esprit d’ corps, which served to enforce a strong moral code. It did not need to be articulated.  Everybody knew it.
  • Smallness of service – It maintained “The smallness of service”, just over a thousand at any given time which instilled amongst officers a strong sense of service loyalty.
  • Incorruptible Bureaucracy Clive Dewey said that the historical evidence points out to only a minute handful of officers of being corrupt. “It was partially their salaries, partly their background, partly their sense of duty and partly ivory tower, in which they lived, which made any rumors extremely uncomfortable.[iv]
  • Satisfactory work atmosphereThe bureaucracy, whatever its complexion might have been, had developed traditions of independence, integrity, and hard work, though these qualities served the British rulers and not the Indian masses. This was the reason that ICS has often been called the Steel Frame, which reared and sustained British rule in India. Lloyd George, the British Prime Minister in his historic Steel-frame speech, said on Aug.2, 1922 in the House of Commons that British civil servants were the very basis of the Empire in India and so he could not imagine any period, when they could dispense with the guidance and assistance of a small nucleus of the British civil servants. He said, I do not care, what you build on it. If you take that Steel-frame out of the fabric, it will collapse. There is only one institution, we will not cripple, there is one institution, and we will not deprive of its functions or of its privileges and that is that institution, which build up the British Raj – the British Civil Service in India.
  • Stress on TrainingThe British government was not only very particular about appointments in the ICS, but also provided atmosphere conducive to efficient performance, while on job. They believed that for being a good bureaucrat something had to be learnt by experience. Therefore, immediately after their arrival in India, the new recruits were attached to district for on-the-job training for eighteen months.

During one year of district training, the officers had to get thoroughly acquainted with villages, administrative compulsions and a working knowledge of the relationship between various branches of Government at district headquarters like police, agriculture, local bodies etc. Another six months were directed to more intensive revenue work in district under land settlement. It meant harder and more complicated work.

  • Great stress on touring and camping out – Great stress was laid on touring and camping out. They had to maintain diaries, which were thoroughly scrutinized by their seniors.
  • Guidance of the seniors – It was made clear to senior district officers vide G.O. No. 738, published on 18th April, 1916, in ICS Manual, Madras, The great importance of paying attention to the training of young men, who were entrusted to their guidance and whose success in life and influence for good depends so greatly on the assistance, which they received at the outset of their career.

The system was so enforced and watched, that there was no escape, whatsoever, from acquiring knowledge about the basics of administration, and to learn about the problems of each and every area of their jurisdiction.  Guidance of the seniors prepared them to deal with those properly. The Government paid all the attention to see that, the new recruits were shaped into ICS role properly.

White-man’s superiority during British Rule – The British, according to their aims and objectives, pursued the policy of ‘racial discrimination’ for recruiting officers in administration. They followed the dictum of White-man’s superiority” for the appointments of higher civil services in Government of India.  Though Queen Victoria’s Proclamation of 1858 clearly stated, “It is our further will that so far as may be, our subjects of whatever race or creed, be freely impartially admitted to the offices in our service, the duties of which they may be qualified by their education, ability and integrity, duly to discharge.[v] But it was not meant to be followed. The rulers virtually prohibited Indians to join higher civil services intentionally for a long time. They did not want to give Indian any control over the governance of the country.

Views of some British rulers on ‘White-men Superiority”Lord Lytton, in his confidential document, acknowledged that the pledge of the Royal proclamation of 1858 was never intended to be carried out.  He said, We all know that these claims, expectations never can or will be fulfilled. We have had choose between prohibiting them (Indians) and cheating them, we have chosen the least straight forward course.[vi]

Lord Kimberley, the Secretary of State, laid down in 1893; It is indispensable, that an adequate number of members of the Civil Service shall always be European.

Viceroy Lord Landsdowne stressed Absolute necessity of keeping the Government of this wide-spread empire into European hands, if that empire is to be maintained.[vii]

In 1867, Lawrence commented, We have conquered India by force of arms, though the policy and good Government have already aided us.  In the like manner, we must hold it.  The Englishmen must always be in the forefront holding the post of honor and power, as the condition of our retaining of our rule.[viii]

In Home Department Resolution of May 1904, Lord Curzon’s Government justified the policy, they were pursuing with regard to White-man’s superiority in Civil Service. The highest ranks of the civil employees in India, those in the Imperial Civil Service, the members of which are entrusted with the responsible task of carrying on the general administration of the country, though open to such Indians, who proceed to England and pass the requisite tests, must nevertheless, as a general rule be held by the Englishmen, for the reason that they possess partly by heredity, partly by upbringing and partly by education that knowledge of the principles of Government, the habits of the mind and vigour of character, which are essential for the task and the rule of India, being a British rule  and any other rule being  in the circumstances of the case impossible.  The tone and the standard should be set by those, who have created it and are responsible for it.[ix]

Illbert Bill controversy proves that White bureaucrats were not at all prepared to share administrative powers with Indians, in spite of all the official declarations of 1833, 1858, 1861, 1892 and 1909.

Dictums on which policy of recruitment was based during Imperial ruleDuring British Imperial rule, the policy of the government for manning its crucial positions depended on following dictums –

  • Background of the recruits British youth, who usually joined covenanted civil services, were mainly from the ranks of British professional middle classes. They had made smooth progression from school to Oxford or Cambridge. The main attractions for them, to join the Indian Civil Services, were extremely generous salaries, opportunity to do something worthwhile, quick promotions, and responsibilities with full freedom to work.
  • Paternalistic outlook of officers – These officers thought it their duty and took it as a challenge to provide, Care, protection and guidance ultimately liberty to the people, they ruled.[x] Lines, an ex- ICS officer, said, I suppose, we thought of a simple Indian villager… Here are simple people, who need leadership. Mr. Arthur, another ex ICS officer, said, Their attitude, certainly was paternalistic, which was necessary in a colonial administration.
  • Restrictions on Indians to join higher services The British deliberately kept Indians at bay by creating conditions, which prohibited Indians’ recruitment in higher administrative jobs. They held the entrance competitive examination for Civil Services in England up to 1922. Only a very few Indians could bear the hazards and expenses of going abroad. There were extremely remote chances of succeeding in that examination.

With the birth of Indian National Congress Party in 1885, and intensification of the nationalist movement, the demand for greater Indian participation at higher levels in Government and its administration grew. Gandhiji, Gokhale, Tilak, Patel and other devoted leaders put great pressure on the British for holding Civil Services examination in India, simultaneously with that of England. The intensification of National movement and increasing demand of Indianization of Civil Services left a dampening effect on the attraction of British youths to join ICS. All the attempts to attract them fell flat. The number of British officials began to decline.

