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Bureaucracy in India

“For the forms of government, let fools contest.

That which is best administered is best.”

And also

But what is best must free man still decide,

Lest leaders gull them and officials ride.”

 

Introduction

Political set-up – India is a large country with perplexing diversity in geography, language, race and culture. The political system adopted by it is that of a federal parliamentary democracy. The federal structure consists of Union and State Administration. There are three pillars of the government – Parliament/Legislature in which Legislative powers are vested, executive to implement laws and there is also an independent judiciary, which acts as a watchdog of the Constitution and is the supreme law of the land.

Executive powers of the government – The Union Government at the Centre consists of a President in whom all the executive power of the Union is vested and is to be exercised by him either directly or through officers subordinate to him in accordance with the Constitution [Article 53 (1)]: the Vice-President – only a ceremonial dignitary; and a council of ministers with prime Minister as its head “to aid and advice the President in the exercise of his functions”.

Functioning of the executive in Government of India – In India, being a federal state, the executive responsible for execution of laws and plans and policies of the government functions at two levels –

  1. At the Center, with its head quarter at Delhi, and
  2. At Provincial level, with its headquarters at the capital of the respective state.
  • Central Government/Government of India – The President is the nominal head of the executive. The Prime Minister and his colleagues are real political heads of different government departments. Their executive power, in practice, is exercised by permanent civil service (civil services mean all the streams of functional, technical and specialist cadres as well as managerial and generalist cadres. In a federal set-up like ours, it also includes the officials at regional or state level) which works under ministers and serves as a link – so essential to maintain continuity of policy and consistency of administration between successive ministers.
  • Governments in Provinces/states – Different provinces or states in India have their separate political set-up similar to that of Centre. In the states, Governor, instead of President, is the nominal head. They have their own legislature, council of Ministers with a Chief Minister and an independent judicial system. The subjects for the Centre as well as state administration have been divided clearly by the Constitution itself in the Seventh Schedule. To achieve its goals ‘within cost and time parameters’, the constitution of India has divided the subjects between the centre and the states. All the functions are broadly divided into three lists, Central List, State List and The Concurrent List –
  • Division of functions between the Centre and the States – The division of functions between the centre and the states has been by the Constitution of India itself. The Constitution of India is based upon the principles of `Justice, Social, Economic and Political’, (Preamble to the Constitution of India 1950). The successful operation of these welfare plans needs an efficient civil service with clear vision of its responsibilities. Maintenance of law and order in the country and speedy socio-economic development requires effective and efficient administrative efforts directed towards the assigned goals.
  1. The subjects, for which the Central government is responsible, are mentioned in Central List and the Concurrent List and
  2. The subjects, which comes under the jurisdiction of Provinces are mentioned in the State List and the Concurrent List.
  3. On Concurrent List subjects, preference is given to the Centre.   Some basic problems of Indian economy are –
  4. Problems faced by Indian administration immediately after Independence– Very few nations in the world have started out with greater initial difficulties of political, economic, social and administrative character as India had to do. India has chosen the most difficult form of government – democracy, which has been successful only in a very few nations that too in developed countries. Besides, due to India’s unique federal structure, many complexities arise due to tense Centre-State relationship. There exists a great deal of friction, tension and mutual suspicion between the political leadership and the administrators. This results in lack of coordination of policies among departments and lack of dissemination of information for effective decision making and thus either procrastination and long delays or inadequate and inapt policies. All these factors pose many challenges before the administration.
  • Low per capita income, dependence of at least three fourth of her population on agriculture, industrial backwardness, capital deficiency, rapid population growth, unemployment and under-employment, prevalence of backward technology, under-utilization of natural resources and unsuitable social structures.
  • Slow economic growth – Because of all these factors, the growth has been very slow and the economy has always been in a bad shape. In the absence of enough capital or skilled personnel or able management and efficiency organization, the level of productivity has remained low, leaving little surplus for saving and capital formation. In addition to all this, by and large, the absence of able and honest leadership and lack of efficient and clean administration are the main reasons for persistent economic backwardness.
