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Happiness in life

“Life is there to live and live happily”

“It is good to have money and the things that money can buy, but it’s good, too, to check up once in a while and make sure that you have not lost the things that money can’t   buy”                                  George Lorimer                                                

Introduction – Life is there to live and live happily Almost everyday people, people wish to their near and dear one, ‘be happy’, ‘enjoy the day’, ‘enjoy life’, ‘enjoy the trip’ ‘enjoy your holidays’ etc. etc. But the irony is that hardly most of them know or understand what is true happiness, how can they be happy.

Issue – But how? The main problem is how to make people realize what is happiness, how can they be happy and what they should do or what are the ways and means to achieve it.

What is happiness? – For many people, for enjoyment and happiness they should have muscle, money or political power. Some get happiness lies in getting name, fame, wealth or in securing for themselves important positions in the corridors of authority – be it social, political or economic. For them, authority over others is enjoyment. They like to control the destiny of other people around them and have a say in all important matters of society/nation.

Youth of the day find happiness in visiting and holidaying in world’s most exotic locales, purchasing expensive goods and clothes, providing best education to their children, buying expensive cars and  residences in exclusive areas and ultimately retire rich. For fulfilling all these desires, they would require a handsome amount of money. Without enough money at hand and good bank-balance, they feel insecure and restless.

Does material success give happiness – Material success does matter in life and is necessary to be comfortable and to enjoy in life. There is nothing wrong to pursue ambitions and self-interests and make efforts to be successful in life. All are supposed to lead an active and happy life especially when they are young, because youth is the most energetic and most enjoyable period in anybody’s life. As far as possible, it should be free from  worries and tensions. Nature offers maximum opportunities to young people to utilize their intellectual and physical capabilities and enjoy the life the most.

In Hinduism, ‘Grihasthashram’, (young couples leading a family life) are advised to work for financial and material gains, get involved in economic activities of the nation and fulfill their dreams and ambitions. But at the same time, they have certain duties/obligations towards society. They are the trustees and managers of social estate. They are supposed to fulfil their duties towards family members – parents, wife/husband, children  and elders; towards the rest of the society, helping other people in need of protection/help; and towards nation by observing the law of the nation and pay taxes honestly on their income.

Young couples are the main contributors and ‘Society’ is the recipient. They are supposed to make direct/indirect contribution to the society consistent to their capacity, knowledge and conscience. Taking proper care of toddlers and elderly/old people, proper maintenance of institutions of learning,  NGOs involved in social service and support the poor etc. are included in their duty. They are also supposed to be sensitive and compassionate to the problems of weaker sections of society.

Can only money make one happy? –   George Lorimer suggests “It is good to have money and the things that money can buy, but it’s good, too, to check up once in a while and make sure that you have not lost the things that money can’t   buy”   (George Lorimer, TOI, Sacredspace, P.16)  

A million dollars question arises – Can  only money or material success buy happiness? Such questions are being asked from time to time. People thought over it, tried to get an answer but have never been satisfied with the answer. The answer depends on just what one means by ‘happy’. Present generation born and brought up during the era of materialism and consumerism regards money the most important thing in life. Many people are running after money blindly. It needs to be understood that money is  the means, not an end in itself. Money is not the master or sole aim in life. It is supposed to be the servant. Money is important and useful for meeting day to day requirements and basic needs of the life, but ‘greed’ or aspiring for more and more money does not make a person happy. More one has, for much more he desires. Once craving for money starts, there is no end to it.  ‘Satisfaction’ with what one achieves in life or possesses and living within its limits gives more happiness than always craving for ‘more’.

What money can’t give – Some successful persons feel that happy and satisfied with what they have earned or achieved in their lives. But most of the times, such happiness is superficial and short-lived. Money and material successes can make one happy for a short period, or provide comforts in life or satisfy their ego up-to certain point, but can not buy sustainable happiness in life. People keeping themselves busy in earning money, hardly get time to enjoy life’s little pleasures.

There is a large number of persons, who are poor, unemployed or underemployed. It is difficult for them even to fulfill their basic requirements. Unemployment is continuously increasing and prices of commodities are soaring after the great economic depression of 2008. Because of the lack of opportunities, money and numerous temptations,  many of them are tempted to adopt wrong means including extortion, violence etc. to become rich overnight. These are one of the main reasons why corruption, crimes, violence or thefts are increasing amongst all the sections of society every day. It is becoming very difficult for the government to maintain law and order situation properly. There seems not much hope for the improvement of the law and order situation in near future.

What is happiness according to Hindu Philosophy

According to Hindu philosophy, real enjoyment/happiness (आनन्द) means ‘Satchitanand’ which includes in itself three things –

  • Sat (सत्)

  • Cit (चित्), and

  • Ānanda (आनन्द).

Sat (सत्) or path of righteousness – Sat refers to what is true and real. It inspires one to be true/honest to oneself and to others. It enables a person not to live in an illusionary world, but to accept the facts or realities of life and then decide his/her course of action.

Tremendous will power and a strong character is required to follow the path of ‘Sat’. It is difficult to follow the path of ‘sat’ for persons with weak faculties of mind. One needs to control or abandon passions like lust, anger, greed, vanity, conceit or over-joy, as it leads only to sorrow and distress.

