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Theory of biological Evolution

Let us see how the theory of evolution has been developed by Darwin (1809-1882) and by priestly schools in ancient India.

Theory of Evolution

English naturalist Charles Darwin and others, had developed a theory of biological evolution stating that all species of organisms arise and develop through the natural selection of small, inherited variations that increase the individual’s ability to compete, survive, and reproduce.

Darwin’s Theory of Evolution is the widely held notion that all life is related and has descended from a common ancestor: the birds and the bananas, the fishes and the flowers — all related. Darwin’s general theory presumes the development of life from non-life and stresses a purely naturalistic (undirected) “descent with modification”. That is, complex creatures evolve from more simplistic ancestors naturally over time. In a nutshell, as random genetic mutations occur within an organism’s genetic code, the beneficial mutations are preserved because they aid survival — a process known as “natural selection.” These beneficial mutations are passed on to the next generation. Over time, beneficial mutations accumulate and the result is an entirely different organism (not just a variation of the original, but an entirely different creature).

Theory of Evolution according to Hindu Mythology – In Hindu Mythology, the theory of evolution has been described in the form of Dashavatar as following -.

  1. Matsya Avtar – According to it, the life in this world begins with Matsya Avtar. It means fish. It is true as well, because it is said that life began in water.
  2. Kurma Avtar – Second phase came with Kurma Avtar. Kurma means the tortoise. During this phase life moved from water to the land. life moved from water to the land. The Amphibian. So the tortoise denoted the evolution from sea to land.
  3. Varaha Avtar – The third avatar was that of Varaha., which means the wild animals with not much intellect. It may be called Dinosaurs.
  4. Narasimha Avtar –  The next was Narasimha Avtar – half man and half animal. The evolution Of life from wild animals to intelligent beings.
  5. Waman Avatar – Waman means midget or dwarf, who could go really tall. To understand it, one must know that there are two kinds of humans – Homo Erectus and the Homo Sapiens. And Homo sapiens won that battle.
  6. Parshuram Avatar– The sixth Avatar was Parshuram – the man who yielded the axe, a man who was a cave and forest dweller. He was an angry man and not social.
  7. Ram Avatar – Next was Ram Avatar, the first thinking social being, who laid the laws of society and the basis of all relationships.
  8. Balram Avatar – The Eighth was Balram Avatar, who was a true farmer and showed the value of agriculture in life.
  9. Krishnavtar – The Ninth avatar was Krishna, the statesman. The politician, the lover who played the game of society and taught how to live thrive in the social structure.
  10. Kalki Avatar – Yet to come, a genetically supreme human being, on whom the modern scientists are working on.

 According to Hindu philosophy the process of evolution never stops. No stage is supposed to be final. Neti-Neti (not an end) is the principle.

About Indian philosophy – The priestly Indian philosophers in Ancient Indian had also developed the theory of evolution. Indian philosophy contains “an ocean of knowledge in a jar.” It is supposed to be a magnificent example of scientific division and orderly arrangement of rules, in a few words, in different branches of human knowledge, covering almost all the aspects of life.

Use of Symbolic language – For expressing their thoughts, Indian priests had used Symbolic language. The purpose of using symbolic language was perhaps to make it easier for human mind to remember. In Upnishads, Hindu epics and Geeta, there are many examples of symbolic mentality. Shiva–Shakti stood for Divine masculine-feminine union, Purush and prakriti for ideal man-woman relationship, Som ras as a symbol of divine bliss etc. Four elements of nature (i) Om stood for the sound of creation, (ii) Trishul for trinity, (iii) Lotus for balance, (iv) Venus-star for creativity, Sacrifice for an offering to gods.

Thinking of Indian sages was passed on orally from one generation to another – In ancient India, in the absence of any written material, the scholarly thinking of Indian sages was passed on orally from one generation to another. It involved three basic processes, one, which included ‘Sravana’ (stage of acquiring knowledge of ‘Shrutis’ by listening). Two, ‘Manana’ (meaning pupils to think, analyse themselves about what they heard, assimilate the lessons taught by their teacher and make their own inferences,) and three ‘Nidhyasana (meaning comprehension of truth and and  apply/use it into real life).

System to transfer their thoughts to coming generations –  The learned sages and munies devised a most remarkable and effective system of transferring it to succeeding generations in form of hymns. They restricted it only to those, who possessed the capability to understand, had brilliant feats of memory and capability to keep its extreme sanctity. It gave their thinking a sacrament, religious and sacrosanct shape.

Later on developed in the form of mythological stories – With the passage of time, the people, who lost the mindset to understand the true meaning of this symbolic language gave everything an imaginative, mysterious, mystic or divine shape. This trend with some additions and deletions took the shape of mythological stories.

 Mythology makes sense – In India people know some amazing things, but they do not know how to interpret it scientifically. So developed their thoughts through mythological stories. Mythology makes sense. It is just the way one looks at it – religious or scientific. In mythology, quite often the symbolic language has been used to express thoughts.  There was infinite scope to develop these stories.

(Quoted from Jyotsna Sinha’s message and edited by Lata Sinha)

 

January 1, 2017 Posted by | Social and political values and systems | | Leave a comment