  • India, still, is a transient society moving from traditionalism to modernism. It has a long tradition of authoritarianism and institutionalism. The caste, class and feudal heritage still dominate its social fabric. In the words of Nirad Chaudari, “An extraordinary thing about all the civilizations of India is that there have been superstructures imposed on a primitive, peasant, labour and artisan community, which itself has hardly changed since the end of the neo-lithic age in Western Asia”.
  • Periods of unity, in our history, have been lesser as compared to periods of strife and conflict. The partition of the nation, the three wars, the swelling streams of nearly a crore of refugees from Bangla Desh and recently from Sri Lanka, the periodical famines and floods, each needs to be tackled firmly and speedily. There are new divisive forces, which base themselves on cultural and linguistic variations of the country. Today the violence/terrorists activities happening day-in and day-out in West Bengal, Bihar, Assam and Punjab, Andhra, Jharkhand etc. and Great Economic Depression 0f 2007-08, is a serious challenge before the administration at various levels and that unless local problems are solved speedily, they are likely to pose a new threat to the unity and stability of the nation as a whole.
  • Challenges at social front – The administration of the nation has to face many challenges at social front also –
  • Generally law follows social change, but in India the Government is trying to foster social change through law.
  • Pervasive corruption and indiscipline has weakened the social fabric beyond repair.   Population is exploding virtually unchecked.
  • Standards of education have declined beyond any remedy and it has become inefficient, wasteful, dysfunctional and increasingly unrelated to national needs and aspirations. Illiteracy of masses is still a problem in the society.
  • Some unpleasant changes took place in the past and are increasing every day in the character, role and inter-relationship of the seven main constituent of the national elites – political executive, legislators, businessmen, organized workers, surplus farmers, bureaucrats and media.
  • Sectoral and regional imbalances are also sources of great social and psychological tensions. There is a wide gap between the rich and poor and between various regions within India. Some states like Maharashtra, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Punjab are marching ahead rapidly under the stimulus of the plan schemes, while others are lagging behind and re unable to find adequate resources to implement the schemes. Therefore, the gap is widening between the prosperous and backward states.
  • Besides, within each state, there are pockets of poverty amidst plenty – such as dry and hilly areas as well as those with tribal populations are still far below the national average. This gives rise to new tensions – social and economic and the stability of the society is threatened. The administration of the country has to face this challenge and take up lead in reconciling regional interest with national unity.
  • The political and administrative atmosphere is also not in harmony with the developmental activities of the administration. The country’s democracy has given too much space to corrupt and inefficient governance without any accountability towards public. People have become immune to corruption, inefficiency and poor governance in public life as normal. Origin and Development of Bureaucracy/Civil Services in India
  • The civil services in India can, without doubt, be regarded as the most remarkable of all the institutions, which Britain bequeathed to India. The term `civil service’, which is now applied to the general body of persons employed as non-combatant work connected with the administration of states, was first used in the late eighteenth century.
  • Therefore, it is required that bureaucracy/civil services at every level must be equipped with officers having the capacity to meet various challenges of the modern India. The success of government’s welfare and developmental plans would depend largely upon the efficiency of its administrative cadres.
  • During East India Company – The term was used to designate those employees of East India Company, who were engaged in mercantile work. As the character of the company changed, its trading operations were first supplemented by territorial dominion and eventually replaced by the responsibilities of government. Its civil servants were transformed from traders into administrators. Roughly from 1606 to 1740, the civil servants were managing primarily trading operations, and incidentally administrative work which grew more and more in size as the East India Company acquired territorial possessions notably after the battle of Plassey. Precisely from 1741 to 1834, the civil servants were entrusted with purely administrative activities.
  • Civil services under Imperial rule – By 1858, when the transfer of power from East India Company to the British Crown became a reality, the foundation of the Indian Civil Services was formally implemented. And about this period of British Rules, the Simon Commission (Report of the India Statutory Commission 1930, Vol. I.P. 263) said, “of no country can it be said more truly than of India that `Government is administration’. During British period, the bureaucracy consisted of two parts:
  • Government in London headed by the Secretary of State for India and curiously called the `Home Government’ of India.
  • Government in New Delhi (in Calcutta before 1911), headed by Viceroy and Governor General of India, called the Government of India.