Cit (चित्) or mindset/consciousness, knowledge, awareness or wisdom, Wisdom controls passions. It leads to balanced mind-set and controls irrational desires or passions. A balanced mind directs a person towards path of righteousness and achieve in proper manner desirable objectives.i

Ānanda (आनन्द) or happiness – Usually a common man devotes his/her time, effort and energy in satisfying the physical basic human needs. Real happiness lies in the development of ones inner self. One needs to have a balanced mind for being happy. Whatever comes on the way in life, one must accept that. Indian value system teaches an individual to accepts his surrounding, as it is and try to extract from it, whatever happiness he can. An Indian does not find life a vale of tears, from which to escape at all costs. It is said that Indians do “not count wealth in money alone, there is richness in their poverty.”

A person, whether rich or poor can be happy if he is able to keep a balance between his material (physical body) needs (be it money, attachment, material pursuits or ego) and spiritual needs (of soul).

How to achieve ‘Satchitanand’?

For reaching to the stage of ‘Satchitanand’, it is necessary –

  • Knowledge, and

  • Contentment

  • Positive attitude                                                                                                                        

Role of knowledge – It is not the money but acquisition of Knowledge, which is necessary to become happy. For real happiness people focus on pursuit of right kind of knowledge, maintenance of harmonious relationships with fellow-beings and health are more required rather than anything else.

Knowledge is essential the purpose of giving activities, their due meaning and value and make a person happy. Even a wise man may get puzzled without knowledge, as to what he should do or should not do. Therefore acquisition of knowledge is the most important thing in life. It is only after gaining knowledge, a person could understand well the real nature of work and could distinguish correctly between action, forbidden action, and in-action.

Positive attitude – A person is, what he thinks. Negative thought generates negative energy that is transformed into illness/bad feelings.  Negative thinking pushes a person backwards. It pushes away the solutions and enlarge problems. It leads to pessimism. It is better to light a match that to regret the darkness. A bee is small, but produces one of the sweetest things -honey – that exist.

Positive thinking brings happiness, serenity, blissfulness and sensitivity. It helps one to achieve success and to reach up-to great heights. Positive attitude towards life inspires in human beings qualities like sincerity hard-work, honesty and uprightness. For leading life in a positive way, one’s actions(Karmas) need to be performed with balanced mind. A person should adopt the path of righteousness without any bias.

True education is self-acquired and leads to self-awakening and to live with wisdom. Self awareness brings in love, peace harmony, joys and ‘Bliss’ Formal education in schools usually teaches to maintain external things or what exists – to preserve the systems, culture, religion and philosophies and prepares people for employments. All the time people worry about losing in the maintenance process. Human life is to live, not just to maintain.

Contentment – Contentment has an important role in life to make one happy. There is enough for everybody’s need in this world, but not enough even for a person’s greed. Contentment can generate happiness or feeling of real enjoyment in life amongst those who have enough money for fulfilling their basic needs. Hindi poet Kabir has said –

Godhan gaj dhan baji dhan aor ratan dhan khan,

Jo ave santosh dhan sab dhan dhhuri saman.”

(meaning all kind of wealth in this world can not bring that kind of satisfaction to human beings as contentment brings)

In India, it is a proverb that Lakshmi, ‘the goddess of wealth’ is quite unpredictable. With great effort a person learns to earn the wealth righteously, spend it properly and keep it safely. (Lakshmi bahut chanchala hai, isko sambhal kar paana, rakhana aur kharchana, teeno bahut tapasya ke baad aata hai. Quoted from the booklet Anmol Moti, written in !940’s by Shri Bhagwati Dayal Khare , an Advocate, Barabanki, U.P.)

Indians believe that achievements only at physical plane do not always make a person happy, successful and strong. Such a mindset gives rise to greed, anger and passion and most of the times (s)he is not able to maintain good relations with others. Materialism, consumerism, ruthless competition for positions of power, money and VVIP status in society or desire to have all the pleasures of life at others cost have brought some unpleasant changes in the mind-set of people in recent past and is increasing every day in the character, role and inter-relationship of the following main constituent of the national elites – political executive, legislators, businessmen,  media, organized workers, surplus farmers and bureaucrats etc.

Winding up – With positive thinking and contented mindset, child-like innocence is also required for happiness, which guides one to forgive and forget easily, carry no grudges against anyone, focus attention on the present, and keep always alive curiosity to understand new things and spirit of adventure.

True education and learning removes ignorance and trains the faculties of a person towards positive thinking and channelize his/her energies towards right direction. Positive thinking inculcates in human mind discipline and productivity. A knowledgeable person does not believe in discrimination. All persons rich or poor, high or low, forward or backward appear equal. Detached mindset helps them to live together peacefully in this world.

Positive-thinking leads towards clear objectives. Clear objective decide the right course of action. Choosing right path or course of action makes a person happy and contented. For happiness  knowledge, wisdom and intellectual intelligence is necessary. Intelligence itself  brings in financial independence. Limit one’s desires/over-ambitions. Even best ones are short-lived. Whatever comes in the way, one must accept it gracefully with positive mind-set and try to make efforts to extract the best out of the worst circumstances.

i Manusmriti, II, 94.

ii Bhagwat Gita, IV 14,15,16,and 17

iii Manusmriti, II, 3 and 5.

November 15, 2016 Posted by | Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Census operations

Introduction

After consolidating its position, the British Government in India made an effort to know about the people, whom they want to rule and chalk out strategies for the colonial governance. British anthropologists worked very hard to collect data and to catalogue various castes and tribes. For the first time, the collected data had drawn the attention of the rulers, intelligentsia and public to the diversity of Indian society and multiplicity of castes and sub-castes throughout India. All the collected data was catalogued by Census Commissioner into an official document, known as Census Operation.

