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Social and political Values and Systems in India.

Reasons for Corrosion of the Government Services (Civil Services) in independent India

 further”Better to starve free than be a fat slave.” Aesop


Better to starve free than be a fat slave” – India got its Independence from a long period of slavery  under British rule in 1947 after lots of struggles and sacrifices. After receiving its freedom, the country needs many more efforts to maintain it justifiably and progress further.

Legacy of past – The general framework of its Civil services, recruitment system, training system, generalist supremacy, anonymous character procedure oriented system, salary-structure, centralization of power, caste-considerations in recruitment to higher services and apathy towards masses are some of the legacies, India has inherited from the British India.

To find out when and what went wrong in the system of governance and what best can be done in which area, analysis of what bureaucracy was under British Government and what it is now becomes important. Seventy years have already passed since India got its independence. During this period, it has taken many right as well as wrong turns.

Right steps – After  Independence, the prominent national leaders along with dedicated civil servants put India on the path of progress, like, they did it –

  • It appeared to be an unattainable dream in early 60’s to put foundations of ISRO, which has made it possible to carry developmental measures into homes all-over the country.
  • Now the government can reach out to the people, provide communication through networks in remote areas.
  • It has developed disaster warning systems, quick research surveys to target ground water etc.
  • Dreams of many Indians in IT sector, scientific, agricultural, cultural, artistic and social fields have come true.

But somehow, the progress was slow. Then developed many undesired systems in the body-politic of the country, which pushed it backwards.

The dreams of our forefathers in these areas has just partially been achieved. Still it has to cover a long distance.

Wrong steps – The successive governments failed to provide efficient and effective governance to the country. So far, it has not been able to provide enough basic services to the people like sound ‘education to all’, income-generating skills to millions of unskilled poor labor, employment to youth, poverty (still millions are living below poverty line), proper health-care to common-men, 24 hour electric supply, especially in rural areas without break etc. Business suffers. People are strained. Farmers are committing suicides day-in and day-out. Governance has collapsed. Power-hungry leaders and bureaucrats work to acquire immense power to control the destiny of others without responsibility and accountability. Above all law and order situation has become almost irreparable – not enough safety for women and senior citizens without caste-considerations. Is it the freedom for which many Indians had in the past and even now are sacrificing everything in life?

One of the reasons is population explosion since 1921. Every year almost 20 millions Indians are added to the nation. It is a tough task to enable such a large number of poor masses to rise well above the poverty-line, to have improved health, education, self-esteem and contribute more productivity to the nation. To progress at faster speed, India needs to ignite young minds up-to the maximum.

Efficient governance during British Raj“It always puzzled many bigwigs like Stalin, von Ribbentrop and many other foreign observers…. how was the Indian Empire administered with such apparent zeal, efficiency, high-mindedness and impartiality? Even Indian nationalists were more likely than not to agree with such an assessment. … Or how barely a thousand British ICS (Indian Civil Service) personnel managed to rule both British India and the princely states with a combined population of well over 300 million during the first part of the twentieth century.

“Very few statesmen, from Bismarck to Theodore Roosevelt, doubted the quality of British rule, and, in a fascinating episode, when Subhas Chandra Bose, the leader of the rebel Indian National Army, flew to Berlin during the Second World War to solicit help from Hitler, the Führer dismissed him, taking the view that Indians needed to be civilized by another hundred years of British rule.”

Corrosion of the ‘steel-frame’ started before Independence

Corrosion of steel-frame started during British Raj itself. But situation became from bad to worse after Independence. With the intensification of national movement and introduction of Diarchy, the downfall in the quality of governance had started. The spirit of mild ‘parentalism’ for the people in civil servants began to fade. Pannikar says, “The Lee Commission (1923) was the first evidence of the breakdown of the spirit of the civil services in India, for after that there was no claim, that the British Civil Service in India, competent though they continued to be to the end, was anything more than a group of officers doing their work for purely material considerations. The idealism of the past had vanished” (Pannikar KM, The Development of Administration in India, Bulletin of Public Administration, Patna, Patna University’s Institution of Public Administration, vols. 2 and 3, p14).

Rowland Committee Report – The Rowland Committee remarked “The present position, in our judgment, is thoroughly unsatisfactory both from the point of view of the district officer himself, as well as, from the point of view of the efficiency of the governmental machine and welfare of the people in the district…. He is expected to see that nothing goes wrong in his district, but he has little power outside. The Magistrates and Collectors failed to see that things go right. He is supposed to compose differences between other officers, but he has no power to impose his will upon the recalcitrant. He can cajole and persuade, he cannot compel… In our view, the situation, if left to itself, can only deteriorate further, because activities of the Government in the mofussil will increase and practically every department is thinking in terms of Provincialized Service and makes little attempt to disguise its determination to go ahead with its own plans, without reference to any other part of the Government” (Report of the Bengal Administrative Enquiry Committee, 1944-45, p18).

Position after Independence – After Independence, the situation deteriorated further. Civil services have become more and more spineless, ineffective and powerless as time passed on. In-discipline, violence and lawlessness are increasing every day all-over the country. Once known as the “Steel frame” of the “Whole structure”, the bureaucracy appears to be unable to meet the challenges of the day. Sometime down the line, the ‘steel frame’ started shaking under its own pressure. There has been a gradual decline over the years in the quality, competence and commitment of the administrative officers. In-discipline, violence and lawlessness are increasing every day all-over the country. Why and how it got derailed is a point to ponder.

Forefathers of Indian Constitution aware of the importance of Civil Services – Immediately after the independence, the forefathers of the Constitution realized the challenges, Indian government was going to face in order to provide safety to the nation. They were also aware of the importance and crucial role to be played by the bureaucracy in order to ensure good governance to the country and its importance for the safety and development of the nation in future.

The forefathers of the Constitution views about governance – Pt. Nehru, the first Prime Minister of Independent India and many other important leaders like Pt. G.B. Pant, etc., did not like the idea that for building up a new India, the very machinery that was till now hampering and countering the freedom movement should be used. Pt. Nehru is on record to have said: – “…But of one thing I am quite sure that no new order can e built up in India, so long as the spirit of ICS pervades our Administrative Public Service. That spirit of authoritarianism is the ally of imperialism and it cannot co-exist with freedom. It will either succeed in crushing freedom or will be swept away by itself. Only with one type of State, it is likely to fit in and that is the Fascist type. Therefore, it seems quite essential that the ICS and similar services must disappear completely, much before we can start real work on a new order.”