Start of holding Competitive Examination in India – The British Government started holding Civil Services examination in India as well from 1922 onwards. It gave opportunities to more and more Indians to join its elite services like ICS/IP. Along with it, it had transferred some service functions to the Provinces and abolished other All India services dealing with those service functions. The rulers continued their authority over control functions and services engaged in them – services ICS & IP.  British delegated the authority to Provincial governments to recruit personnel for their respective Provincial civil services, and organize the functioning of those activities.

  • Balance of power – In matter of recruitment in government jobs, another dictum, which the Colonial rulers followed, was that of ‘balance of power’. With the intensification of national movement, the rulers tried their best to balance the power in such a way, that no section of Indian society could become strong enough to pose a threat to its rule in India. They regarded Brahmins as the main force behind the entire struggles and agitations for gaining freedom from British rule. To control their movements, British thought it necessary to balance the power.

Act of ‘balancing the power’ led to start of quota system and policy of ‘Divide &rule’ – The dominance of Brahmins/upper castes had cautioned the ruler. To stop the preponderance theirs in administration, freedom struggles and elsewhere in modern white-collared occupations, British rulers propped up other sections of the society. To prepare other sections of society and make their entry possible in administrative set up, Rulers gave preferential treatment by fixing up separate Quotas for them in education and government jobs.

Through the Acts of 1909, 1919 and 1932, the British divided the Indian population into different groups, on the basis of caste, community, occupation, religion etc., and gave them separate representation in Legislative Councils, and Assemblies. They bestowed special benefits and preferences in education and Government jobs for different upcoming groups. Some seats were reserved for Muslims and Anglo-Indians in Central Services (Class I).

In 1932, the British accepted Reservations for scheduled castes at National level through Communal Award”. But it could not be implemented till 1943, because of the procedural constraints. After 1943, the recruitment to ICS was suspended, earlier due to Second World War and later, because of transfer of power to Indians.

British design to prepare an atmosphere for the successful implementation of quota system before quitting India, knowing well that it would divide Indian population and adversely affect administration. It is unfortunate that the independent India has fallen into the trap. British policy of communal representation took the shape of Reservation Policy in Independent India.

Hamstrung by lack of qualified candidates to fill up mandatory quota seats, the government of India has lowered the cut-offs for reserved category of students from time to time. It has also took initiative to arrange for   preparatory courses for aspirant candidates belonging to under-privileged communities.

British rulers, not ready to lower standard of its elite services – British-rulers were not prepared to weaken their Steel frame at any cost. British Government gave preferential treatment to upcoming groups in government jobs, but kept its elite services engaged in control functions (ICS/IP) untouched from the quota system till the last.  They firmly and clearly said to the upcoming groups that they wouldn’t weaken their Steel frame at any cost for anybody, as on it depended efficient governance of the country. It told the upcoming groups in clear terms, With its utmost desire to do so, the best for these classes, the Government will be and is powerless to help them, unless they qualify themselves to the same extent as others of their country-men for duties of administration and public.[xi]

  • Rigorous Foundation training for IndiansIn order to maintain the standard, dignity and honour of the services, British Government arranged for three years of rigorous foundational training for the Indians selected in its elite services. For appointees selected from UK center initial training was for two years. They were required to undergo a years training in U.K., at one of the four universities – Oxford, Cambridge, London or Dublin, immediately after joining ICS. This training was for duration of two years (+ one year) for those, selected from the Indian center (Delhi) after 1922. From 1937, it was reduced from two to one year.

Purpose of longer probation periodThe purpose of longer probation period for Indians in Britain, was to bring Indian recruits in close touch with British way of life. It was to train in such a way that they “should ….. be Anglicized in terms of both cultural and intellectual attainments”. Lord Macauley clearly said that, “we must at present do our best to form a class, who may be interpreters between us and the millions whom we govern; a class of persons, Indians in blood and color, but English in taste, in opinions, in morals and in intellect.” No doubt, the rigorous training system for them had broaden the outlook of Indian recruits, developed their sense of duty as administrators and loyalty to the Government.

The Indian officials had to appear in two examinations at end of their probation in U.K., while their British counterparts, selected from London center, appeared only in one examination.  In all other matters like emolument and privileges, the Indian ICS officials got equal treatment, as was given to their British counterpart.

No doubt, all these efforts have helped ICS developing gradually into one of the most efficient/powerful services in the world.

                                                             Independent India

Independent India

About Governance in India – Way back on December 9, 1946, Mr. V.N. Narayan had said, At best of times, India is ungovernable country of diversities, conflicts and problems. Mr. Nani Palkiwala, a leading lawyer also expressed the same feeling saying “50 years of self-rule, gave to India empty coffers, unfulfilled promises, political instability, fractured society and perpetual divide among different groups along caste and community lines after 50 years of self-rule”. He said, Our legal systems have made life too easy for criminals and too difficult for law abiding citizens.[i] A touch here, a push there may make India ungovernable.

Present scenario of governanceRecently, Mr. VN Narayan has described beautifully the present climate, “We have a political problem (scams and scandals), but we have no political solution, we have a religious problem (Ayodhya), but no religious solution. There is an economic problem (poverty), but there is no economic solution (Liberalization). There is a social problem (Sectarian conflicts), but there is no societal remedy (Secularism and Mandalisation). There is a socio-medical disease (cancer of corruption), but there is no socio-medical cure (ministerial resignations and reshuffles)”

Administrative apparatus of the government – In a democratic country like India, for the governance and delivering goods to public at large, the Government roughly depends on the following two general processes:

  • Process of politics, which consists of activities of the elected representatives of the people, and
  • Process of administration which consists of the activities of permanent civil servants.

In theory, position of political-leaders vs bureaucrats – Theoretically the administrative machinery is subordinate to the political arm of a government. The decision making power rests with ministers. But bureaucracy assists the elected representatives of the people in governance of the country of administration. But, in practice, its role is very important in governance of a country.

Importance of bureaucracy in governance – The administrative machinery or Civil Service, is a Professional body of officials, permanent, paid and skilled.[i], It plays an important role in governance of a country. The main characteristics of civil services are its efficiency, predictability, impersonal nature, and its impartial and speedy working. It is always associated with exercise of authority.

Theoretically, the administrative machinery is subordinate to the elective body i.e. the Council of Ministers. But in practice, it plays a different role. The civil services role in relation to the minister is that of influence and not of power.[ii] As far as governance in a country is concerned, bureaucracy could be regarded as the pillar, on which the entire structure of governance rests.