Risley, the Census Commissioner, India – In the beginning of Twentieth century, like modern Manu,  Risley, then the Census Commissioner, India, invented a new method to stratify Indian society. Since then after every ten years, the government does census operations to know the demography of India and officially publishes it.

Classification of Indian society before British rule – Earlier, before British rule, Indian society was classified into four Varnas embracing numerous castes and sub-castes within its fold and incoming ruling communities like Muslims or British, treated by Indians as foreigners.

Indian society divided into water Instead of four Vernas, British rulers, in 1901  census, created five new unbridgeable water-tight compartments within Indian social structure. Through legal process, they gave each one a new group separate and distinct identity.

The first volume of Man in 1901 (the Journal of Royal Anthropological Institute) noted, The entire framework of native life in India is made up of groups of castes and tribes, and status and conduct of individuals are, largely, determined by the rules of the group, to which he belonged. He classified the Indian social structure in following water-tight compartments –

  • ‘Forward caste’ (caste Hindus)
  • Backward castes,
  • Untouchables or scheduled caste,
  • Scheduled tribes and
  • Minorities

Risley’s efforts, in 1901 census, of recording and putting in order numerous castes in hierarchical order like modern Manu had fossilized, imparting it a solidity, it did not have earlier. (Das Veena and Kagal Ayesha, Through the Prism of Clerkdom, Times of India, dated September 16, 1990, p2.)

 

Pigeonholed everyone by caste and community – British rulers codified the castes and standardized the system by placing all the jatis into four Varnas or in the categories of outcastes and aborigines. Middleton, a Census Superintendent remarked, We pigeonholed everyone by caste and community. We deplore its effect on social and economic problems. But we are largely responsible for the system…Our land records and official documents have added iron-bonds to the old rigidity of caste.”

Census operations destroyed the flexibility of caste system – Caste, in itself, was rigid among the higher castes, but malleable amongst the lower…The government’s act for labels and pigeon-holes had led to a crystallization of the caste system, which, except amongst the aristocratic caste, was really very fluid under indigenous rule. Therefore, the Census operations destroyed the flexibility of caste system, led to an all-round hardening of social-system and to frantic effort by each group-for upward mobility.

Immediate outcome of census operation – The Census operations instigated caste consciousness, caste animosities and made caste a tool in political, religious and cultural battles, that Hindus fought amongst themselves.

Census operations done by British rulers, far from neutral – The process of Census enumeration, which was started under British rule, was far from neutral. Through it, British rulers in India made an effort to chalk out strategies for the colonial governance.

  • British rulers retained distinctions between different sub-castes, relevant to them for organizing labor
  • They homogenized all those sub-castes, for which they had no use, therefore, no interest. All the floating population like Gujjars, Bhattis, Ranger Rajputs, who remained out-side caste system were fused into one.
  • Census operations kept Brahmins at periphery and instigated other castes against them. The reason was that British administrators, Christian Missionaries and Orientalists considered them as potential threat to British rule.

Made the system rigid – The new method of stratifying Indian society has changed the older system in a fundamental way giving rigidity to social stratification and hierarchical ranking. Every group lives in its own water-tight compartment, having virtually no communication with others, unknown and insensitive to the requirements and plusses and minuses of others. To a great extent, such a situation has given rise to intolerance for others, resulted in politicization of caste-system. To a great extent, such a situation has given rise to intolerance for others, resulted in politicization of caste-system. done by imperial rule through Censuses had recorded and placed numerous castes into Brahmins, Non-Brahmins, Muslims, Anglo-Indians, untouchables, non-Hindu Communities and backward castes or in categories of outcastes and aborigines and put them in hierarchical order.

Middleton, a Census Superintendent remarked, We pigeonholed everyone by caste and community. We deplore its effect on social and economic problems. But we are largely responsible for the system…Our land records and official documents have added iron-bonds to the old rigidity of caste. Caste, in itself, was rigid among the higher castes, but malleable amongst the lower…The government’s act for labels and pigeon-holes had led to a crystallization of the caste system, which, except amongst the aristocratic caste, was really very fluid under indigenous rule.” This division remains a by-word even for the present-day political leaders of Independent India.

Therefore, the Census operations destroyed the flexibility of caste system, led to an all-round hardening of social-system and to frantic effort by each group-for upward mobility.

The first volume of Man in 1901 (the Journal of Royal Anthropological Institute) noted, The entire framework of native life in India is made up of groups of castes and tribes, and status and conduct of individuals are, largely, determined by the rules of the group, to which he belonged. Risley’s efforts, in 1901 census, of recording and putting in order numerous castes in hierarchical order like modern Manu had fossilized, imparting it a solidity, it did not have earlier.[i] Therefore, the Census operations instigated caste consciousness, caste animosities and made caste a tool in political, religious and cultural battles, that Hindus fought amongst themselves.

The seeds of caste animosities sown by the British rulers have blossomed to its full after the independence, thanks to Indian politicians and political parties. Today the caste-ism in politics is at its peak.

Consequences of the change – The consequences of this system has been that Indians have forgotten about their roots. The new system has made a virtue of narrow loyalties of caste and religion, generating sub-cultures like favoritism, lure for easy money, nepotism and, in-discipline in the society. Caste and communal conflicts have increased. Sectarian and regional imbalances has generated social and psychological tensions. Work culture has been degenerated. People have lost faith not only in basic principles/systems of their own culture, but also in themselves and their fellow-beings. Favoritism, in-discipline, violence, corruption, and chase of materialism based on ruthless competition have weakened social fabric beyond repair. A few Individuals and groups, with political, money or muscle power control destiny of millions and have a say in almost every walk of national life. They work day and night to deny justice to ordinary citizens. Erosion of basic moral and human values has turned life of men, “nasty, brutish and short”. Scientific progress has endowed him with tremendous power both to preserve and destroy, but at slightest provocation, they do not hesitate to unleash its destructive powers accessible to them. Swami Vivekanand had said, “It is we, who are responsible for our degradation.”