Other members of the Constituent expressed their opinions –

  • Mr. Subha Rajan – Mr. Subha Rajan said during Constituent Assemble debates, “Without an efficient civil service, it would be impossible for the Government to carry on and continuity to be kept. The importance of the Governmental administration has been in the fact that there is continuity and unless this continuity, there is chaos” (Constituent Assembly Debates, Vol. IX, p952).
  • Mr. MV Kamath – Mr. MV Kamath Mr. MV Kamath said, “With the independence of our country, the responsibilities of the services have become onerous. It may make or mar the efficiency of the machinery of administration, machinery so vital for the peace and progress of the country. A country without any efficient Government service cannot make progress in spite of the earnestness of the people at the helm of affairs of the country. Whatever democratic institutions exist, experience has shown, that it is essential to protect public services as far as possible from political and personal influence and to give it that position of stability and security, which is vital in its successful working, as an impartial and efficient instrument, by which Government of whatever political complexion may give effect to their policies” (Constituent Assembly Debates, Vol. IX, p585).
  • Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel – In his letter to the Prime Minister, Sardar Patel wrote, “I need hardly emphasize, that an efficient, disciplined and contended (civil) service, assured of its prospects as a result of diligent and honest work, is a “Sine-Quinan” of sound administration, under a democratic regime, even more than under an authoritarian rule. The (civil) service must be above party and we should ensure that political consideration, either in its recruitment or its discipline and control, are reduced to the minimum, if not eliminated altogether” (Patel Vallabh Bhai in a letter to Mr. Nehru).
  • Dr. Radhakrishnan – After Nehru’s midnight hour speech between 14th and 15th August 1947, Dr. Radhakrishnan warned the nation, “Our opportunities are great, but let me warn you that when power outstrips ability, we will fall on evil days. We should develop competence and ability, which would help us to utilize the opportunities, which are now open to us. A free India will be judged by the way, in which it will serve the interests of the common man in the matter of food, clothing, shelter and social services.”
  • Speaking in the Constituent Assembly, Sardar Patel said “There was no alternative to this administrative system….The Union will go, you will not have a united India, if you have not a good All India Service, which has the independence to speak out its mind, which has a sense of security …. If you do not adopt this course, then do not follow the present Constitution…. This constitution is meant to be worked by a ring of service, which will keep the country intact. There are many impediments in this Constitution, which will hamper us. ….. These people are the instruments. Remove them and I see nothing but a picture of chaos all-round the country.”

Issue Seeing the pitiable condition of Civil Services, the diagnosis of its ailments becomes necessary. One wonders, what were the reasons for the corrosion of the ‘steel-frame’ of yester years? why the steel-frame of yester years has failed miserably after the Independence to do its job effectively and judiciously, despite having a constitutional status and enough powers to perform its duties freely and frankly. Why it could not take a stand against the unjust dictates of political leaders or corrupt senior officers? What stops it from doing its job sincerely?

Indian civil services were well-known for their efficiency and effectiveness during British rule.

Before Independence, Reasons for efficient performance of bureaucracy under British Rule – British ruled India for a long time. The East India Company came to India in 1600 AD to trade. And established trading posts and factories in Madras, followed by Calcutta and Bombay. East India Company handed over the charge of governance to the British crown in1858. Since then, efficient governance was a reality during British rule. Gilmour comes to the sensible conclusion that the men of the ICS displayed a mixture of motives, skills and temperaments. Often a District officer in his early twenties would arrive fresh from his ICS training at Oxford to rule single-handedly a district half as big as Wales. The wide-ranging responsibilities of the District Officers of the ICS were responsible for almost everything. The structure of the service started from the District Officers to the Magistrates, Residents, Political Agents, Deputy Collectors, Lieutenant Governors, and so on. (From Rup Narain Das, titled ‘Marx and 1857’, published in TOI, P.22, 16.5.07, excerpts quoted from an article of Gilmour on Marx, June July 15, 1857 in New York Daily Tribune as a leading article). Following were the salient features of Indian Civil Service, which made it so strong –

  • Family background – Most of them belonged to British professional middle classes.
  • Recruitment Process – A number of individuals were ‘coming to the institution through stiff competition, not the other way round’.
  • Educational background – They had made smooth progression from school to Oxford or Cambridge.
  • Incorrupt Bureaucracy – “One reason for this perception was that the ICS was manifestly neither venal nor corrupt in the way in which, for example, some officials and officers of the old East India Company had been. There are, however, other forms of corruption, including assumptions of racial superiority and the conviction that the ICS always knew best”.
  • Sense of responsibility – The ICS, whatever its complexion might have been, had developed traditions of independence, integrity, and hard work. They had deep sense of responsibility. However, these qualities served mainly the British rulers and not so much the Indian masses. They had full freedom and opportunity to do something worthwhile.
  • Work atmosphere – So far as it did not jeopardized the Imperial interests, Civil Services officers thought it their duty and took it as a challenge to provide, “Care, protection and guidance” ultimately liberty to the people, they ruled (Times of India, August 10, 1997, p2). Mr. Lines, an ex- ICS officer, said, “I suppose, we thought of a simple Indian villager… Here are simple people, who need leadership.” Mr. Arthur, another ex ICS officer, said, “Their attitude, certainly was paternalistic, which was necessary in a colonial administration.”
  • Bright career prospects – Extremely generous salaries and quick promotions.
  • Slim and trim service – just over a thousand at any given time – made for a strong sense of service loyalty.
  • Esprit-de’-corps – Philip Maser said that there was esprit de ’corps amongst the officers. Lines pointed out, “It is the Esprit de’ corps, which served to enforce a strong moral code.” It did not need to be articulated. Everybody knew it.
  • Honesty – Clive Dewey said that the historical evidence pointed out to only a minute handful of officers being corrupt. It was partially their salaries, partly their background, partly their sense of duty and partly ivory tower, in which they lived, which made any rumors extremely uncomfortable (Dr. Clive Dewey, Anglo Indian attitudes, 1993).
  • Extra-curricular activities were an integral part for the jobs at the higher levels in civil services.

Above mentioned were the reasons, why ICS was called the “Steel Frame”, which reared and sustained the British Raj.

After Independence

Corrosion of the ‘steel-frame’ – With many of the old visionary leaders having gone from the national and state scene in the sixties, a rot started setting up rapidly in the administrative set up.t Again during late eighties, once again the political complexion of the nation underwent a revolutionary change after the fall of Rajiv Gandhi’s Government and then disappearance of Nehru-Gandhi family from the political scene. The era of instability started.