Difficulties and problems posed on free India – Very few nations in the world have started out with greater initial difficulties of political, economic, social and administrative character as India had to do. Periods of unity, in Indian history, have been lesser as compared to periods of strife and conflict. Immediately after Independence and as time passed on, India has to  face many the mind-boggling challenges like –

  • After-effects of  two World Wars, or Unification of the country out of 560 and odd princely states in splendid manner and almost within a year. First President of India Rajendra Prasad wrote in May 1959, “That there is today an India to think and talk about, is very largely due to Sardar Patel’s statesmanship and firm administration.
  • Partition of the country, and settlement of a large number of refugees coming from East and West Pakistan.
  • India, still, is a transient society moving from traditionalism to modernism. It had a long tradition of authoritarianism and institutionalism. The caste, class and feudal heritage still dominate its social fabric. In the words of Nirad Chaudari 1, “An extraordinary thing about all the civilizations of India is that there have been superstructures imposed on a primitive, peasant, labor and artisan community, which itself has hardly changed since the end of the neo-lithic age in Western Asia”
  • Periodical famines and floods,
  • Bleeding economic condition.
  • Poverty, illiteracy of masses.
  • Coming up of new divisive forces, which base themselves on cultural, emotional and linguistic variations of the country.
  • Violent activities of Naxalites and disturbances in many provinces due to one reason or the other,
  • Terrorist activities in border areas which pose serious challenge before the administration at various levels and that unless local problems are solved speedily, they are likely to pose a new threat to the unity and stability of the nation as a whole.
  • Still the growth has been very slow and the economy is in a bad shape. Some basic problems of Indian economy are low per capita income, dependence of at least ¾ of her population on agriculture, industrial backwardness, capital deficiency, rapid population growth, unemployment and under-employment, prevalence of backward technology, under-utilization of natural resources and unsuitable social structures.
  • Generally law follows social change, but in India the Government is trying to foster social change through law.
  • Pervasive corruption and indiscipline has weakened the social fabric beyond repair.
  • Population is exploding virtually unchecked.
  • Standards of education have declined beyond any remedy and it has become inefficient, wasteful, dysfunctional and increasingly unrelated to national needs and aspirations.
  • Illiteracy of masses is still a problem in the society.
  • Some unpleasant changes took place in the past and are increasing every day in the character, role and inter-relationship of the 6-7 main constituent of the national elites – political executive, legislators, media, businessmen, the organized workers, the surplus farmers and the bureaucrats.
  • Sectional and regional imbalances are also sources of great social and psychological tensions.
  • Over and above it, there is disincentive to hard work, talent, honesty and sincerity, lack of accountability and alienation of common man.
  • Last but not the least tolerance of people of India is also responsible, who accept sub-standard administration, giving very little challenge to the authorities to upgrade their performance.

Until and unless, each of the above mentioned issues are not solved firmly and speedily, efficient and effective governance will remain a distant dream.

Why success seems to be far away? – People hold bureaucracy, ‘the steel frame of governance’, responsible for all the mess-up. People wonder why the steel-frame of yesteryears is shaking and failing to do its job effectively and judiciously despite having a constitutional status with enough powers to deal with unwanted situations. No doubt, there has been decline over the years in the quality, competence and commitment of the administrative officers. In-discipline, violence and lawlessness are increasing every day all-over the country. Bureaucracy is shaking under its own pressures. But more than that, it seems that political and administrative systems are not in harmony with the developmental activities.

Like Four Blind Men and the Elephant, leaders of different political parties and groups of intellectuals perceive and project disparate parts of nation’s issues differently, always criticizing each other’s point of view vehemently. They ignore harsh realities/facts and attract public attention on emotional, sensitive abstract issues. Maximum damage is done by vested interests of different pressure groups, which usually spread their opinions based on half cooked knowledge or incomplete data. Their eyes are on short term gains. Success depends on how those in the realm of authority perceive and handle the real issues, find out possible solutions and decide without bias what are issues needed to be tackled on priority basis. Pressing problems needs to be analyzed taking the whole scenario in view, and then be tackled sincerely and honestly without any bias for the sustainable development of the nation.

What to do?Just as correct diagnosis is necessary for curing a disease properly, in the same way a nation needs to assess correctly the real issues, which are hampering its development within time and cost parameters. Smooth governance and Development of nation demands awareness, honesty and a sense of responsibility amongst elected representatives, of the people, government officials, and masses. Then only they can get over challenges hampering the progress of the nation as a whole. They should not waste their efforts and energy on peripheral/abstract issues for short terms gains.

To face the challenges of the day, there is a need to consciously move towards –

  • Humanizing the political and social institutions, not communalise or secularize them and
  • Creating sound systems for recruitment, education and training of personnel to be engaged in the work of governance. Today India needs more than yesterday to induct into its administrative set-up, upright, honest and best available talents, for whom interest of the country and welfare of the people always remain on the top of their mind and deed.

Recruitment in Civil Services in India after Independence –  In India, the present recruitment policy has been evolved after a long experience. In order to provide the nation a well-equipped and intellectually brilliant administrative frame-work, the recruitment to its superior government services is being done through open examinations conducted by Union Public Service Commission.

The forefathers of the Constitution knew well the importance of civil services in order to ensure good governance to the country and providing the safety of the nation. Mr. MV Kamath said, “With the independence of our country, the responsibilities of the services have become onerous. It may make or mar the efficiency of the machinery of administration, machinery so vital for the peace and progress of the country. A country without any efficient Government service cannot make progress in spite of the earnestness of the people at the helm of affairs of the country. Whatever democratic institutions exist, experience has shown, that it is essential to protect public services as far as possible from political and personal influence and to give it that position of stability and security, which is vital in its successful working, as an impartial and efficient instrument, by which Government of whatever political complexion may give effect to their policies” (Constituent Assembly Debates, Vol. IX, p585).

Position of Indian civil services according to Constitution of India – To provide the nation ‘Development Administration’ of a ‘Welfare State’, the Constitution of India has entrusted the responsibility of improving the quality of life of common-men, together to i.e. the Parliament to lay policy and frame laws for governance, the Judiciary to act as a watchdog and Executive to implement policies, laws and programs. Amongst all the three, the Executive affects the daily life of the people the most, as it implements the policies, the laws and the programs through Civil Services of the nation.

Mr. Subharajan said during Constituent Assemble debates, “Without an efficient civil service, it would be impossible for the Government to carry on and continuity to be kept. The importance of the Governmental administration has been in the fact that there is continuity and unless this continuity, there is chaos” (Constituent Assembly Debates, Vol. IX, p952).

After Independence, many national leaders desired that ICS and similar services must disappear completely. According to them the basic task of administration had changed from one of attending to routine regulatory function to that of promoting a rapid socio-economic change. They wanted the Civil Services of independent India to be constituted on a new basis, to fit in with the new system of Welfare State. and form the civil services of India on a new basis to fit in with the new philosophy, role, aims and objectives of a Welfare state. According to them, there were of maintenance of law and order and revenue collection only.