Winding-up – Indians people still have faith in good intentions and wisdom of their ancestors, who contributed in building social structure of India. Almost all the principles of good organisation are found in the system like “team-spirit”, “Vasudhaiv Kutumbkam” (whole world is one family), “live and let live”, “Self restraint”, “automatic checks and balances” “division of labour” along with “to each according to his needs and from each according to his capacity” etc.

November 12, 2016 Posted by | Social and political values and systems | | Leave a comment

Good Governance

Good Governance, the toughest job – In modern times, of all acts of civilized society, perhaps, governance is one of the most difficult tasks, as it deals with issues – political, economic or social, that directly affect public life of living human beings, who are full of psychological and sociological complexes and prone to unpredictable behavior. Good governance is the foundation stone to build a forward- looking society. The ultimate aim of governance is to help common men live a peaceful, safe and secure life. Today, this simple and powerful truth is too often forgotten.

How to judge good governance – An efficient administration can successfully comprehend what is attainable, what is practical and what can help the various institutions to formulate plans and policies, by which the nation can seek to assure welfare of all its members. For pursuing the desired objectives  for the sustainable development of the nation, good governance is necessary.

 Maintenance of law and order – Good governance demands maintenance of law and order all over the country.  Then only, those engaged in the task of governance could yield maximum results with minimum labor and resources within time and cost parameters and provide convenience to public at large.

Requirements for good governance – The following are the requirements for good administration leading to the development of the nation –

  • Mental framework of the authorities responsible for governance– Mental framework of the authorities responsible for governance should never be conservative. It should have a scientific outlook and should be progressive, innovative, reformist and even revolutionary in mental attitudes and approaches.
  • Aware and responsible citizens – In governance, attitude of rulers and ruled matters equally. Citizens should be responsible and should be aware of their rights as well as of their duties.
  • Knowledge – For  should have knowledge of science, technology and social sciences.
  • Skills – The authorities responsible for governance should have conceptual skills (ability for innovative problem – analysis), planning skills, technical skills, managerial skills and human skills.
  • Vision – A development-oriented governance requires in the personnel involved, the vision of a statesman and not that of either narrow-minded politicians nor a rule-minded bureaucrat. Along with vision is required dynamism, integrity, drive and passion to convert dreams into reality.
  • Structures – Good governance requires less hierarchical and more team-like structures of governmental institutions, such as Commissions, Boards, Corporations etc.
  • Behaviour – The behavioural pattern should consist of (a) action and achievement orientation (b) responsiveness (c) responsibility (d) all round smooth relations inside with juniors and seniors and outside with clientele and the public (e) commitment to development ideologies and goals. Besides, there should be –
    • A working partnership between the political leaders and bureaucrats.
    • A sense of service, a spirit of dedication, a feeling of involvement and a will to sacrifice for the public welfare.
    • A pragmatic application of the basic democratic principles. Higher authorities should provide the required leadership to the juniors.
    • Constant field inspection by political leaders and senior officials.
    • To provide the government with the ability to be in constant contact with the people; and
    • to make the people conscious that the government is alive to their problem;
    • Smooth relation between generalist administrators, professionals and expert specialists.
    • Refresher courses from time to time to understand and evaluate the success already achieved in the field of development administration and the efforts to be initiated in future.

Decaying trends – According to Ferrel Heady (Ferrel Heady, Public Administration, A comparative perspective, P.270) –  the main hindrances on the way of effective development are:

  1. By the late sixties, a spirit of frustration and despair with `development administration’ and with `development’ in general had set in. For one thing, it became evident that externally induced modernization had failed to eradicate the basic problems of under-developed, it purported to solve. Whilst some significant increase in GNP had indeed taken place, poverty, disease and hunger had either worsened or remained unaltered. The same could be said of the growing gap between the rich and the poor nations or between different social strata within a nation. By seventies, the decaying trends had become noticeable in all the nations of developing world.   Events like the major industrial countries and a crisis of liberal democracy in the seventies and the early eighties have dampened most traces of early optimism.
  2. All developing nations have inherited many things from their past. Their colonial heritage has meant a carry-over of the colonial bureaucratic traditions like elitism, authoritarianism, aloofness, red-tapism and paternalistic tendencies;
  3. There is a deficiency in skilled manpower necessary for development program. It is caused by inadequacies and deficiencies in the educational system, training schemes and brain drain.
  4. There is lack of achievement orientation. The emphasis of government is usually not on programme goals, but on personal expediency, status-orientation on ascriptive grounds. Reason for this is the persistence of traditional value system. Results of this tendency are `institutionalized’ and `socially sanctioned’ large-scale corruption and `over-staffing’ in lower bureaucracy
  5. There is discrepancy between form and reality. There is wide gulf between the administrative form and reality due to a superficial change to modernizing values and substantial continuation of the traditional ideas. As a result, we find superfluous and excessive legislation or rules (which are normally violated), false delegations and decentralizations, eye-washing reports and actions with continuing backwardness.
  6. Bureaucratic Autonomy – Following factors have all made Bureaucracy more self-serving than development oriented –
    •  Colonial tradition, Monopoly and prestige of expertise for development available in bureaucracy,
    • Monopoly of coercive power,
    • Tiredness, inadequacies and instability of political leadership and
    • Near absence or weakness of groups exercising countervailing force over bureaucracy.