Mr. VN Narayan commented on the climate of 1990’s, “We have a political problem (scams and scandals), but we have no political solution, we have a religious problem (Ayodhya), but no religious solution. There is an economic problem (poverty), but there is no economic solution (Liberalization). There is a social problem (Sectarian conflicts), but there is no societal remedy (Secularism and Mandalization). There is a socio-medical disease (cancer of corruption), but there is no socio-medical cure (ministerial resignations and reshuffles) There is only one solution to all problems – a human and spiritual solution. We have to consciously move toward humanizing our social institutions and spiritualize (not communalize or secularize) ourselves” (Narayanan VN, Hindustan Times, June 1, 1995, p13).

Since beginning of 21st century, over the years, there has been decline in the quality, competence and commitment of the civil services officers. Rarely are factors like competence, aptitude, past experience and public spirit taken into account, while making appointments to responsible posts. Generally officers feel that it is better to toe the line of political leaders than standing up for principles and paying the price for it. The Vohra Committee has vividly described the nexus that has developed between unscrupulous politicians, corrupt bureaucrats, media persons and criminals. The appointment of tainted officers at crucial positions itself makes the intentions of the politicians clear. Corruption and caste-ism has corroded the steel frame.

Reasons for Corrosion of the ‘steel-frame’ Reasons for corrosion becomes clear when one analyses the scene before independence and after independence. These are as following –

Red tape-ism in Government

Before Independence

Lord Curzon’s had said, “Round and round like the diurnal revolution of the earth went the file – stately, solemn and slow”. Similarly, decades later, Malcolm Muggeridge observed, “It was governments pure and undefined, endlessly minting and circulating files, which like time itself has neither beginning nor end.”

After Independence

Mr. Arun Shourie comments, “… – a mindless, endless, shuffling (of files) in slow motion – is not a device, it is more than a habit. It has become a nature. You will find it in every aspect of governance – big or small.”  Jayant Narlikar, an eminent scientist, has observed that India always has one of the most obdurate, cold, insular and inflexible Civil Service, the free world has ever known. In government there has always been a soulless movement of files. (Times of India, December 25, 1995) (Narikar Jayant, Two Cheers for Bureaucracy, Times of India, December 13, 1995, p10)

Status of All India services

Before independence

Bureaucracy was mainly responsible for keeping law and order situation and revenue collection. Rulers were not concerned much about welfare or developmental activities. The concept of Welfare State and Development Administration gained popularity only after Second World War. Still, on the eve of the Government of India Act 1919, there were 9 All India Services to provide talented manpower in different areas at managerial level for supervising uniform and all-round development of the country.-

    • Indian Civil Service;
    • Indian Police Service;
    • Indian Forest Service;
    • Indian Education Service;
    • Indian Medical Service;
    • Indian Civil Veterinary Service
    • Indian Forest Engineering Service
    • Indian Agricultural Service; and
    • Indian Service of Engineers.

After independence

From traditional tasks of the government, Indian government is committed to infra-structure building, and other welfare and developmental activities/rapid socio-economic development of the whole of nation. However, the circumstances were such just before and immediately after the Independence that out of nine All India Services, seven All India services existing in socio-economic or technical spheres were discontinued or provincialized just before the Independence to be formed afterwards. Only IAS and IP, the services engaged in control functions,  continued to function as unifying force.  B.B. Misra says, “Most of the other services were abolished. Considerations of national unity, the positive need of India’s all-round development and the attainment of a minimum uniform standard in administration were allowed to go by default.”

Nation needs urgently to create more All India Services – With the shift from traditional to Developmental tasks after independence and now with the trend towards Globalization and liberalization, time demands that there should be more All India Services in developmental or infra-structure sector at par with IAS. All the areas like economic, education, legal, industrial, technical, scientific or agricultural areas urgently need talented personnel at managerial levels for speedy and all-round development of the nation. All the disciplines require amongst its officers at its managerial level personnel having in-depth knowledge and experience of the relevant areas.

There is a provision in the Constitution for creation of one or more All India Services. Article 312(2) says: “If The Council of States declares by Resolution supported by not less than two-thirds of the members present and voting that it is necessary or expedient in the national interest to do so”. Since 1960’s, a need to create more all India service was felt, so that apart from control functions, best talents could be provided on strategic posts at various levels in the areas of development/specialized functions. Each and every discipline needs personnel having enough knowledge about the subject-matter of their respective work. Along with it they should have skills, attitude and know-how of techniques to co-ordinate properly with other functionaries at district, provinces or centre and to face different kinds of challenges, current economic and socio-political developments poses on their way.

In accordance with the above provision, and seeing the need of the day, the Rajya Sabha, on December 6, 1961, adopted a resolution for creating the following three All India Services on technical side:

  1. Indian Services of Engineers
  2. Indian Medical and Health Services, and
  3. Indian Forest Service.

Out of these three, only one service—Indian Forest Service—could see the light of the day since July 1, 1966. Others could not because the State Governments of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Punjab, West Bengal, Jammu and Kashmir, Assam and Himachal Pradesh revised their stand mainly on the ground of State autonomy.

It has been increasingly felt that in modern life, there are very few jobs, which could be done efficiently without some measure of specialization through education, training and experience. Doubts were expressed about the capacity of IAS to act as an instrument of modernization and technological advancement. It is felt that in this age of fast-growing technological advancements, liberalization and Globalization, there are many areas such as power, irrigation, industry, steel and mines, petroleum and chemical, which require technical expertise and in-depth knowledge of the subject-matter. It has been experienced now and then that in the Secretariats, there is little or no appreciation of the technical aspects of most of the present problems. It has also been felt that when a generalist officer transmitted professional or specialist advice to the minister, he sometimes fails to transmit or interpret the advice with clarity and precision with which a specialist officer can do.

Chairman, K.N. Nagarkatti of a reform commission says “Each new area of administration, be it economic, social, industrial, technical, scientific or agriculture – had its own body of academic requirement, knowledge and techniques. The effective administration of each demanded an intimate knowledge of its underlying principles and an awareness of its problems. This knowledge could only come through practice and experience of administration in relevant area over a long period of time, in some cases, at least, long enough, in fact, to amount to a commitment – a professional commitment.” (ARAC Report on Promotion Policies, Govt. of India, 1968, p.26.)