The two parts were closely related despite of the factor of long distance between England and India. Pylee (Constitutional History of India 1600-1950 P.28) said “The whole system from top to bottom was well knit, highly centralized and behaved like an unbreakable steel frame with all the characters of a full-fledged autocracy.”

 

The Secretary of State for India (A Member of British Cabinet – the creation of the Act of 1858) was at the top of the administrative machinery – He controlled the political destiny of India from England. His powers were immense. All the Members of higher civil services were appointed by him and his control over them was pervasive.

The Act of 1919 and that of 1935 made little, though formal, changes in regard to his powers. Though his powers relating to the superintendence, direction and control of the Indian Administration   were   retained, his interference   in the   administration   of   the transferred subjects assigned to the popular ministers was to be reduced to the minimum. As a result, the day to day interference of the Secretary of State in the provincial administration was relaxed to some extent.

Position of Viceroy and Governor General in India – Viceroy and the Governor General was the Crown’s representative. His office was set up by the Regulating Act of 1773, while the Act of 1858 decorated its title as Viceroy and the Governor General of India. He had assumed much authority in his own hands on account of being the `man on the spot.’ He was the supreme bureaucrat, so far as the Government of India was concerned. All provincial and local administration was under his absolute control. Due to the policy of maintaining a uniform administrative system all over the country, his control was very extensive in the administrative field.

Though the public services were recruited by the Secretary of State, it was the duty of the Government of India to lay down policies of reform and progress of the administrative system in the form of Resolutions. The net result was that provinces only acted as the Agents of the Centre in implementing these resolutions.

At the end of 1918, British India had its 15 units variously designated as given here (Johri J.C. Indian Government & politics P. 157):

Position of Provinces/State Units Administratively

Presidencies                    Lieutenant Governorship             Chief Commissionership

  1. Bengal 1. Bihar & Orissa 1. Ajmer Mewara
  2. Chennai 2. Burma 2. Andamans
  3. Mumbai 3. Punjab 3. Assam
  4. Uttar Pradesh 4. Baluchistan
  5. Central Provinces
  6. Coorg
  7. Delhi
  8. North-West Frontier Province

(Governors were             (Appointed by the Crown                (Appointed by the Crown on the

appointed by the              on the recommendation               recommendation of the Governor General)

Crown)                      of the Governor General)

 

Administration in Provinces – What was common to the administration of all these units or provinces was that they were under the charge of bureaucrats acting under the supreme control of the Governor General. The Governor or the Lt. Governor, as the case may be, of a province remained the pivot of the bureaucratic administration at the provincial level despite the introduction of a sort of `provincial autonomy’ under the Montfort Reforms.   The position and role of the Governor remained one of the important factor that caused the failure of the Dyarchy in the provinces. By virtue of belonging to the cadre of bureaucracy, the fact of strong bureaucratic control continued even under the so-called partially representative government. And despite of the relaxation of Central control over the provincial administration according to the Act of 1919 and that of 1935, the fact remained that governor continued to act as the concrete embodiment of the bureaucratic administration under the absolute superintendence, direction and control of the Governor General.

The civil servants of different ranks, i.e. Commissioners/Deputy Commissioners/District Collectors and Magistrates etc., were entrusted with the responsibility of running the administration of their division, district or some such local area according to the dictates of the upper echelons of British Bureaucracy. The civil service was characterized as hierarchy of officers neither chosen nor accountable to the Indian people. The bureaucracy at the level of local administration meant `Raj’ to the masses of the country, as the rule of an officer “was based on fear and awe and mass obedience was extracted by repression and suppression of popular demands”1.   The higher civil servants were appointed and for that reason, accountable to those above them.