Constraints on bureaucracy – According to Valson1, (E.H. Valsan, Development Bureaucracy, A Tentative Model,P.270) the development bureaucracy suffers from the following four constraints:

  • At higher level –
    • disagreements with political bosses;
    • the relatively better economic and social status of civil servants;
    • Supremacy of seniority and patronage than qualifications in promotions; and
    • Unwillingness of bureaucrats to accept new ideas and technology for fear of loss of power and positions.
    • At Middle level, bureaucracy is constrained by: –
      • conflict between young and old minds in civil service;
      • a high level of corruption;
      • low commitment to development; and
      • conflict with higher level development bureaucracy and local politicians.
  • At lower level The government faces:
    • insufficient qualifications;
    • poor salary;
    • loss of morale and loss of faith in development ideology due to frustrating field experience; and
    • loss of initiative, crippling subservience to seniors and sacrifice to developmental objectives.

Remedy

  • Need of a strong and decisive leadership at political level;
  • Through repatterning the Administrative structure; and
  • Through repatterning the behaviour of civil servants. Behavioural changes in bureaucratic patterns are obviously more important.

These dimensions can be achieved through aware and educated citizens, structural reforms  of bureaucracy and arranging for a sound system of ‘education and training’ for all.

For efficient and effective governance, more attention should be paid to proper selection and proper training of those, who occupy managerial roles, and are in some directive capacity in either central agencies or in the field, those, who are concerned with the policy and plans formulation, program-implementation and evaluation” (Valson).

An appropriate designing and sincere shaping of the bureaucracy is necessary for making it an effective instrument for the ‘Development Administration’ required purpose can be done: –

  • Making civil service to serve development is not an impossible thing. It requires a development of administration itself. Development of Administration means “a pattern of increasing effectiveness in the utilisation of available means to achieve prescribed goals” (E.H. Valsan, Development Bureaucracy, A Tentative Model P.270 ). 
  • Administration mainly means increasing the effectiveness of the human resource of administration termed as personnel or civil service.
  • For an effective development administration, the role of entire personnel system should be efficient.
  • But relatively speaking, the role of the higher civil service or the managerial class of service is always more important.   Because in development administration changes with vision, values, ideas, plans and programmes have to be generated and applied.

 Scenario in India – In India, there are many factors, which have made good governance difficult. As a developing nation, it is reeling between many internal contradictions like between prosperity-poverty, between plenty of resource endowments-scarcity of their management, between its culture of peace and tolerance-its tendency of sliding towards violence, intolerance and discrimination.

Deteriorated position of law and order – In recent past, due to unstable political atmosphere, the arbitrariness of few powerful groups or persons has increased and there is lawlessness, corruption and intolerance in public life all over the country.

It has generated a sense of frustration, distrust, venom and agitation/violence amongst masses. Quite often, it threatens to shake the whole system and its structures. Sometimes, general public becomes so inured that any amount of harassment, violence, assaults on human dignity and human rights, bloodshed, caste-wars, carnage, riots, corruption, scams or scandals hardly fazes it anymore. One feels secure, until not affected personally, but how long?

The greatest damage to the nation has been done by intellectuals belonging to six main constituents of national elites of the country – political executive, legislators, media, businessmen, organized workers, surplus farmers and bureaucrats. In recent past, some unpleasant developments have taken place and are continuously happening in the character, role and inter-relationship of these groups.

In such an atmosphere, it is not easy for upright bureaucrats and citizens to give free and frank opinion to their political masters. For their own security and career prospects, they have to play safe.

Experiencing the weaknesses of weak coalition governments, in last general election and Assembly elections of Delhi, Madras, West Bengal, public has sent the respective parties in majority so that they could be strong enough take corrective measures. But instead of working in partnership, few ambitious politicians have started blame-game. The result of such a trend has been that neither they could do much for the public welfare nor let others work for the development of the nation such as has happened in the case of chikungunia and Dengue spreading in Delhi in epidemic form or Delhi becoming almost like a gas-chamber, only because the leadership did not take corrective actions in time.

India is lucky to have a handful of those political leaders, who instead of developing their personal interests and wealth, have guts to take strong actions, such as recent surgical strike against Pakistan’s terrorists and their training camps to curb down the violence at borders. And now a very strong decision to control corruption, black money and terrorism(which has made the nation hollow from within) by addressing the nation and made the stunning declaration on 8th of November evening to scrap Rs. 1000 and Rs. 500 notes from the midnight of November 8. Honest and upright persons are happy with the decisions and are accepting and co-operating the government by facing the hardships with the hope of better future.

November 12, 2016 Posted by | Social and political values and systems | , | Leave a comment

Basic tenets of Hindu philosophy/Hinduism

It is important to know the basic philosophy of a principles/culture and religion one follows. Rituals, customs, traditions of a society should not be mixed up with its basic principles. In a country like India where followers of all the religions reside, it is important to know about the philosophical tenets of Hinduism, the religion followed by the majority community living in India since ages.