Besides, All India services are losing its all India character/outlook. Professor Maheshwari says, “In a never ceasing see-saw game of adjustment and bargaining between the center and the states in federal cum competitive politics, neither its all India outlook, nor its talent, nor even its supposed loyalty to the center comes into active play.” (Maheshwari SR, The All India Service, published in the lecture series of 80th Course on Personnel Policies in practice organized by 11PA, 1980, P305) The Union Home Ministry has, from time to time, advised Chief Secretaries of the states not to recommend transfer of cadre members to their home states, but those with influence are able to manage it. In many states like Bihar, Punjab etc, more than 60% of the officers are from within the state. It is mainly because of the political ties. (Saxena NS, IAS and IPS at war with the state cadre, Times of India, April 6,1984)

Elite status

Before independence

The British Government was very clear about its aims and objectives. The British Government in India did not favour its indulgence in any kind of social welfare activity, which would, later on, pose problems for Imperial rule in India. The primary object of the government was to keep the nation under subjugation for economic exploitation, collection of revenue and to ensure the supremacy of the European race. In order to achieve these aims, it gave primacy to the administrative services and entrusted with the task of revenue-collection and maintenance of law and order. These services were supposed to have majority of European officers. It was against this background that higher civil services in India functioned.

  • ICS and IP were given the elitist character or the place of pride    Most of the officers in these services were Europeans. The responsibilities of these services were primarily – maintenance of law and order in the whole of country, revenue collection and perpetuation British rule in India as long as possible. In accordance with these objectives, the ICS responsible for law and order situation and revenue collection, was conceived and propped up as the elite service meant predominantly for British citizens and was bestowed with all kinds of authority, favours, concessions and privileges. Owing to its high prestige, remuneration and enormous authority, it was nicknamed as the “Heaven Born Service”. At the level of local administration, ICS officers were dubbed as “Little Napoleons”.
  • For services catering to subjects like Education, Finance, Medicines, Telegraph and Communications, Railways and Survey of India etc. which occupied in order of priority a place next to the paramount functions of law and order and revenue collection. An admixture of European and native officers was considered suitable; and
  • Scientific and technical services which would not pose any serious danger to the Empire were allowed to be managed by the Natives, because sufficient British personnel were not available to man these services.

Historic “Steel-frame” speech – British government gave the elite status to ICS amongst all the services under it. Lloyd George, the British Prime Minister in his historic “Steel-frame” speech, said it very clearly on Aug.2, 1922 in the House of Commons that British civil servants were the very basis of the Empire in India and so he could not imagine any period, when they could dispense with the guidance and assistance of a small nucleus of the British civil servants.

He said, “I do not care, what you build on it, if you take that Steel-frame out of the fabric, it will collapse. There is only one institution, we will not cripple, there is one institution, and we will not deprive of its functions or of its privileges and that is that institution, which build up the British Raj – the British Civil Service in India.

After Independence

Elite status given only to Indian Administrative Service (IAS)Indian Administrative Service (IAS, the successor of reputed, efficient and powerful institution ICS) virtually controls all the levers of the governance of the country. It has been given an elite status. Right from its inception, Government pays maximum attention to IAS. Its officers deliberate directly at the highest level of policy formulation and decision making. They exercise state authority from day one and continue to do it till their retirement.

A Glamorous service – Still until 1960s, there was very little difference between the standard and behavior of IAS officers and other central government officers (class 1) in Government of India. Today, IAS officers deal directly with politicians, plan bigger things, moves all over the world frequently. It has added glamour to the service. The result of this development has been that the IAS has attracted the attention of politicians, especially of those pursuing the sectoral interests. To youth, entry into IAS is the surest and quickest means to get control over others, to improve one’s status in the society, to command instant admiration and respect of the people, thus in reaching quickly to the commanding position in the society. It is supposed to be the manifest symbol of power. It makes an easy access to levers of authority. It enables them to occupy positions having immense power and privileges at the highest level in the Government. Once in service, a person could lead an easy life, is a general conception.

IAS, an attraction for educated youth –For an educated youth, it has been a matter of pride to be a part of IAS. Like ICS, the Government offers to IAS best career prospects, more power, higher responsibilities, higher salaries, better perquisites and superior status than any other service at the center or in the states and a place of pride in socio-political circle. That is why, IAS has always remained the most sought after of all the services for the talented youth, as it provides the highest entry point in bureaucracy. Its officers have to pass through well-planned professional training.

The craze for getting into the service has increased in a large scale amongst the newly emerging sections of the society. Most of them are now not bothered about the high ideals, intellectual competence and high standards of administration, commitment to public service, constitutional values, or concern for justice. They are mainly interested in getting entry into the service anyhow and exercise the State authority over millions of powerless people and in making as much money as possible by misusing their authority.

Responsibility of IAS as Administrators – The IAS officers play a significant role in administrative work of the Government both at the centre and in provinces as well as in the Secretariat as well as in fields. Along with a few officers of other services, they look after policy perspective in diversified subjects like agriculture, horticulture, power, coal, transport etc. For doing justice. For efficient performance of work and doing Justice to the responsibilities, there is need for really bright and talented officers with in-depth knowledge and experiences in their respective areas.

  • In the Secretariat -However, most of the top posts in almost every department in Central Secretariat as well as in the State Secretariats are occupied by IAS officers on deputation from different states occupy. Officers from other civil services have limited scope to get postings in Secretariat. In Secretariats following functions are being done:
    • Obtaining decisions on policy matters and enunciating policy decisions in clear language,
    • Overall planning and finance,
    • Legislative business,
    • Personnel management policies,
    • Legal advice,
    • Coordination and cross clearance among the administrative departments, in the Secretariat,
    • Communication with central institutions like the Planning Commission etc., and
    • Overall evaluation, supervision, control and coordination of the work being done by the field organizations.
  • District Administration – Administrative work in the fields has its distinctive challenges. In district, an IAS officer as Collector continues to play a pivotal role in the District Administration. He performs both regulatory as well as developmental tasks. District is the most convenient geographical unit, where the total apparatus of Civil Administration can be concentrated and where it comes into direct contact with the people. Its importance arises from the fact, that it is at this level, that bulk of people gets affected, favorably or adversely by the governmental policies, programs and its implementation.

It is here, that people judge the quality and efficiency of the governmental administration.An IAS officer enjoys immense power and prestige at district level. During first five or six years of service in the state, IAS officers go on field postings to get the feel and first-hand knowledge of real life and social realities.