No drastic change possible in the administrative set-up – Visionary Sardar Patel, then the Home Minister of India, had realized that at the dawn of independence, circumstances were such that no drastic change could be made in the then existing system. Immediately after the independence, the number of IAS officers decreased to a great extent. Many British ICS officers took premature retirement after the independence. Also, a large number of Muslim officers opted for Pakistan. Many critical problems were there due to the task of unification of states, partition of the country in 1947, and bleeding economic situations. He insisted to continue the existing Institution of Civil Services. He told the national leaders very clearly that it would not be practically a wise decision to abolish the existing civil services. This decision proved to be a right direction, as the nation was facing many challenges. Consequently, save minor changes here and there, the administrative machinery set up during the Raj moved into the post-Independent era except for minor changes here and there.

Process of Recruitment in dependent India – After Independence, for smooth, efficient and effective governance and successful operation of its developmental activities, Government of India focused its attention to conduct properly the initial selection of the services. It desired to select those candidates/officials for its civil services, who could implement its policies and programs in a more positive, systematic and purposeful manner. In order to provide the nation with a well-equipped and intellectually brilliant administrative frame-work, it decided to follow the earlier British Government practice of the recruitment in higher services with minor changes here and there.

Structure of higher civil services at national level – After Independence the government of India has formed some new civil services in various disciplines – functional, technical and specialist as well as managerial and generalist cadres.

All India services and Central Services – Services like Indian Administrative Service, Indian Police Service and some Central Services fall in the first category. These are meant for performing the control and policy making functions of the government. All India Services are meant basically for providing personnel for national and state administration. Maximum number of policy level posts under the Union are held by Officers belonging to this group.

Among the three, elite status is given to Indian Administrative service (IAS). Right from its inception, Indian Administrative Service attracts the maximum attention of the government and the politicians. Along with the council of Ministers, they control, virtually, all the levers of the governance of the country. Also for an educated youth, it is a matter of pride to be a part of IAS, as it was with the ICS in pre-independence days. The Government offers them best career opportunities, more power, higher responsibilities, higher salaries, better perquisites, and superior status than any other service at the center or in the states and a place of pride in socio-political circle. They exercise state authority from day one and continue to do it till their retirement. Its officers deliberate directly at the highest level of policy formulation and decision making.

Indian Administrative Service and Indian Police Service are incorporated in Article 312(2) of the Constitution. Government offers to IAS best career opportunities, more power, higher responsibilities, higher salaries, better perquisites, and superior status than any other service at the center or in the states and a place of pride in socio-political circle.

Central civil services – Central civil services are professional by nature. Its functional areas are mentioned in Central List of Subjects under the Constitution, such as Railways, Posts and Telegraphs, Excise and Customs etc. Appointments in professional services does not require any professional qualification or experience.

Technical Civil services – The government has the power to create technical and specialized government services as and when nation require them. Technical Civil Services require knowledge and experience of a defined field, professional degree, diploma and/or experience for appointment to these services. Engineering services, Health services etc., come in this category.

These services deal especially with developmental programs or work for building up infrastructure for the development of the country. It is considered expedient to have a Central Control/guidance for uniformity in technical fields such as water resources management, power generation etc. Some Technical Services are Indian service of Indian Meteorological Service; Overseas Communication Service; Indian Statistical Service; Indian Economic Service; Indian Railway Services of Engineers (of Electrical Engineers; Signal Engineers; Mechanical Engineers; (Civil, Electrical, Mechanical, Electronics, Indian Ordnance Factories Service (Engineering Branch).

Recruitment System after Independence

After 1947, independent India needed, more than earlier, in its managerial cadres, energetic officers with drive, initiative, unquestionable integrity and positive outlook to meet the challenges of insurgent India. Along with the traditional task of the maintenance of law and order, revenue collection, developmental works like integrated planning, implementation of programs, coordinate programs for economic and social regeneration and construction of new modern India, were added to the responsibilities of the administrative service. Now India required more in numbers, “The officers, manning the executive, must not only be good administrators, but should be imbibed with the service, possess leadership of a high order and be able to play the role of a guide and friend of the people.” [i]

Recruitment pattern after Independence – After Independence, for smooth, efficient and effective governance and successful operation of its developmental activities, Government of India focused its attention to conduct properly the initial selection of the services. It desired to select those candidates/officials for its civil services, who could implement its policies and programmes in a more positive, systematic and purposeful manner. In order to provide the nation with a well-equipped and intellectually brilliant administrative frame-work, it decided to follow the earlier British Government practice of the recruitment in higher services with minor changes here and there.

The recruitment pattern remains almost the same after Independence except for some marginal modifications, here and there, from time to time. Recruitment in all the government services is to be done through open examinations every year. The responsibility to spot out good candidates and nurture them to acquire the skills necessary for performing responsibilities of administration is entrusted to an autonomous body called Union Public Service Commission at the centre and State Public Service Commission of the respective state.

The basic ingredients of the system are: –

  • Selection of really brilliant youths through an open competitive examination, conducted annually by an independent agency – Union Public Service Commission and Provincial Public Service Commissions, which have been entrusted with the responsibility to spot out good candidates.
  • Promotion of brilliant officers into Central from the State Civil Services.
  • Intensive formal and informal training to nurture them to acquire the skills necessary for performing responsibilities of higher posts has been planned by the government. There has been arrangement for two years foundation training for new recruits and many in-service training programs, refresher courses, seminars, workshops etc., at frequent intervals.
  • Like British rulers, Independent India also acknowledges the value of actual field experience for initial four-five years, “What constitutes of being a good bureaucrat is something, he has still to learn and it can only be learnt by experience, for it is a lot of things, which one never can get into books.”[ii]

Twenty-first century India needs more than earlier, in its managerial cadres, energetic officers with drive, initiative, unquestionable integrity and positive outlook to meet the challenges of insurgent India. Along with the traditional task of the maintenance of law and order, revenue collection, developmental works like integrated planning, implementation of programs, coordinate programs for economic and social regeneration and construction of new modern India, are added to the responsibilities of the administrative service. Now India required more in numbers, “The officers, manning the executive, must not only be good administrators, but should be imbibed with the service, possess leadership of a high order and be able to play the role of a guide and friend of the people.” [iii]

Therefore, government needs to induct the best available talents into the service. Candidates recruited on an all India basis would help the state administration to acquire broader outlook and exposure. Broader vision and outlook of candidates would make them objective, enable them to withstand local influence and provide them strength to give free and frank opinion. At present, there are many divisive forces within the country based on cultural, social, religious, lingual status etc. which may threaten the unity of the country at any point of time. In such an atmosphere, bureaucrats are supposed to play a role of an integrating force. They can do so by objectively reconciling conflicting viewpoints and diverse interest of the people and always keep the interests of the nation on the top.