  1. Principle of non-duality – The ‘Creator’ (God) and the ‘Creation (every living thing in this world) is an integral part of the same ‘Parmatma’/God/Creator, therefore inter-linked.
  2. Reincarnation – After several births and deaths of body, one can reach a state of immortality. A person is reborn depending on his deeds of previous birth.
  3. Immortality/Salvation – The final objective of all humans is to reach to the state of ‘Moksha’ or immortality – getting free from the cycle of multiple rebirths and deaths. In order to reach that status, one should do one’s duties.
  4. Karma with Detachment – This is perhaps the centre piece of Bhagwat Gita. Everyone has a role to play in ones life as per one’s karmas and destiny. While performing one’s duty/action, one should develop detachment – indicating, one should not bother for fruits of Action.
  5. Equanimity – One should try to be equanimous by overcoming the influence of the “pair of opposites” like heat or cold; pleasure or pain and honor or dishonor.
  6. Knowledge – As per Gita, senses are superior to the body, mind is superior to the senses and knowledge or intellect is superior to the mind. Gita tells: knowledge is better than abhyas (practice), meditation is better then knowledge and renunciation of the fruits of action is still better than meditation as peace immediately follows such renunciation.
  7. Four stages in life – For living life fully and fruitfully and aging gracefully, everyone one has to pass through four stages of life and perform different duties in different stages of life – before marriage learning; married life raising a family as householder; delegation of authority to next generation and spending time in contemplation; and after fulfilling familial liabilities, complete detachment and renunciation of worldly pleasures.
  8. Tolerance and acceptance/interdependence – Hindu philosophy values interdependence, acceptance and tolerance as – (a) It accepts that there are different paths leading to God and be humane; (b)It gives complete liberty to worship any god or goddess of their choice, as well as use their own methods of worship; (c)It does not impose its own codes of conduct on other faiths; (d) It is liberal enough to see atheism as a legitimate pursuit.
  9. Avatars – The Supreme power visits earth from time to time in some form to make human-beings free from evil and tend them follow virtue. So far, according to Hindu mythology human evolution began with Matsyavatar (fish), then to Kurma (tortoise)); Varaha (wild boar); Narsimha (half animal half mam); Vamana (dwarf); Parushrama with axe (tool); Rama the Maryadapurusha; Krishna the playful and serious avatar; and ninth, Budha the enlightened one. It is now expecting 10th avatar in the form of Kalki, a genetically supreme bionic man. (Quoted from ‘Know your religion through its philosophy’ by Prakash Shesh, the Speaking tree, TOI, January 14, 2016, p. 20)
  10. Principles of Dharma Varna and Karma – Principles of Dharma Varna and Karma are the core values of Indian ethos, which together defines the duties and vocations of different sections of society, ensures social harmony and prevents rivalries and jealousies.
  11. The principles of Dharma Varna and Karma principles still maintain inter-relationship of various sections of Indian society and contribute to its growth as a whole. It gives it a distinct character and prepares an atmosphere for their coexistence – be it ruler or ruled, be it rich or poor. It has served to give Indian society coherence, stability and continuity; and held together different castes and communities having diverse languages and practices for generations – thus making unity in diversity a reality.

Principle of Varna – Principle of Varna gives the Indian Society a stable, sustainable social structure, ensuring its continuity despite numerous foreign invasions, migrations and assimilation of various groups. It organized orderly performance of various basic functions needed to provide a quality of life to its people. It was based on the assumption that all persons were not identical and differed from one another on the grounds of natural endowments and aptitudes. Therefore, they should be assigned duties according to their natural aptitudes, instincts and qualities.

Ranking of different sections was done according to social relevance of their work, real contribution of their activities for social subsistence and amount of purity, discipline and training required to perform their duties well. Rules of endogamy, ritual purity, interdependence and hierarchical order of social units were the main features of Varna system. Observance of restrictions for self-discipline, clearly defined rights and duties and specialization were its important traits. Doctrine of Dharma and Karma provided legitimacy to it and prepared a political and social framework for Hindu society.

Principle of Dharma – Whereas, Western cultures have grown around the idea of `rights forming the natural foundation of human relationship, Indian value system has evolved around the concept of duty, tolerance and sacrifice. Emphasis on duty usually makes a person or a group humble and tolerant. In this system, sacrifice is regarded more important than success, and renunciation as the crowning achievement.

Meaning of Dharma – Scholars have repeatedly commented that the word ‘Dharma’ is not translatable in English. Words like law righteousness, ethics, morality all together are not enough to give justice to the meaning of Dharma. The principle of Dharma embraced within itself religion, law, duty, righteousness, morality and conformity with truth”. Along with its being a religious idea, Dharma was also a principle and a vision of an organic society, in which all participating members were independent, yet their roles complimentary.

There was a common Dharma, which was applicable to all. It was nothing, but norms and values of good conduct, leading individuals to the path of righteousness. All the people in the society were governed by Dharma at all times, be it a ruler or ruled, parent or child, teacher or student or man or woman.

The principles of Dharma guided individuals to remain true and to fulfil their duties earnestly, enabled different groups to act cooperatively and regulated the behavior of its component members within the society. It provided universal, practical and eternal guidelines to be followed in personal life, family life, community life, social life, professional life and national life.

Dharma also specified duties, privileges and restrictions of each role separately and their relationship with each other. In order to maintain a smooth relationship of its people with nature and society, Dharma prescribed a separate Dharma appropriate to each Varna, each class and each stage of human life. Separate Dharma for different communities was based on inherent qualities, aptitude and potentialities of its members. The Dharma of Brahmin was not that of a Shudra, or the Dharma of a student not that of an old man.

Separate rules of conduct were aimed to inspire every one to perform sincerely one’s own duties and obligations, giving everybody opportunities- social, economic physical and spiritual . It inspired people to do their jobs well and preserve the tradition and lifestyle of all communities.