In addition to the traditional task of collection of revenue and maintenance of law and order, IAS officers as a collector of various districts are responsible – coordinating activities of various departments at district level.

Field-experience during postings in districts open up the minds of young officers, by bringing them into direct contact with administrative life, with people at grass-root level, with their concrete problems and with different human and social conditions prevailing there. They are also acquainted with the administrative structure in the district and the relationship between various branches of Government at district headquarters. The experiences of this period makes them ripe for senior positions.


Before Independence

“White-man’s” superiority” – The British Government was very particular about the intake of the material into its elite services. The British, according to their aims and objectives, pursued the policy of racial discrimination on the dictum of “White-man’s” superiority for the appointment in Imperial services of the nation. For a long time, the Indians were virtually prohibited to join this service intentionally. The rulers never wanted to give Indian any control over the governance of the country. The British deliberately kept Indians at bay by creating conditions, that prohibited Indians’ recruitment in higher administrative jobs. They held the entrance competitive examination for Civil Services in England up to 1922. Only a few Indians could bear the hazards and expenses of going abroad.

Lord Lytton, in his confidential document, confirmed that the pledge of the Royal proclamation of 1858 was never intended to be carried out. He said, “We all know that these claims, expectations never can or will be fulfilled. We have had choose between prohibiting them (Indians) and cheating them, we have chosen the least straightforward course.” (Annie Besant, How India wrought for freedom, p420)

Lord Kimberley, the Secretary of State, laid down in 1893; “It is indispensable, that an adequate number of members of the Civil Service shall always be European.” Viceroy Lord Landsdowne stressed “Absolute necessity of keeping the Government of this wide-spread empire into European hands, if that empire is to be maintained” (Bipin Chandra, Modern India, p158)

In 1867, Lawrence said very clearly, “We have conquered India by force of arms, though the policy and good Government have already aided us. In the like manner, we must hold it. The Englishmen must always be in the forefront holding the post of honor and power, as the condition of our retaining of our rule.” (Tara Chand, History of Freedom Movement in India, p497)

In Home Department Resolution of May 1904, Lord Curzon’s Government justified the policy, they were pursuing with regard to “White-man’s superiority” in Civil Service. “The highest ranks of the civil employees in India, those in the Imperial Civil Service, the members of which are entrusted with the responsible task of carrying on the general administration of the country, though open to such Indians, who proceed to England and pass the requisite tests, must nevertheless, as a general rule be held by the Englishmen, for the reason that they possess partly by heredity, partly by upbringing and partly by education that knowledge of the principles of Government, the habits of the mind and vigor of character, which are essential for the task and the rule of India, being a British rule and any other rule being in the circumstances of the case impossible. The tone and the standard should be set by those, who have created it and are responsible for it.” (Supplement to Gazette of India, June 4, 1904, p937)

From 1805 to 1885, the higher civil servants were nominated by the individual Directors of the Company. From 1858 onwards, in order to make the civil services in India efficient and well equipped, the British Civil Service Commission created in 1855 to select officials of higher services through competitive examination.

Though the British Government initiated the practice to give preferential treatment to upcoming groups of Indian society in government jobs, they kept the ICS untouched from the quota system till the last. They firmly and clearly said to the upcoming groups that they wouldn’t weaken their Steel frame at any cost for anybody, as on it depended efficient governance of the country. It told the upcoming groups in clear terms, “With its utmost desire to do so, the best for these classes, the Government will be and is powerless to help them, unless they qualify themselves to the same extent as others of their countrymen for duties of administration and public.

After Independence

There was a time, when Government services attracted the best talents of the nation. A large number of intellectuals, engineers, doctors, MBAs and other professionals wished to join central government services. Willingness of talented and meritorious best brains to join the Government services is are no more the attraction. It is like a passing tide. There is no freedom to the officers to do any creative work. Modern youth find the work atmosphere suffocating. Disincentive to hard-work, merit and sincerity has demoralized the honest and upright officials. Present system encourages pen-pushers according to the dictates of their political bosses. Reservation of about 50% posts has further eroded the charm to join government services. Liberalization and globalization has given enough opportunities to the best talents of the nation to join either private sector, especially IT sector or explore the green pastures abroad.

The best-talent syndrome – For last few years, constant political interference in administrative work and 49% of quota system in recruitment has diluted the charm of many talented youth to join Central civil Services under Government of India including IAS. It is a myth now that Civil Services attract the best talents and most competent and qualified youth from all over India.

It appears rather odd that a simple graduation is required to enter into the most prestigious services of the nation. While in other services like Indian Economic Service and Indian Statistical Service, the requirement is a post-graduate degree. For Engineering/technical services or medical services, a basic graduate degree is required, which can be acquired after four years of hard-work, while studying and rigorous training on various aspects to pass out the graduation course.

The time demands the government to have a cadre of better qualified administrators in its generalist nature of services as well, more than in the past. Either the candidates should be selected earlier, say after passing out higher secondary courses and then trained properly for any particular job, as is done for Defense Services. Or MBA degree must be made a basic requirement for appearing into competitive entrance examination in competitive, as is done in the case of Engineering/medical services. Lateral entries could also be made by including bright persons already employed elsewhere, like: –

  • Technocrats having sufficient experience in management,
  • Professionals from other civil services,
  • Entrepreneurs, willing to switch over.

Promotions in the service should be strictly based on good performance. Administrator should be encouraged to upgrade, sharpen, and focus their knowledge towards analysis and problem solving

Bloated Size

Before Independence

As stated earlier, “It always puzzled many bigwigs like Stalin, von Ribbentrop and many other foreign observers, namely how barely a thousand British ICS (Indian Civil Service) personnel managed to rule both British India and the princely states with a combined population of well over 300 million during the first part of the twentieth century. Very few statesmen, from Bismarck to Theodore Roosevelt, doubted the quality of British rule, and, in a fascinating episode, when Subhas Chandra Bose, the leader of the rebel Indian National Army, flew to Berlin during the Second World War to solicit help from Hitler, the Führer dismissed him, taking the view that Indians needed to be civilized by another hundred years of British rule.”