India has everything, a nation needs for its development – like tremendous amount of skilled and unskilled manpower, all kind of raw materials in abundance, a good legal system, a huge market and potential to export virtually everything, provided cost of its inputs are kept at international levels.

Pattern of Central Civil Services competitive examinationBefore 1979, the written examination consisted of three compulsory subjects of 450 marks – Essay, General English and General Knowledge. These were required to be taken by all the candidates. There were three optional papers, of 200 marks each, for candidates trying for IAS and IFS and Central Services Class I and II. For Police Services of Union Territories, candidates had to take only two optional papers of 200 marks each. Candidates appearing for category – I had to take two more optional subjects (Higher papers) carrying 200 marks each, additionally. This position is summarized in the table below: –

The standard of the lower papers (Optional papers) was approximately of an honors degree examination of an Indian University. The standard of two additional subjects (higher papers) for category I was higher than that of an honors degree examination, that, too, were examined, only if a certain minimum marks, as fixed by the Commission, in three compulsory and three optional papers had been secured by the candidates. Interview for personality test carried 400 marks for IFS, 300 for IAS and 200 for all other services. From 1969 onwards, candidates had the choice to answer the compulsory papers in English or in any one of the languages included in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution.

Kothari Commission’s recommendations In 1975, under Dr. D.S. Kothari, a Committee was set up to review to suggest improvement in the system of recruitment to the higher services. The Commission observed, that in order to meet the challenges and to achieve rapid socio-economic and political development, the administrators must have not only relevant knowledge and skills, but also Socio-emotional and moral qualities for working with the community. Therefore, some changes in the recruitment policy and selection method were suggested. On the basis of Kothari Commission’s recommendations a common Civil Service Examination, having equal number of papers, for all the three categories, which is conducted by UPSC, has been introduced since 1979.

It recommended unified competitive examination consisting of a preliminary screening examination to test skill, speed and accuracy for non-technical civil services, an objective type to facilitate identification of those, who have the requisite range of knowledge, main examination in four compulsory and four optional papers to test the depth of knowledge and an interview to examine communication skills, public speaking skills, leadership qualities, ability to exchange meaningful ideas and attitude. This scheme came into practice from 1979. Since then, it is done in three stages –

  • Preliminary examination (MCQ type) – The first stage is of Unified competitive examination consisting of a preliminary screening examination to test skill, speed and accuracy for non-technical civil services. It facilitates quick identification of those, who have the requisite range of IQ. Preliminary examination consists of General Studies paper of 150 marks and an optional subject of 300 marks. This examination is of objective type with multiple choice questions. Through preliminary examination, about 85,000 to 10,000 candidates are short listed in order of merit, who are allowed to appear in the second stage of examination known as Main Examination.
  • Mains examination (descriptive type)The qualified candidates of preliminary examination are called for Mains examination. Main examination to tests the depth of knowledge in compulsory and optional subjects of candidates’ choice. consists of conventional essay type paper in any Indian language, as per the Eighth Schedule, consisting of 300 marks, a paper of 300 marks in English, General studies I of 300 marks, General Studies II also of 300 marks, and two papers in each of the two optional subjects, each carrying 300 marks. Indian language and English papers are part of the qualifying examination. These two papers are of matriculation standard. Marks secured in these papers are not added to the total score.
  • Personal interviewThose, who succeed in main examination, are called to appear for an Interview/Personality test for final selection. Its purpose is to find out leadership qualities, depth of knowledge, attitude and willingness to understand all sides of a problem, communication skill and command over language. The merit list of successful candidates is prepared on the basis of their performance in the main examination (1800 marks) and interview (250 marks).

Qualifications For entering directly into the managerial cadre of different government services, candidates should have the following qualifications –

  • Educational Qualification – A graduate degree is needed from a recognized university (incorporated by an Act of Central OR State Legislature in India OR Other educational institution established by Parliament Act OR announced to be deemed university under section-3 of the UGCA), 1956 or an equivalent degree. a simple graduate degree from anywhere in India can appear in the Civil Services examination conducted by UPSC. Appointment into non-technical professional civil services does not require any special professional qualification or experience. Professional civil services’ functional areas are mentioned in Central List of Subjects under the Constitution.
  • Age Limit– The upper age limit varied between 24 to 28 years for general category candidates, from time to time. Age limit differs from time to time. Sometimes it is 21 to 24, sometimes from 21 to 28 years and at present according to official notice 2016 (If there is change UPSC updates)
Category Upper age limit No. of attempts
General 32 Years 06 Attempts
OBC 35 Years 09 Attempts
SC/ST 37 Years No bar
PH (Blind, Deaf, Orthopedic) 42 Years

SC/ST= No bar

J & K Domicile GEN=37 Yrs, OBC= 40 Yrs, SC/ST=40 Yrs, PH=50 Yrs No bar
Disabled servicemen, disabled from duty. GEN=37 Yrs, OBC=40 Yrs, SC/ST=40 Yrs. No bar
  • The allocation of services – the IAS, IFS, IPS, or the Central Services – is on the basis of merit and choice. Normally, the top rankers opt for either the IAS or the IFS.
  • Concessions to weaker sections – However some seats are reserved for SC (15%) ST (7.5%) and OBC (27%) on relaxed ground in all the services.
  • Concessions to SCT – In order to increase the number of SC/ST in government services, in addition to Reservation of posts, many other benefits are also given to them in direct recruitment. These are: –