Recruitment in the civil services during British rule – From 1805 to 1885, the higher civil servants were nominated by the individual Directors of the Company. From 1858 onwards, in order to make the civil services in India efficient and well equipped, the British Civil Service Commission created in 1855, was given the Charge to select officials through competitive examination.   During this period the main task of the administration was to maintain law and order intact at any cost.

Structure of Civil services During British rule – In India, the recruiting and controlling authority of these services was the `Secretary of State’. Mostly Britishers were recruited for these services. A bureaucratic hierarchical structure came into existence as soon as the `Rule of Company Bahadur’ was terminated and replaced by the `Rule of Crown’.

Classification of Civil Services – Administrative system in any society is an integrated whole. It is usually divided vertically and horizontally in order to meet the differing requirements and emerging developmental tasks. During that period, the Secretary of State for India was at the top the Viceroy and Governor General of India just below him; Provincial Governors/Lt. Governors/Chief Commissioners below Viceroy; and Collector/Magistrates or Deputy Commissioners and other civil servants etc. occupying the lowest rung of the four tier structure of the centralized white bureaucracy. All the civil services in British India were classified as covenanted (higher) and uncovenanted (lower) services on the basis of the nature of work, pay-scales and appointing authority.

Reorganization of bureaucracy by Aitchinson Commission – In 1887, Aitchinson Commission recommended the reorganization of the services on a new pattern. It divided the services into three group – Imperial, Provincial and Subordinate. All the important and superior positions of All India status were included in Imperial Services.

With the passing of the Indian Act 1919, the Imperial Services were split into two classes – All India Services and Central Services. There were Provincial Services as well. The appointing and controlling authority for these services was the respective provincial government, which framed rules for those services with the approval of the government of India. There were then, subordinate services for minor and ministerial jobs. Positions, supervision and authority were to be exercised downward.

Responsibilities, simple or complicated type of work, qualifications required for the post sphere of work, nature or quality of supervision by superior etc. were the factors, which operated in the determination of classification.

Diagrammatically the classification can be represented as under:

Classification of Civil Services

(a)

According to Aitchinson Commission 1887

I

Imperial                                                      Provincial

((b)

 

Covenanted                      Uncovenanted Subordinate

(Class I & II)                                                 (Class III &IV)

(c)

According to India Act, 1919

I——————————————————-I

All India Services                                  Central services

(9 in all)

 

All India Services – On the eve of the Government of India Act 1919, the following All India Services were in existence:-