Molding ones life according to Dharma was not an easy task. It required tremendous will power and a strong character. Therefore, persons with weak faculties found it difficult to observe Dharma. Dharma along with Karma was the means, through which a person approached the desired goal of life, the ultimate aim being salvation from the cycle of birth and death.

Principle of Karma – Doctrine of Karma made the inequalities, prevalent in the society, tolerable to a common man. It gave hope and inspired people not to get disappointed by their present unfavorable circumstances, but to keep on making efforts to improve their future, by performing their duties sincerely, which would ultimately strengthen their character and improve social position.

Principle of Karma offered an explanation for inequality, affluence, poverty and happiness. According to it everybody has to face the inexorable consequences of one’s own doings. Therefore it is not proper to blame others for one’s own failures, miseries, or being revengeful. Such an attitude had prevented ancient India to exercise coercion against its working class, whereas in ancient Greece, Rome or other European countries, people were made to work under the threat of a whip. It stopped people from taking law in their own hands. While other nations passed through many bloody revolutions, Indian value system kept on adapting itself to changing times.

Doctrines of Dharma and Karma filled the Indian community with a sense of duty and trained them in obedience. It helped the people to adjust themselves, without much difficulty, to most drastic changes in the past. It guided people to lead a disciplined life – to do one’s own work assigned to him/her by the society and not to interfere in other’s work. It taught people that Work is Worship. All types of work were worth pursuing and respectable. Any work done in its true spirit could never be derogatory or a waste. A work was not so much valued for its external reward, as for the intrinsic satisfaction towards realization of ‘Swadharma’. It gave the feeling to all, that each one was an integral part of the society, not an outsider to it. Society itself had assigned everybody a specific task to do; therefore, each person earned a rightful place in the society.

Knowledge was supposed to be necessary for giving Karma its due meaning, direction and value. Ignorance was considered to be leading to futile efforts destroying direction. Discipline was inculcated amongst ignorant masses, and a sense of direction was given to them through infinite variety of rituals, prayers, practices, customs and meditation.

Winding up – Ever since an average Indian has lost faith in these principles, (s)he has also lost faith not only in her/his fellow beings, but also in herself/himself. Almost all persons are heading towards indiscipline, violence and chase of sheer materialism/consumerism based on ruthless competition. The knowledge of the foundation pillars/core values and principles of Hinduism will lead to more tolerance and acceptance by all the communities settled in India.

It is important to know the basic philosophy of a principles/culture and religion one follows. Rituals, customs, traditions of a society should not be mixed up with its basic principles. In a country like India where followers of all the religions reside, it is important to know about the philosophical tenets of Hinduism, the religion followed by the majority community living in India since ages.

  1. Principle of non-duality – The ‘Creator’ (God) and the ‘Creation (every living thing in this world) is an integral part of the same ‘Parmatma’/God/Creator, therefore inter-linked.
  2. Reincarnation – After several births and deaths of body, one can reach a state of immortality. A person is reborn depending on his deeds of previous birth.
  3. Immortality/Salvation – The final objective of all humans is to reach to the state of ‘Moksha’ or immortality – getting free from the cycle of multiple rebirths and deaths. In order to reach that status, one should do one’s duties.
  4. Karma with Detachment – This is perhaps the centre piece of Bhagwat Gita. Everyone has a role to play in ones life as per one’s karmas and destiny. While performing one’s duty/action, one should develop detachment – indicating, one should not bother for fruits of Action.
  5. Equanimity – One should try to be equanimous by overcoming the influence of the “pair of opposites” like heat or cold; pleasure or pain and honor or dishonor.
  6. Knowledge – As per Gita, senses are superior to the body, mind is superior to the senses and knowledge or intellect is superior to the mind. Gita tells: knowledge is better than abhyas (practice), meditation is better then knowledge and renunciation of the fruits of action is still better than meditation as peace immediately follows such renunciation.
  7. Four stages in life – For living life fully and fruitfully and aging gracefully, everyone one has to pass through four stages of life and perform different duties in different stages of life – before marriage learning; married life raising a family as householder; delegation of authority to next generation and spending time in contemplation; and after fulfilling familial liabilities, complete detachment and renunciation of worldly pleasures.
  8. Tolerance and acceptance/interdependence – Hindu philosophy values interdependence, acceptance and tolerance as – (a) It accepts that there are different paths leading to God and be humane; (b)It gives complete liberty to worship any god or goddess of their choice, as well as use their own methods of worship; (c)It does not impose its own codes of conduct on other faiths; (d) It is liberal enough to see atheism as a legitimate pursuit.
  9. Avatars – The Supreme power visits earth from time to time in some form to make human-beings free from evil and tend them follow virtue. So far, according to Hindu mythology human evolution began with Matsyavatar (fish), then to Kurma (tortoise)); Varaha (wild boar); Narsimha (half animal half mam); Vamana (dwarf); Parushrama with axe (tool); Rama the Maryadapurusha; Krishna the playful and serious avatar; and ninth, Budha the enlightened one. It is now expecting 10th avatar in the form of Kalki, a genetically supreme bionic man. (Quoted from ‘Know your religion through its philosophy’ by Prakash Shesh, the Speaking tree, TOI, January 14, 2016, p. 20)
  10. Principles of Dharma Varna and Karma – Principles of Dharma Varna and Karma are the core values of Indian ethos, which together defines the duties and vocations of different sections of society, ensures social harmony and prevents rivalries and jealousies.
  11. The principles of Dharma Varna and Karma principles still maintain inter-relationship of various sections of Indian society and contribute to its growth as a whole. It gives it a distinct character and prepares an atmosphere for their coexistence – be it ruler or ruled, be it rich or poor. It has served to give Indian society coherence, stability and continuity; and held together different castes and communities having diverse languages and practices for generations – thus making unity in diversity a reality.