      • Age relaxation. The maximum age of direct recruitment for SC/ST increased by 5 years.
      • SC/ST allowed taking as many attempts, to appear in the competitive examination, as they could avail. This works out to as many as 9 attempts.
      • SCT candidates qualifying by general standard not to be adjusted against quota.
      • SC/ST candidates exempted from payment of examination fees.
      • Separate interviews for SC/ST.
      • Pre-entry coaching classes organised by the Government for them.
      • Relaxation in standard to further improve their representation in the service.
      • If, in any particular year, the number of suitable candidates available is less than the number of reserved posts, the posts, so in excess, are to be treated as unreserved for that particular year. However, in the next year, the number of posts unreserved would be added to the reserved posts of that year. This carrying over process is to operate for a period of two years, at a time.
      • Reservation in Promotions, not given effect to, in a particular year is carried forward to three subsequent recruitment years. SC/ST candidates to be given Reservation leading to their accelerated promotions. As per the Supreme Court judgement, in Indira Sawney case, delivered on 16.11.92, Reservations in promotion could not continue beyond 15.11.97. Hence 77th Amendment Act, 1995, notified on 19.6.95 (issued on 13.8.97), enabled the State, vide Art 16(4A), to continue it indefinitely.
      • De-reservation in a group A services permissible only in exceptional cases having: –
        • The approval of the Minister in charge of Department of Personnel,
        • On the basis of recommendations of a committee, comprising the secretaries in the Ministries of Personnel, Welfare and the administrative Ministry concerned.
        • Only after receiving the comments of the national Commission on SCT.
    • Concessions given to OBCs – The concessions to OBC’s are less than SC/ST in following respect:
        • They get relaxation in upper age limit up to 3 years only,
        • Number of chances available within the relaxed age limit for appearing in competitive examination limited to seven as against 9 in the case of SC/ST.
        • Relaxation in standard of suitability has been prescribed to further improve the representation of OBCs.
    • Steps taken to implement Governments decision for appointment of OBCs are as follows-[iv]
        • A list of caste/communities, to whom the orders of Reservation are applicable are notified.
        • The persons/sections (Creamy layer), to whom the Reservation shall not apply, are specified.
        • A model format of an application form for claiming the benefit of Reservation, as well as, their not belonging to the creamy layer have been prepared and sent to State Government authorities, competent to issue certificate in respect of OBC status.
        • The Chief Secretaries of the state Governments are advised to issue necessary instructions to their district authorities for providing certificates required by the OBCs.
        • The existing 40-point roster for recruitment by open competition on an All India basis has been revised to a 200-point roster.
    • Concessions to Women – As for as women were concerned, on 17th July 1948, the Government of India announced that woman, too, were eligible for any public service including IAS and IFS.[ii] However, till 1965, there were some restrictions on married woman on joining IAS or appearing in the competitive examination. If they got married after the selection, their retention depended on the performance of their work.[iii]  Though percentage of women comprising of 50% is very little in the corridor of of power, much lesser than the percentage of STC or OBC, still they have always been expected by political leaders to compete with others on merit. It is a matter of pride for them that their number in various  civil services is continuously increasing. They have also been amongst the top rankers in various competitive examinations held annually by UPSC.

One of the toughest competitive Examination – Civil Services Examination (CSE) is one the toughest examination in India, with more than 900,000 applicants having one of the lowest in the world success rate of 0.1%­0.3%. a nationwide competitive examination in India for recruitment to various Civil Services of the Government of India, including the Indian Police Service (IPS), Indian Foreign Service (IFS), Indian Administrative Service (IAS) and Indian Revenue Service (IRS) conducted by the Union Public Service Commission. The process takes roughly one year from the notification of the pre examination to declaration of the final results.

Foundational training – Immediately after their selection into various services, the successful candidates are sent to various training Institutions for their foundation training so that they may get the picture of the political, social and economic aspect of the administrative set-up and they may get acquainted with the basic concepts and requirements of their jobs.

Technical Civil servicesBefore Independence, there existed some technical All India Services which were recruited and controlled by the `Secretary of State’. These died their natural death, when in 1935, authority and control of the services engaged in service functions was handed over to provincial government. Very few remained with Central Government. After Independence, the government created some new technical and specialized government services as and when nation required them. Some of the services on technical side are Indian service of Indian Meteorological Service; Overseas Communication Service; Indian Statistical Service; Indian Economic Service; Indian Railway Services of Engineers (of Electrical Engineers; Signal Engineers; Mechanical Engineers; (Civil, Electrical, Mechanical, Electronics, Indian Ordnance Factories Service (Engineering Branch); In India,

Technical Civil Services require knowledge and experience of a defined field, professional degree, diploma and/or experience for appointment to these services. Engineering services, Health services etc., come in this category.

These services deal especially with developmental programs or work for building up infrastructure for the development of the country. It is considered expedient to have a Central Control/guidance for uniformity in technical fields such as water resources management, power generation etc. For Technical and Specialist services, UPSC conducts separate examinations.

The pattern of examination is slightly different for technical services. No preliminary screening has been considered necessary as technical graduates have already undergone a rigorous curriculum in their respective fields of study. For joining various organised group `A’ services on technical side, the candidates have to appear in various competitive examinations conducted annually by UPSC itself.

Some weaknesses of present recruitment system – Many efforts have been done so far to improve the system of recruitment to induct officials of caliber, character and leadership capabilities in Government services. But general public feels that the performance of civil services has been deteriorated day by day. The changes, brought in so far have not improved the situation. Something more is required to be done. There are some inherent weaknesses in the recruitment system. Until and unless, necessary changes and improvements are not done in the following areas, not much can be expected from bureaucracy –

  • Only a graduate degree not enough to enter into elite services of the nation –  One of the striking features is that in this age of specialization and very fast technological advancements, government still does not give enough importance to specialisation.  In the modern times, there are very few jobs, which can be done efficiently without some measure of specialization through education, training or experience.  The nature and degree of specialisation have to be geared to the nature of the job and responsibilities to be shouldered. Each new area of administration , be it economic, social, industrial, technical, science or agriculture – has its own body of academic requirements, knowledge and techniques.  The effective administration of each demands an intimate knowledge of its underlying principles and an awareness of its problems.  This knowledge can only come through the study and understanding of that area for a longer period of time. Then only,when politicians are to be advised on policy matters, alternatives can be properly put forward by government officials.

Even in 21st century, in most of the areas with which government deals, the system of collecting information, analysing data and using modern theoretical studies is inadequate and unsatisfactory. Most of the time policy advice continues to be primitive and amateurish.  Usually comparatively ignorant politicians are being advised by comparatively ignorant officers – the situation is of blind leading the blind.    

  • Age-relaxation – By increasing the age limit for entering into the government services, nation is losing the services of the youth at the time when they are full of energy and their minds are fresh and creative stage.
  • Diluting the integrity of the Government services  – No compromise should be done with integrity and merit-oriented recruitment in the government services. Mr. Appu says, “No reforms would work without improving the political atmosphere of the country”. System of fixing quotas for different sections of society has created a wedge between quota and non-quota candidates.

After the First World War, a wave of socialism and emancipation of submerged people through governmental measures had swept all over the world. The leaders of independent India, too, thought to do something more for the downtrodden. They felt, if the nation allowed the weak to stand and compete on equal footing with the strong, it would be throwing the dice in favour of the strong. Already after the departure of British, the administration fell into the hands of affluent people. If nothing special were done for the Backward-class, the affluent class would keep the poor suppressed.

At the time of independence, some weaker sections of Indian society were alarmingly under-represented in the corridor of power. They did not have access to education, gainful employment, land ownership and other civic facilities. Social justice and commitment to welfare ideologies demanded Governments intervention.