  1. Indian Civil Service;
  2. Indian Police Service;
  3. Indian Forest Service;
  4. Indian Education Service;
  5. Indian Medical Service;
  6. Indian Civil Veterinary Service
  7. Indian Forest Engineering Service
  8. Indian Agricultural Service; and
  9. Indian Service of EngineersCivil Service Classification, Control and Appeal Rules, 1930 – From 1930 onwards, the classification of services came to be governed by Civil Service Classification, Control and Appeal Rules, 1930. According to it, various services were divided into four categories : Class I, Class II, Subordinate and Interior. As on March, 1970, there were about 52,000 gazetted officers under the Central Government and 76,000 in the provincial governments. This distinction continued to exist till 1974. After that it was done away with, in order to reduce the workload in government presses, economy in the cost of paper and printing and more efficient management of service in the audit offices. Superior/higher Civil Services in Government of India after Independence – Among all the Government Services, group `A’ and `B’ may be regarded as higher civil services. The civil servants of these groups are engaged at different levels of administration and play an important role in policy-making and decision-making processes and their implementation work. It can be said that higher civil services can be considered to be all those services, which are fabricated in the constitutional fabric of the nation in managerial work of the nation’s administration whether in Secretariat or in field.The different government offices, which are associated with the classification process, are:
  10. Post-Independence Classification: The organizational set-up of any administrative agency plays a very important role in the efficient performance of tasks and in the harmony and cooperation of the members inter-se. Prof. Applebly1 says, “The structure determines, where responsibility lies; how and to what extent responsible and controllable delegation takes place; what emphasis should be given to various objectives.   It poses and conceals issues of policy. It provides or relatively fails to provide a structure of progressive responsibilities for decision making and thus at each level screens out some decisions and relieves those in higher positions, so that they may give attention to decisions really important to their functions”.
  11. Indian bureaucracy after Independence – In 1947 came the Independence. With the attainment of Independence and adoption of socialist and egalitarian society as ultimate national goals, the demands on administration undergone a qualitative change. The basic task of administration changed from one of attending to routine regulatory function to that of promoting a rapid socio-economic change.
  12. Gazetted and Non-gazetted Civil Services – During British period, there was another classification of the Civil Services into Gazetted and Non-gazetted. All positions, the names of whose occupants were published in the Government Gazette in connection with their postings, transfers, promotions and privileges in respect of disciplinary action, right to appeal and retirement etc. were called `Gazetted’ posts. Class I and II Officers generally enjoyed the gazetted status. In contrast other positions, the names of whose occupant did not appear in government gazette were categoriZed as non-gazetted. This practice continued even after independence.
  13. Some of the important Central Services were Indian Railways Service, Indian Custom Service, and Indian Accounts Service etc.
  • Ministry of Home Affairs;
  • Department of Personnel;
  • Finance Ministry; and
  • U.P.S.C.Structure of Civil Services after Independence – Now the different services are designated as All India Services, Central Services and State Services. These are classified into class I, II, III and IV. Varadachariar Commission substituted the terms `subordinate’ and `inferior’ by class III and class IV services after independence. There is a monetary basis of this classification also. According to Third Pay Commission1, officers appointed to a service whose minimum starting pay was Rs.700/- and above were in class I service, Rs.650/- in Class II Service and the persons drawing Rs.650/- and below are in class III and class IV. Since July, 1974, the classification of civil servants under class I,II,III & IV has been changed into groups `A’,`B’,`C’`D’.
  • Classification of civil services according to the nature of work: In Government of India, different organized services, which may be regarded as higher civil services can be divided into following groups:
  • The present day classification of the services in India is governed by the Civil Services Classification, Control and Appeal Rules, 1930, as amended from time to time.
  • All India services and
  • Central Services

All India Services: It is a well-established fact that in every country, there are certain posts in its administrative set up which might be called strategic from the point of view of maintaining the standard of administration. Fortunately for us, we have inherited from the past a system of administration, which is common to whole of the country and we know what are these strategic posts. The Constitution framers provided that, “without depriving the states of their right to form their own civil services, there shall be All India Services recruited on an All India basis with common qualifications, with uniform scale of pay and members of which alone could be appointed to those strategic posts throughout the Union”.

All India Services are governed by Article 312 of the Indian Constitution. At present, there are three All India Services: Indian Administrative Service; Indian Police Service; and Indian Forest Service. Indian Administrative Service and Indian Police Service are incorporated in Article 312(2) of the Constitution. Indian Service of Engineers, Indian Medical Service and Indian Education Services are likely to come into existence in the near future. All India Services are meant basically for providing personnel for state administration and the maximum number of policy level posts under the Union are also held by Officers belonging to this group.

Central Civil Services under Government of India –This group covers both technical (including scientific) and non-technical services meant for implementing the policies of the Union.

Professional Civil Services – There are many central civil services for performing various service functions, for which Central Government is responsible. They function in the areas, for which Central Government is responsible. These are mentioned in Central List of Subjects under the Constitution, such as Railways, Posts and Telegraphs, Excise and Customs etc. A few civil services, in this categories are Indian P&T Accounts and Finance Service; Indian Audit and Accounts Service; Indian postal Service; Indian Customs and Central Excise Service; Indian Defense Accounts Service; or Indian Income Tax Service.