After Independence

– There has been a continuous increase in number of government servants. After Independence, the IAS has gradually grown into a bloated and top heavy service. The IAS cadre, which had only 957 officers in 1950, is having 4991(as on 1.1.1997) administrators at present. The first causality of this obesity is its efficiency. The cadre strength of its predecessor – the ICS, so-called steel-frame, had always remained less than 1500. With that cadre strength, they were able to cope with the administrative work of the undivided India efficiently and effectively. In Independent India, the annual intake went up from about 33 in 1947 to 138 in 1965 and to 160 in 1985. It again came down to 80 in 1990. The cadre strength in various years is given below: –

Cadre Strength of IAS after Independence

Year Authorized          Cadre-strength                 In-position

1951                               1232                           957              (Includes 336 ICS)

1981        4599                               3883

2017                                                                                   5004

Source: Civil lists Pay Commission Reports, Report of Dep’t. of Personnel.

Outcome of this increase – The rot set in on account of continuous increase in its cadre strength resulted in:

  • Adverse effect on the “Espirit-d’corps” in the service,
  • Creation of additional high level posts to accommodate timely promotions.
  • Establishment expenditure is eating away most of the resources generated by the Government for development projects.
  • Continuous increase at entry point has led to stagnation at Joint Secretary level, resulting in frustration,
  • Creation of many insignificant unnecessary posts, that has very little work or authority,
  • Generating resentment in Non-IAS Services against IAS officers for encroaching the preserves of other services,
  • Side-lining upright officers, thus discouraging excellence of performance. A large number of officers are always there in the queue, who were willing to toe the line (dictates) of politicians with vested interests.

The “Bloated size” led to unbalanced infrastructural development with cadre-reviews, creating multiple layers in administrative hierarchy. It led to poor communication, duplication of work, and delay in action and decision taking.

Almost Pay Commissions have noticed the “Bloated size” of the service and advised the Government to reduce the flab at-least by 30%. For efficient and effective administration, the 21st century administrative machinery needs to be lean, thin and down-sized.

Lack of Specialization

One of the striking feature is that responsible authorities do not give enough importance to specialization. In the modern life, there are very few jobs, which can be done efficiently without some measure of specialization through education, training or experience. The nature and degree of specialization have to be geared to the needs that have to be met.

Before Independence

Stress on attitude, knack/aptitude – Before Independence, during British period, there were nine All India Services to provide adequate manpower at the top of various disciplines. Even within ICS, immediately after the recruitment, the officers were geared to attain knowledge and experience for higher assignments, during probationary period and thereafter-early years of service. Mr. L.K. Jha, an ICS officer said that specialization during British Raj started immediately after joining the service. The display by ICS officers for one kind of work rather than the other, their special knack and aptitude for particular type of work was taken into account for deciding their future career.

While promoting officers on the posts of higher responsibility, the display of their work done during field postings, their attitude and aptitude and knack for particular type of work were taken into account. Thus, in practice and not in theory, the Government was building up a cadre of specialists in administration and also encouraging further specialization in different areas of administration. It was done, not as a rule or through formal training, but through experience in doing a job under the supervision of those with greater experiences in those particular areas. Thus the Government was organizing a cadre of experts in different disciplines not through formal training, but through gaining experience by doing job under the supervision of those, having greater experience. (LK Jha, Administrator as Specialist Management in Government, July-September, 1980). Following were the three distinct areas identified for specialization –

  1. General Administration
    1. Personnel Administration
    2. Financial administration
    3. Defense Administration & Internal security
  2. Agricultural & Social Welfare Administration,
    1. Agricultural & rural development administration
    2. Social Services & Educational Administration
    3. Planning
  • Economic Administration
    1. Economic and Commercial Administration
    2. Industrial Administration

After Independence

Constant battle between Generalists and Specialists – The story does not end here only. In order to avoid stagnation, make enough space for its elite service, and keep them satisfied, Government creates many cushy jobs at top-level of bureaucracy, in public sector, corporations, which are mostly manned by IAS officers. As a consequence, a battle is going on between Generalist administrators and Specialist or other professional and also between IAS and State Civil Services just to get top posts in the public sector corporations. While this battle has become something of a scandal, no one bothers, whether services are achieving the objectives, for which they are created.

The need of specialization after the independence is much more than it was earlier as socio-economic development and other welfare activities have become much more important than earlier. Besides, role of whole of bureaucracy has become more demanding and challenging due to the complexity of modern times and fast changing social, political, economic and technological developments in the recent past. But for one reason or the other, contrary are the trends. The officers of the elite service are supposed to perform duties of an extraordinary variety and technical difficulty. In addition to it, an administrator might be in-charge of personnel today, tomorrow in-charge of steel, on the third day in charge of health and so on. The results of this practice are there for all to see –

  • Owns no responsibility – The quick changes, from one type of job to another, make the knowledge of administrators, occupying top level postings, superficial. There are some hard working and sincere IAS officers, who are eager to learn the maximum about the subject matter of their job. But they are also constrained because of the swift changes from one functional area to another. The real knowledge is obtained by sustained hard work for a long period in one type of job, which enables a person to develop innate ability needed for the smooth functioning and development of that area. Administrators own no responsibility for a wrong policy. By the time, the results of a policy or the implementation of a program comes out or is evaluated, the officer concerned might be in a quite different department.
  • Jack of all but master of none” – Administrators are “Jack of all trades, but master of none”. The knowledge about the particular field is no importance for the appointment of the officers to senior posts. The knowledge of any particular subject/area is of no importance for appointments at the top-level of bureaucracy or at the Secretary level posts. Consequently, just as politicians depend on secretaries for knowledge, secretaries depend on their specialist subordinates and technical staff for the fundamental concepts, knowledge, data and information. Time demands that bureaucrats should have Sufficient and in-depth knowledge of the area, in which one works.
  • Blind leading the other blind – Knowledge in technical and professional areas, modern systems of collecting information, analyzing data and using modern innovations has been advanced at a very speed especially after information technology revolution. When comparatively ignorant politicians are being advised by comparatively ignorant generalist officers on policy matters or on critical issues, situation becomes like blind leading the blind. Quite often alternatives are not put forward by officials properly, whose knowledge and experiences are in-adequate or not professionally sound enough in that particular area. It is one of the reasons why many times policy advice on critical issues remains primitive, amateurish, untimely, or not up to the mark. Some IAS officers desired that some sort of technical training – a layman’s bird’s eye view on certain technical matters like power, irrigation, industry, agricultural techniques – and knowledge about the functioning of technical departments should be given to them.
  • Meaning of Specialization in the present day context – Specialization with varied experience, in present atmosphere, means that an officer for strategic senior post should have sufficient knowledge of the area he is supposed to work. In addition to that in their own discipline, there should be varied experience of different aspects and activities concerned with it – such as planning, coordinating work at different levels, advising ministers on policy matters, taking into account the social, legal and economic constraints, particularly in his/her functional area etc. All this could be achieved only after working in any area for a reasonable period.
  • Suggestion of ARC (1968) – ARC had also suggested way back in 1968 that the IAS officers should be confined to areas, which are well known to them. They should not try to encroach those areas, which belongs to others and for which others have acquired special knowledge and training. (Report of ARC on Personnel Administration in Government of India, 1969, p16)
  • Even in their own area, there should be some specialization, because the role of each posting in the government has become more challenging and complex with the fast changing environment all over the world.   The pressures of achieving better results while dealing with more complex and difficult situations, it is necessary to place a premium on improvements and specialization in administration.
  • Creation of more posts through cadre-reviews– In order to solve the problem stagnation, there the government creates more and more posts at the top level of bureaucracy, as a remedial action. Through cadre-reviews, one job is sub-divided into multiple jobs. The outcome of it is that many personnel at various levels have hardly two or three hour of work a day. What is worse, a number of them are doing jobs, which was earlier done by their juniors.
  • Multiplicity of focal points – By creating too many posts in any cadre, the Government creates many points of control and coordination. Multiplicity of too many focal points, in turn, creates overlapping of functions and jurisdictions. More men, less wok, duplication of efforts, lack of supervision and control have resulted in confusion and inefficiency.