During Constitutional Assembly Debates, it was advised to keep in mind consideration to maintain a balance between efficiency in administration and protective measures, so that neither they negate merit, competitiveness, nor development of underprivileged groups. They warned the nation that  this effort may create greed or abuse of power, increase communalism, or hamper the growth of national unity and solidarity.[i]

Pt Hriday Narayan Kunjru feared, The regulations, made in this regard, may be unnecessarily wide or they may even be changed in such a way, from time to time, as to enable the executive to exercise a considerable amount of undesirable patronage. Many constituent Assembly members apprehended the fall of efficiency and administrative standard.

Constitutional provision  -Feeling that if something more was not done for this vast segment of society, it would remain backward, exploited and deprived forever, , the forefathers thought of giving preferential treatment to weaker sections in matter of education, jobs and other civic facilities. With his unparalleled skill of speech Dr. Ambedkar calmed down all the voices raised against protective measures at that time, and with his legal acumen shaped the Constitutional provision about Reservation.

Thus, with Art. 15 guaranteeing equality to all irrespective of caste, creed or gender, Clause (4), was included through First Amendment Act, on the pressures of leaders from South like Kamraj etc. It authorizes the state to take special care for the advancement of any socially, educationally and economically backward class of citizens or Scheduled caste and Scheduled Tribes. Art. 16 (4) permitted the state to make a provision for the Reservation of appointment, in posts, in favour of any backward class of citizens, which in the opinion of state were not adequately represented in the services under the state. Simultaneously, the emphasis was laid that the claims of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes shall be taken into consideration, consistent with the maintenance of efficiency in the administration, while making appointments to services and posts in connection with the affairs of Union or of a State (Article 335).

The Constitution framers neither fixed up any quota, nor designated the people, who could be put in SC/ST or backward class list, nor did they fix any period. However the debates of the constituent Assembly clearly indicated that Reservation were meant only for a limited period.

In pursuance of the constitutional provisions contained in Art. 16(4) and 335, various instructions were issued, from time to time, providing Reservation for SC/ST and OBC. The Government of India made provision for Reservation for SC/ST in Government jobs. By a resolution in 1950, the Government reserved 12.5% (for SC) and 5% (for ST) of the total available vacancies in all the Civil Services of Government of India, on the basis of their numerical strength in total population. It was raised to 15% for SCs and 7.5% for STs in 1970.

The Central Government issued orders for 27% Reservation for OBC on 13.8.90. This was challenged in the court of law. The judgement was delivered on 16.11.92. Based on the judgement, revised orders were issued on 8.9.93. Reservation for OBC started at national level from 1994. The Reservations for minorities was terminated by the Constitution.

Impact of Reservation No doubt, immediately after the independence provision of preferential treatment/Reservation has compensated and helped the underprivileged to offset the accumulated deprivation and make their empowerment a reality. It has provided opportunities to some of the most neglected sections of the society to come up and join the administrative services. Their inclusion has made the composition of the service broad based.

As a result of the Reservation, there has been a considerable increase in the representation of SCT in terms of absolute member and percentage of the total number of employees in IAS and other group A” services. In 1953, there were only 0.35% (absolute numbers of 20) of SCs and 0.10% (absolute number 6) of STs in Civil Services group A. Their numbers rose to 96 SC and 34 ST in 1966, 227 (8.56%) for SCs and 132 (4.8%) for STs in 1976. Non-adjustment of the meritorious SCT candidates against reserved vacancies, in direct Civil Services-recruitment has increased their number to more than 15% and 7 1/2%, respectively, every year.

OM No.1/1/70 Estt. (SCT) dated 25.7.70, issued by the Ministry of Home Affairs, stipulates that in direct recruitment, whether by examination or otherwise, if sufficient numbers of SCT candidates are not available, on the basis of the general standard, to fill all the vacancies reserved for them, the SCT candidates should be selected on relaxed standards provided they are not unfit for such posts. The UPSC continues, till now, the practice of relaxing standards, to the extent possible, while recruiting candidates belonging to SCT, to make up the short fall in reserved quota provided, they were otherwise considered fit for appointment.

It was hoped, that the candidates selected on relaxed standards would come up to the standard of other recruits selected along with them after receiving additional instructions, foundational training, in-service training and on- the jobs experience cum training arranged by the Government. But, so far, neither there is enough arrangement for giving formal additional training to the candidates selected on relaxed standards, nor for scrutinizing strictly or taking stern steps to improve their standard, apparently because of political reasons.

Hamstrung by lack of qualified candidates to fill up mandatory quota seats, the government lowers the cut-offs for reserved category of students from time to time. It has not arranged enough preparatory courses for aspirant candidates belonging to underprivileged communities, so that they can compete with others on equal footings.

But now, the deliberate policy of the Government of India to give patronage to certain castes and communities under reservation policy has aggravated the crisis. It has generated rivalry between different sections of the society and created slackness in recruitment and training, which has ultimately led the nation to ineffective governance. There is not

Seed sown by British blossomed in Independent India – It is quite evident that the British design to prepare an atmosphere for the successful implementation of Reservation policy before quitting, knowing well that it would divide Indian society and adversely affect administration. It is unfortunate that the independent India has fallen into the trap. The deliberate policy of the Government of India to give patronage to certain castes and communities under reservation policies has aggravated the crisis. It has generated inter-cast and intra-caste rivalry. It has compromised with the integrity, efficiency and effectiveness of the government services.

The political leadership needs to come out of this trap. Any laxity in the qualifications of officials in recruitment and promotions naturally leads to inefficient or mal-administration and sub-standard services to general public. C Rajagopalachari was absolutely right in commenting, Short sighted favoritism and concessions, to produce contentment among classes and castes, will be short lived and will deteriorate into a constant pondering to intrigues and factions, if we do not look to real efficiency.

Suggestions – As has been seen, the Indian Civil Service has a long historical background and is a product of centuries, and so is the case of its Recruitment system and systems of their further Education and Training. These systems have been progressed slowly, but steadily under three regimes – the East India Company, the Crown and the Indian Republic.

Although considerable attention has been paid to Recruitment into government services and their Education and Training, yet it has not been able to bring out the desired results – an inference based on various opinion polls and interviews. It has been pointed out by different levels of officers  that  Recruitment system should be job-oriented instead of its being degree oriented. Training time of initial training is insufficient and training system is too general. There is lack of interest among senior officers towards training, as it was during British rule. Officers are not trained to lead a simple life. Generalist services hampers technological advancement. IAS officers generally occupy almost all the higher posts even in departments of technical nature. Appointments of technical personnel would adversely affect their career prospects. In training institutes, usually sidelined officers are sent as trainers.

Building up of responsible and efficient civil servant does not start from the day, he joins the civil services, but right from the day he starts his education.