For these services, the appointment into it does not require any professional degree, diploma, certificate or experience prior to appointment. Income tax Service, Indian Excise and Customs Service or Accounts Service comes in this category.

Technical Civil services – Technical Civil Services require knowledge and experience of a defined field, professional degree, diploma and/or experience for appointment to these services. Engineering services, Health services etc. It deals especially with developmental programs or building up infrastructural structures. It is considered expedient to have a Central Control/guidance for uniformity in technical fields such as water resources management, power generation etc. Some Technical Services are Indian service of Indian Meteorological Service; Overseas Communication Service; Indian Statistical Service; Indian Economic Service; Indian Railway Services of Engineers (of Electrical Engineers; Signal Engineers; Mechanical Engineers; (Civil, Electrical, Mechanical, Electronics, Indian Ordnance Factories Service (Engineering Branch); Indian Tele-communication Service, Central Water Engineering Service; Central Power Engineering Service; Central Health Service etc.

Recruitment in Superior Civil Services – For smooth functioning of governance and successful operation of its developmental activities, it is must for a nation to have an efficient civil service. Initial selection of the services, if properly conducted, can in more positive terms, provide the government with the type of officials, who can implement its policies and program in a systematic and purposeful manner. Therefore, it becomes one of the primary duty of the government to spot out good candidates for nurturing them to acquire the skills necessary for higher posts. N India, in order to provide the nation a well-equipped and intellectually brilliant administrative frame-work, the recruitment to higher service is done through open examinations conducted by Union Public Service Commission.

Lord Maculae initially shaped the recruitment policy for higher services in 1854. The direct recruitment by competitive examination was envisaged with the idea that very brilliant person can be shaped into efficient officials suitable for holding senior positions. The basic ingredients of this system were:

  • Selection of really brilliant young people – the caliber of direct recruits was ensured by their success in an open competition.
  • An intensive training either formal or informal for two years; and
  • Actual field work for at least a period of five to seven years, during which they would be fully moulded to suit the needs of the organization they were serving.
  • The recruitment system remained the same even after Independence except for some marginal modifications, here and there, from time to time. In 1975, under Dr. D.S. Kothari, a Committee was set up to review the system of recruitment to the higher services. It recommended unified competitive examination consisting of a preliminary screening examination to test skill, speed and accuracy for non-technical civil services. It is an objective type to facilitate quick identification of those, who have the requisite range/depth of knowledge. Finally there is an interview to examine communication skills, public speaking skills, leadership qualities, ability to exchange meaningful ideas and attitude. This scheme came into practice from 1979. According to it, there are an examination having –
  • Compulsory papers – to test the general mental culture and interests of the candidates;
  • Optional papers – to judge intellectual ability and scholastic attainment, and
  • Personality test – to see personal qualities including some intellectual qualities, which a written examination cannot discover.Some changes were made in the main examination only from 2013 onwards by UPSC aiming to ensure level-playing field to -science/engineering/humanity students.
  • Immediately after their selection into various services, the successful candidates are sent to various training Institutions for their foundation training for two or three years, so that they may get the picture of the political, social and economic aspect of the administrative set-up and they may get acquainted with the basic concepts and requirements of their jobs.
  • Additional English language paper of 100 marks (part of paper I to test aspirant’s comprehension and writing skills. Marks will count during short-listing of candidates for IAS, IFS, IRS & other government jobs.
  • General studies paper will gauge aspirant’s ethics, integrity and aptitude.
  • Other language papers are not compulsory any more.
  • Four general studies papers of 250 marks each to replace 2 papers of 300 marks each.
  • Weightage on optional papers is reduced by making 2 papers of 250 marks each (500 marks) instead of 4 papers of 300 marks (1200)
  • So far candidates got selected by scoring high in optional papers by rigorous coaching and rote learning at the last moment helped so far to get through. Earlier pattern often favoured aspirants with subject knowledge.