Field Experience

An administrator is supposed to maintain links with the people directly through the channels of understanding and persuasion, not through authority or force. Many ICS officers claimed that earlier they had been closer to public than present day administrators. The work experience at district or sub-division level was considered to be a qualification for ICS officers.

Before Independence

Personal knowledge of village conditions – During British rule, the rulers insisted on personal knowledge of its executives of what was happening in the farthest village. Administrative officers established and maintained contact with rural masses at the highest level of the administrative hierarchy. Great emphasis was laid on getting young officers thoroughly acquainted with village and the administrative structure dealing with matters, which touched the rural people, such as land, irrigation, Government loans etc. The most important of these, from villagers’ point of view, was his right on land – whether as owner, tenant or worker. It had to be correctly recorded.

Rendering effective, just and quick service to the villagers – Also, various exaction of government, such as land revenue, higher irrigation dues, return of loans etc. were to be fairly assessed and collected. The village community had a vested interest in the efficiency and honesty of revenue system. Whatever be the motivation of British administration, it certainly rendered effective, just and quick service to the villagers. The system was so enforced and watched, that there was no escape, whatsoever from acquiring knowledge about village conditions and methods to deal with them. (Mangat Rai, Commitment my style in ICS, 1973)

Exhaustive touring from village to village – The officers made exhaustive tours, moving from village to village and lived a camp-life for considerably long period. The symbol and instrument of village contact was horse. This was partly because of the manner, in which these were conducted, were slow, and easy, involving staying out near village and imbibing thoroughly their atmosphere and conditions.

Close contact with people, source of strength in a democracy – The close contact with the people and the people’s faith in their uprightness gave them the strength to become the “Steel frame” of the whole system. Now many retired ICS officers claim, that the nature of functioning before the independence was such, that they had better understanding and knowledge of the people of their area than officials of today.

After Independence

Field experience, lost its validity – Unfortunately, after independence and progressively over the years, importance of field experience has lost its validity. Most of the officers are habitual of leading a comfortable urban life. It is difficult and troublesome for them to spend enough time in rural areas. As a result, they have to depend to a great extent on the advice of their subordinates posted and living in rural or far-off areas. As a result, many times decision-makers do not get timely and reliable information.

Escape from field postings – Many smart and ambitious officers find their way out and skip rural, sub-divisional or district experience. A study by DPAR, in 1981, has shown that in eight state cadres, 70% or more IAS officers of the elite service have not done sub-divisional charge even for two years. (Seventy Seventh Report of Estimate Committee of Seventh Lok Sabha, August 17,1984, pp76-77) It is fast becoming a secretariat service.

Little grass-root contacts – The same is the story of district charge. Many officers manage their postings at the center and/or state capitals throughout their career and do not care to revive or develop what little grass-root contacts, they had earlier.

Official tours to remote areas just a formality – Because of the improved road network in the villages and availability of fast moving vehicles, such as cars, jeeps etc, the district officers lack the intimate knowledge of the rural areas. The tendency of officers is merely to complete the formality of being on tour, as might have stipulated by the state Government. They make touch and go visits to rural areas, especially the one, which are easily accessible by road, spend the prescribed compulsory number of night halts in some wayside Dak bungalow.

Lack of grass-roots contacts making ‘Politicians’ stronger and ‘Bureaucrats’ weaker – The basic truth that in a democracy people are the sovereign and real source of strength, is often forgotten by many government servants. Such an attitude makes the position of bureaucrats weaker in comparison to political leaders. Politicians are closer to people than bureaucrats. It is due to this lack of enough field experience, grass roots knowledge and experience in the absence of direct contact with the rural masses that the local politicians could exert pressure on administrators.

Closer contact with people could save bureaucrats from undue political pressure – Today’s politicians think themselves to be exclusive guardians of the people. The government servants have, lost the faith of the people. The people doubt their credibility and efficacy of occupying policy level posts.

Alienation from the common man leads the administrator to base their decisions on second hand information. Because of inadequate data, inefficient resource allocation and inward looking project monitoring; plans and policies remain, often, far away from the reality and actual needs and aspirations of the people. Closer contact, coordination with people and their confidence in administrator could save them from undue political pressure.


Before Independence

As pointed out earlier, Majority of the Imperial services’ officials were manifestly neither venal nor corrupt in the way in which, for example, some officials and officers of the old East India Company had been. There are, however, other forms of corruption, including assumptions of racial superiority and the conviction that the ICS always knew best”.

Clive Dewey said that the historical evidence pointed out to only a minute handful of officers being corrupt. It was partially their salaries, partly their background, partly their sense of duty and partly ivory tower, in which they lived, which made any rumors extremely uncomfortable (Dr. Clive Dewey, Anglo Indian attitudes, 1993).

After Independence

Unlimited Authority without Responsibility – It is said, “Power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely”. The concept of “Welfare state” and “Development administration” has bestowed immense authority in the hands of Government, which is mainly exercised by the executive, meaning the ministers and the Bureaucrats. But authority of bureaucracy is without owning any responsibility.