  • The pre-entry education has a vital impact on the personality building, outlook and maturity of the prospective citizens, whether or not they join the civil services. The pre-entry education should be comprehensive in scope and sound in nature, so that it could provide firm foundation for the continuing education of higher civil servants.
  • If the education and training after their recruitment is correctional in nature, its effectiveness and efficiency would receive a set-back and a much more massive effort for training would be called for.
  • As of today, the general pre-entry education system especially the higher education in India is increasingly becoming unrelated to national needs and aspirations, in-efficient, wasteful and dis-functional.
  • As any deficiency in recruitment system is likely to have an adverse effect on the system of civil service itself. It frustrates the efforts of national reconstruction. One of the grave weaknesses in recruitment system is that it is degree-oriented instead of job-oriented.
  • Competitive entrance examination system for civil services is  academic and favors the examination minded candidates. Just assessment of different subjects poses difficult problems in evaluation of comparative merits.
  • Seeing the inherent weaknesses in Indian education system and recruitment system, it is suggested that the recruitment to various Government Services should be done immediately after higher secondary education at a raw age, when the minds of candidates are in formative, creative and energetic stage.
  • The idea of such Recruitment, Education and Training is not new to India and has proved to be successful in Defense and Railways.It could be done through an open competitive examination as is being done for Defense Services and Indian Railways Mechanical Engineering Service (successful candidates trained in Jamalpur).
  • It would facilitate the Government to arrange properly for their continuing education and intensive and comprehensive training at various administrative colleges and training institutions.
  • It would not only make it possible to have the intellectual knowledge and qualities required for performing their specific jobs, but would also inculcate in them emotional qualities and capacities required for doing their jobs such as social purposefulness, ability to understand the administrative and political implications of a problem and resourcefulness in solving them, capacity for team-work and flair for leadership, which are basic requirements of any welfare administrators.

Other organisational changes – While the civil servant is an important element in the scheme of civil services and, he must possess the qualities discussed above. The goals may still remain elusive, if the civil service, as an organisation, lacked the qualities conducive to effective working.  The civil servant as an individual cannot improve the overall efficiency in administration.  It cannot hope to solve a large number of organisational maladies, which have already resulted in loss of cohesion, espirit-de-corps and even raison d’etre (rationale).  Reckless expansion, virtual stagnation of salaries for more than a century, disparities in career prospects within civil services and seething conflict between generalists and specialists have affected adversely the efficiency of services as an organisation.  Above all, the prevailing mistrust between the political executive and bureaucracy is truly most frightening.  While politicians regard civil-servants as a bunch of self-serving, corrupt and arrogant obstructionists, the bureaucrats regard them as a pack of ignorant unprincipled opportunists.

In order to get an efficient and effective administration and streamlining the working of civil service, Mr. A. D. Gorwala (Chairman, Report of Public Administration, New Delhi, Planning               Commission, Government of India, 1951, P.4) had made the following suggestions:-

  • Clear distinction between formulation of policy and its execution;
  • More and better coordination at the secretariat level;
  • Better selection from a wider range of officials for the Finance Ministry;
  • Improved Cabinet procedures of work;
  • More supervision and inspection by senior officers;
  • Decentralization of pay, rewards and punishments;
  • Better discipline by means of better pay and rewards and punishments;
  • Improved techniques of selection of higher officials;
  • Harmonious Minister-Secretary relationship;
  • Non-interference by the Ministry in the working of the various departments;
  • Greater freedom for administrative ministries from too minute control of the Finance Ministry;
  • Better organisation of parliamentary control through the Estimates and Public Accounts Committee.

Some other changes, though not directly related to training, could, to a great extent, help in increasing the effectiveness of the education and training of government Servants.

  • The independent Indian needs smooth relationship between politicians and civil servants.
  • There should not be any undue political interference on administrator.
  • There should be working partnership between generalist and specialist.
  • Career prospects and salary structure should be reasonable and just, otherwise recruitment  and retention of good officers would be difficult and situation would lead to inefficiency and corruption.
  • There appears to be no scientific and sound rationale for keeping a substantial differential in the pay scales and career prospects of IAS and non-IAS services, because in no way IAS personnel are superior to others either in intelligence, or in quality or recruitment, or in degree of responsibility or in nature of job or inequality of work-load.
  • Therefore, there should be unified civil service with integrated pay structure, so that government could bring a sense of equity amongst various disciplines of civil service of their choice and would enable the candidates to go in for the service of their choice and aptitude.
  • The government would be able to gain the full advantage of the sincere and honest working of scientists, engineers, doctors, economists and officers of other disciplines.

Winding up – Key characterstic to be developed in the bureaucrats of 21st century at all levels are –

  • Strategic awareness,
  • Adaptability,
  • Sensivity to different cultures,
  • Ability to work with international teams,
  • Language skills
  • Basic understanding of international finance.
  • High task orientation.
  • Networking to develop Human relationship
  • Understanding of Global scenario.
  • Self-reliance

[i]   Speeches of Raj Bahadur, pp622-24, Avanta Sayanam Ayyangar, pp 626-628, Constituent Assembly Debates.

[ii]   Hindustan Times, Milestone P8, August 15, 1997.

[iii]   All India Service (Recruitment) Rules 1954, introduced vide MHA Notification NO.13/7/56 (AIS) (III dt. 25.4.1957).

[iv]   Report of Ministry of Personnel, 1995-96.

[i]   Administrative Decentralization Report, Chairman Flotcher AL, 1956.

[ii]   Zinkim M, Development for free Asia, p83, 1963.

[iii]   Administrative Decentralization Report, Chairman Flotcher AL, 1956.

[i]   Palikawala, We the People – The Lost Decade, p3.

[i]   Major General Sir John Malcolm, Political History of India from 1784 to 1823.

[ii]   Zinkin M, Development for free Asia, p83, 1963.

[iii]   Malcolm, ibid, p79.

[iv]    Times of India, August 10, 1997, p2.

[v]    Banerjea AC. Indian Constitution documents, Volume II, p28, 1948.

[vi]    Annie Besant, How India wrought for freedom, p420.

[vii]    Bipin Chandra, Modern India, p158.

[viii]    Tara Chand, History of Freedom Movement in India, p497.

[ix]    Supplement to Gazette of India, June 4, 1904, p937.

[x]    Dr. Clive Dewey, Anglo Indian attitudes, 1993.

[xi]    Times of India Archives, May3, 1918.

[i]      Finer. Theory and Practice of Modern Government, p709, 1950.

[ii]      Paipandikar VA, Bureaucracy in India – An Empirical Study, IJPA, pp187, Vol. xvii, no.2, April-June, 1971.

[iii]    Report of Inquiry on Public Service Personnel appointed by Social Science Research Council of USA (1935 P.37)

[iv]   Gladden N, Civil Service – its problems and future, p64.

 

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September 1, 2017 Posted by | Bureaucracy/Civil Services, General | | 1 Comment