The pattern of examination is slightly different for technical services. No preliminary screening has been considered necessary as technical graduates have already undergone a rigorous curriculum in their respective fields of study. For joining various organized group `A’ services as technical side, the candidates have to appear in various competitive examinations conducted annually by UPSC itself.

 

Working of Civil Administration in India – The civil administration, whether in Centre or in State, can be divided into two groups –

  • Working in the Secretariats – Policy making body;
  • Working in field organisations – for implementation of policies and plans.Working in the Secretariat – Secretariats are at the Central level as well as at the state level. The Central Secretariat is located in the capital of India, New Delhi, and provincial secretariats in the capital of respective states. Secretariat consists of the Council of Ministers, the Secretaries (top level civil servants) and the staff. It functions as the nerve-centre of the government, because all the policies and programs get formulated and executive orders originate here. It also keeps a watch over the implementation and presents a correct appraisal of progress made in it to the Government from time to time. The Punjab Administrative Reforms Commission has listed the following as its important functions:
  • Obtaining decisions on policy matters and enunciating the policy decision in clear language;
  • Overall planning and finance;
  • Legislative business;
  • Personnel management policies;
  • Legal advice;
  • Coordination and cross-clearance among the administrative departments in the Secretariat;
  • Communication with the Central Institutions like Planning Commission; and
  • Overall evaluation, supervision, control and coordination of the work being done by the field departments.Directly under the minister come the Secretaries of various departments. Secretary heads one or more department and can be under more than one Minister. All matters to the cabinet are routed through him. He is the Chief functionary of his department. Joint Secretaries/Deputy Secretaries and Under Secretaries help the Secretary in the discharge of his work. In Secretariat decision-making usually starts at the level of Deputy Secretary. He puts up proposals for policy-decisions to the Secretary. The work at Secretariat demands more and more officers selected on the basis of merit having experience and knowledge in relevant areas.
  • Working in field: Working in the field can be divided into:-
  • Working in field departments or head offices.
  • Working in the districts.The district civil administration occupies a key position. It is the most convenient geographical unit, where the total apparatus of civil administration can be concentrated and where it comes into direct contact with people. Its importance arise from the fact that it is at this level that bulk of people come into close contact with the government policies, programs and their implementation. It is here that people judge the quality and efficiency of the governmental administration. It has regulatory as well as developmental tasks. The collector continues to play a pivotal role in the district administration. Besides the collection of Revenue and the maintenance of law and order, he is responsible for coordinating the activities of various departments at district level. He enjoys immense power and prestige. Each district has several district officers, who head their respective units at district level. There are some technical departments also. Which are entrusted with functions, which require knowledge and experience in a defined field. A proper job evaluation leads to position-classification and forms the basis of personnel management. Position classification is a systematic division of different posts in several classes in accordance with the functions to be performed, responsibilities to be shouldered and other conditions. It is “the systematic sorting and ranking of position in a hierarchical sequence according to comparative difficulty and responsibility”2.
  • In this way, both kinds of work – work at Secretariat as well as in the field – have their distinctive challenges. And for the efficient performance of work in both the areas, there is need for flow of knowledge, experience and continuous consultation between the Secretariat and the field agencies.
  • The head offices are to supervise, coordinate and watch the implementation of policies in their own field. Their administrative and financial powers are defined in Finance Rules, Civil Service Rules, the Budget Manual and other Codes. It is their responsibility to set their machinery – men, money and material – in order to keep their men in good spirit for bringing about the desired results according to the Plan. Therefore, administration at field level requires men of drive, initiative and of leadership capability.

Continuous modernization, higher productivity, rapid advance in socio-economic and technological sphere and desire to improve the quality of life of common-men demand that personnel joining the government services should be effective, efficient and goal-oriented.

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June 17, 2017 - Posted by | Bureaucracy/Civil Services |

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