Extensive Government levers of controls and vast powers have been given to bureaucrats. They can find out unlimited opportunities to make money, through delays, dilatoriness and excuses. In addition to get political patronage and good postings, they can support the greedy and power hungry politicians.

Always someone else held responsible – Whatever may go wrong, either at the field level or at policy-level, administrators are never held responsible. If law and order situation deteriorates in a district, IPS officer is held responsible. If a policy decision goes wrong, it is said that those in echelons of power were wrongly advised by the specialists or specialized organizations dealing with that particular subject.

Various factors like colonial tradition, monopoly of few groups in power echelons, no regard for meritocracy or expertise for development of the nation, monopoly of coercive power, tiredness of workforce, inadequacies and instability of political leadership and the near absence or weakness of groups exercising countervailing force over authorities men and to work for the development of nation.

Swift changes makes difficult to fix responsibility – Swift changes, from one functional area to another, make it difficult to hold an officer responsible for any wrong policy. By the time, the results of a policy or the implementation of a program is evaluated, the concerned officer gets shifted to another post, department or goes back to his parent state.

Political Interference in day today work

Before independence

Before independence – ICS enjoyed the authority to take decisions.

After Independence

After the independence, corrupt and self-seeking administrators have become expensive parasites on the system and society. Wheels of justice are not moving fast enough to punish the guilty. Procedural delays, political patronage and resistance from within the bureaucracy, appear to be helping corrupt officials evade the long arm of the law. Many excuses are given to protect them. Many reports confirm that an increasing number of senior bureaucrats figures in corruption cases. .

Political patronage – The ministers and politicians used to find their authority shadowy over them. The table has been turned. Now, the minister dictates and the officers obey without any resistance. Dominance of political consideration over administrative and economic matters has been one of the prominent features of independent India, which is responsible for large scale of corruption, the deteriorating situation of law and order and slower rate of economic growth.

The political leaders have acquired the authority to reward and punish officers, through transfers and postings. It has become an effective tool to make officers fall in line with them and be loyal to them. Honest and upright officers face quick transfers, bad entries, judicial inquiries, and loyalist officer’s prestigious postings, foreign trips special allowances etc. It has made many officers to succumb almost absolutely to political pressures. Growing politicization of services and lack of support from seniors has put a negative effect on the initiative and creativity of young officers.

Mr. SC Vaid has very correctly said, “In most of the cases as long as bureaucrats support misconduct of politicians, they remain in their good books. Strict compliance with code of conduct by bureaucrats comes in the way of selfish interests of politicians. It causes a lot of discomfort to legislators. Hence the latter frequently transfer honest officers. The government must adhere to the Supreme Court directive stipulating minimum tenures for bureaucrats and curb arbitrary transfers.” Upright officers needs to be enabled to create an ideal condition for development and good governance by giving them enough opportunities to do their jobs without unnecessary political interference.

Premature promotions

Before Independence

Earlier, ICS officers used to work under senior officers for about seven to eight years, before they were given independent charge as collector.

After Independence

Now officers have to take the responsibility of independent jobs prematurely. After foundation-training of two years, hardly a year or 18 months passes, when an IAS officer gets promoted to the responsible post of collector. He is not mature enough either service-wise or age-wise to handle the challenging job of a collector. When officer himself does not have enough experience as a collector (head of district administration), how can he take up the responsibility of training others?

Lack of senior’s support

Before Independence

During British period, young ICS officers were placed under the strict supervision of senior officers, who used to take keen interest in the development of their capacity to run the administration effectively. It was made clear to senior district officers, that it was very important to pay attention to the young officers, who were put under their guidance. Their success in life and reputation, as good officers, depended greatly on the assistance; they received from their seniors at the outset of their career. (GO No.738, published on April 18, 1916, ICS Manual Madras) As a result, the junior officers were groomed well on job ad possessed a marked degree of professionalism in their area of activity. Their claim of superiority, over others, was clearly established.

After Independence

Not enough protection from Senior officers – Many incidences and recent Durga Shakti Nagpal (an upright officer’s) case, initially administrators ware gradually losing interest in their subordinates. Reasons for it are generally the following –

  • Unfortunately, now the main function of the administrative service has become to maintain status quo and defend the wrong practices of its political masters, not to guide well the junior officers or stand by them when in difficulty. Today the efficiency of the service as a whole is at its lowest ebb. Complete breakdown of discipline everywhere is mainly responsible for the disintegration of administrative system and its future.
  • Because of changing political culture, senior officers themselves are so insecure, how can they instill sense of security and confidence amongst their juniors?
  • There is scarcity of well-experienced senior officers at the district level. Most of them have drifted to the central and state secretariats or to public corporations etc,
  • There is too much political interference in their day-to-day work.
  • There is lack of sound personnel planning.
  • Senior officers are so occupied with their own work, that they hardly spare enough time and attention to see and guide the work of their juniors.

In short

Diagnosis of the Ailments – In short, the reasons of the corrosion of the steel-frame are poor personnel policies, excessive protectionist policies of the Government, bloated size, unbalanced infrastructural development with concentration of authority in a few hands, cumbersome office procedures, increased paper work, delay in action and decision – taking, disincentive to hard work, talent and sincerity, lack of accountability, alienation from the common man and the last but not the least tolerance of people of India, who accept sub-standard administration, giving very little challenge to the officers to upgrade their performance.


  • First of all, the Government of India should merge all its civil services – technical as well as non-technical – into one unified service with an integrated pay structure. The Government should ensure complete parity in pay scales, same time- frame for all services for getting promoted into next grade, promotional avenues and career development.
  • The attainment of high standard of administration depends a great deal on the environment of work, which requires selection of capable officers, proper placement of officers and proper atmosphere of work.
  • It requires a change in attitude, more of field work, people’s cooperation, not by force or use of authority, but by prompting, persuading, suggesting, stimulating and inspiring them.
  • It must be realized by each and every bureaucrat that he is there only because of the people and for the people, not the people because of him. People are not an interruption to his work, but the purpose of it. In a country like India, where most of its people are illiterate or semi-literate, mere functional efficiency cannot stir warmth. A little glow of welcome in the eyes of civil servant converts disappointment into exhilaration in the public. People, after meeting a civil servant, should return with satisfaction that they were heard patiently and sympathetically and that someone would be taking interest in their problems.
  • Last but not the least, each and every citizen must realize, as Napoleon has said, “The world suffers a lot, not because of the violence of bad people, but because of the silence of good people!”

July 30, 2017 - Posted by | Bureaucracy/Civil Services |

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