Principle of Varna – Principle of Varna gives the Indian Society a stable, sustainable social structure, ensuring its continuity despite numerous foreign invasions, migrations and assimilation of various groups. It organized orderly performance of various basic functions needed to provide a quality of life to its people. It was based on the assumption that all persons were not identical and differed from one another on the grounds of natural endowments and aptitudes. Therefore, they should be assigned duties according to their natural aptitudes, instincts and qualities.

Ranking of different sections was done according to social relevance of their work, real contribution of their activities for social subsistence and amount of purity, discipline and training required to perform their duties well. Rules of endogamy, ritual purity, interdependence and hierarchical order of social units were the main features of Varna system. Observance of restrictions for self-discipline, clearly defined rights and duties and specialization were its important traits. Doctrine of Dharma and Karma provided legitimacy to it and prepared a political and social framework for Hindu society.

Principle of Dharma – Whereas, Western cultures have grown around the idea of `rights forming the natural foundation of human relationship, Indian value system has evolved around the concept of duty, tolerance and sacrifice. Emphasis on duty usually makes a person or a group humble and tolerant. In this system, sacrifice is regarded more important than success, and renunciation as the crowning achievement.

Meaning of Dharma – Scholars have repeatedly commented that the word ‘Dharma’ is not translatable in English. Words like law righteousness, ethics, morality all together are not enough to give justice to the meaning of Dharma. The principle of Dharma embraced within itself religion, law, duty, righteousness, morality and conformity with truth”. Along with its being a religious idea, Dharma was also a principle and a vision of an organic society, in which all participating members were independent, yet their roles complimentary.

There was a common Dharma, which was applicable to all. It was nothing, but norms and values of good conduct, leading individuals to the path of righteousness. All the people in the society were governed by Dharma at all times, be it a ruler or ruled, parent or child, teacher or student or man or woman.

The principles of Dharma guided individuals to remain true and to fulfil their duties earnestly, enabled different groups to act cooperatively and regulated the behavior of its component members within the society. It provided universal, practical and eternal guidelines to be followed in personal life, family life, community life, social life, professional life and national life.

Dharma also specified duties, privileges and restrictions of each role separately and their relationship with each other. In order to maintain a smooth relationship of its people with nature and society, Dharma prescribed a separate Dharma appropriate to each Varna, each class and each stage of human life. Separate Dharma for different communities was based on inherent qualities, aptitude and potentialities of its members. The Dharma of Brahmin was not that of a Shudra, or the Dharma of a student not that of an old man.

Separate rules of conduct were aimed to inspire every one to perform sincerely one’s own duties and obligations, giving everybody opportunities- social, economic physical and spiritual . It inspired people to do their jobs well and preserve the tradition and lifestyle of all communities.

Molding ones life according to Dharma was not an easy task. It required tremendous will power and a strong character. Therefore, persons with weak faculties found it difficult to observe Dharma. Dharma along with Karma was the means, through which a person approached the desired goal of life, the ultimate aim being salvation from the cycle of birth and death.

Principle of Karma – Doctrine of Karma made the inequalities, prevalent in the society, tolerable to a common man. It gave hope and inspired people not to get disappointed by their present unfavorable circumstances, but to keep on making efforts to improve their future, by performing their duties sincerely, which would ultimately strengthen their character and improve social position.

Principle of Karma offered an explanation for inequality, affluence, poverty and happiness. According to it everybody has to face the inexorable consequences of one’s own doings. Therefore it is not proper to blame others for one’s own failures, miseries, or being revengeful. Such an attitude had prevented ancient India to exercise coercion against its working class, whereas in ancient Greece, Rome or other European countries, people were made to work under the threat of a whip. It stopped people from taking law in their own hands. While other nations passed through many bloody revolutions, Indian value system kept on adapting itself to changing times.

Doctrines of Dharma and Karma filled the Indian community with a sense of duty and trained them in obedience. It helped the people to adjust themselves, without much difficulty, to most drastic changes in the past. It guided people to lead a disciplined life – to do one’s own work assigned to him/her by the society and not to interfere in other’s work. It taught people that Work is Worship. All types of work were worth pursuing and respectable. Any work done in its true spirit could never be derogatory or a waste. A work was not so much valued for its external reward, as for the intrinsic satisfaction towards realization of ‘Swadharma’. It gave the feeling to all, that each one was an integral part of the society, not an outsider to it. Society itself had assigned everybody a specific task to do; therefore, each person earned a rightful place in the society.

Knowledge was supposed to be necessary for giving Karma its due meaning, direction and value. Ignorance was considered to be leading to futile efforts destroying direction. Discipline was inculcated amongst ignorant masses, and a sense of direction was given to them through infinite variety of rituals, prayers, practices, customs and meditation.

Winding up – Ever since an average Indian has lost faith in these principles, (s)he has also lost faith not only in her/his fellow beings, but also in herself/himself. Almost all persons are heading towards indiscipline, violence and chase of sheer materialism/consumerism based on ruthless competition. The knowledge of the foundation pillars/core values and principles of Hinduism will lead to more tolerance and acceptance by all the communities settled in India.

November 1, 2016 Posted by | Social and political values and systems | | Leave a comment