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Pattern of employment in Ancient and modern India

Introduction
Changes with ‘Industrialization’, ‘Modernization’ and ‘Globalization’
In modern India, with industrialization, modernization and globalization, the pattern of employment or choice of choosing one’s occupation or job and work culture has changed tremendously. From community-based, it has become individual based. Instead of being forced to get occupied in traditional jobs, modern India has given freedom to everyone to choose any profession of one’s liking.
Today, instead of being facilitator, the government has become the generator/creator of employment and the biggest employer. The government is supposed to create more employment opportunities for the people, whether job market requires employing more people or not. And still a large number of people remain unemployed. Between 2005 and 2012, India’s GDP growth was 54% but its net job growth was only 3%. There were only about 15 million net new jobs.
Employment pattern in Ancient and medieval India
In ancient and medieval India, there was work, employment and dignity and honour for all in India. There was no dearth of employment opportunities for persons willing to work. Everybody was usually busy in one’s own hereditary/traditional occupations. Instead of holding others responsible for their unemployment, the system blamed “Adharma” (immoral behavior), “Alasya” (laziness) and “Agyan” (ignorance) for unemployment and all evils like exploitation, poverty and helplessness that follow unemployment automatically.
The traditional system of occupations had maintained differentiation between various occupations, which was dependent on attitude and aptitude of people. But, the main feature of traditional system was that it encouraged interdependence in social matters.
The system as a whole had led the society to have more production, economic efficiency and specialization in various areas of activities like spinning, weaving, pottery making, bead making, seal making, terra-cotta, handicrafts, brick-laying, metal work etc.

Problems of traditional pattern of employment

Different occupations were community based and not individual based. There was not much choice to individuals in matter of occupation in traditional system. With the passage of time, the system became too rigid. It put hurdles on the way of creative minds of some individuals, who were not allowed to pursue work of their interest. The rigidity led to heartburn and heart-burn to changes, somewhere rationally, and somewhere it happened in a jest for change.

Changes with modernity

With modernity, white collared jobs gained popularity. Access to modern occupations, especially white-collared jobs, depends on formal education, certificates/degrees/diplomas. Now people learn and hone their skills in formal centers of education and training. They have to attain certificates/diplomas from formal training centers to get employment or to further their future prospects. In present competitive world a degree is not enough to get placed. Recruiters look for multi-skilled candidates. A job-seekers need to equip himself with other skills in extra curricular activities in different fields.
Problems created by modernity
Changes in modern pattern of employment has led to growing aversion towards the traditional occupations and have generated new kinds of problems. People have been caught within the vicious circle of modernity. They are still moving in circles in an effort to find out a foolproof solution. But it seems very difficult to come out the web of modernity. While trying, the system ignored simple solutions of the present problems of unemployment.
The process of modernization has adversely affected employment prospects of unskilled workers, especially in rural areas. New kinds of occupations are continuously being added to the traditional jobs of pre-industrial-society of earlier days. Many traditional occupations have become obsolete. With it, different kinds of problems are cropping up every day. Once changed, the system never returned to its original form.
Issue
Government becoming the ‘Messiah’ and individuals ‘pigmies’
Instead of being a facilitator, the government of the ‘Welfare-State’ in India has become all in all – the provider of everything in a person’s life from birth till death. In its role of a provider, those in positions of power – political or bureaucratic – in the government have assumed absolute power to control the destiny of common men becoming a ‘Messiah’, and down-sizing the common-men as ‘pigmies’. For each and everything, people have to depend on Government. In real life, common men are not free even to take even a step further without the blessings or support of those who occupy places in echelons of power. It has corrupted the whole system.

Confusion in the minds of modern youth
At individual level, there is confusion in the minds of modern youth as to what career/profession, they should opt.
Shortage of the formal institutions -There is shortage of the formal institutions to attain necessary qualifications in India mainly because of population explosion. It has caused lack of opportunities to get education and training in formal institutions and to attain the mindset needed prior to entering into a profession. There is a cut throat competition for each and every job, with – the result that unemployment or under-employment is continuously increasing in absolute numbers.

Traditional pattern of occupations

Unique traditional occupational pattern of India
The traditional occupational pattern of India is unique in many ways –
• Employment, dignity and honor for all – Unique traditional occupational pattern of India has provided employment, dignity and honor for all. At present, aversion of modern youths from their traditional occupations has today rendered millions of them unemployed or underemployed. Most of their time energy and effort are wasted in search and pursuit of those jobs, for which they neither have aptitude nor attitude or which are beyond their reach for one reason or the other. This time they could have utilized otherwise for constructive purposes.
• Disassociation between Wealth and knowledge/skills – Unlike West, there is disassociation between Wealth and knowledge/skills. The systems in India has separated wealth from status, power from authority, pursuit and achievement in knowledge from temptations of worldly comforts.
• Stress on knowledge and duty – Whereas, in Western societies social status of a person or organization has always been associated with material success or control of power, authority. In India, status of a person is determined on the basis of its knowledge, purity, discipline and moral standards.
Principles behind the traditional way of Occupations
In the world of occupation there has been division of labor and differentiation in occupation. Each occupational group has an independent entity, having its own hierarchy, based either on a tribal identity or an occupational identity. There was not much disparity between different occupational groups or between urban and rural people in ancient India.
Assignment of work was based on certain realities, principles and way of life. The whole system was based on the principles of ‘Varna, karma and Dharma’. Principle of Varna had assigned duties to different groups according to people’s natural instincts and qualities. Principles of ‘Dharma’ and ‘Karma’ developed clear-cut vision of rights and duties/responsibilities of each group, considering the requirements of different occupations.
• Human actions dependent on attitude and aptitude – In traditional system, it is believed that the whole world of activities is a result of complex intermixing of three basic qualities of human nature – goodness (Satwa), Passion (Rajas) and dullness (Tamas). `Goodness’ is associated with purity, peace and knowledge; `Passion’ with comfort and action; and `Tamas’ with ignorance, sloth, sleep and carelessness.
These qualities determined the tendencies, potentialities, limitations, traits and character of individuals and give them direction for action. It makes individuals different from each other in attitude, aptitude, physical and mental capacity, aspirations, like and dislikes, inclination and expectations.
• Principle of ‘Varna’ – Accordingly, Principle of ‘Varna’ did fourfold division of occupations and their performers – Brahmins were assigned the work of learning, research and development, kshhatriyas the job of defense and maintenance of law and order in the society, Vaishyas of trade and commerce, and Shudras all kinds of service functions.
• Principle of Dharma – Principle of Dharma assigned each group a specific work to do and developed a clear-cut vision of rights and duties/responsibility of each group based on its traditional occupation. It boosted morale of the people and promoted social equilibrium and solidarity. There was automatic de-centralization of control systems and authority. The separation of rights and duties combined with the principle of inter-dependence developed its own system of checks and balances over arbitrary use of one’s authority.
• Principle of ‘Karma’ – Principle of ‘Karma’ created the work culture. It gave stress to duty.
• Stress on “duty, tolerance and sacrifice”- Whereas, Western cultures have grown around the idea of `rights” forming the natural foundation of human relationship, systems in India evolved around the concept of “duty, tolerance and sacrifice”. Emphasis on duty usually makes a person or a group humble and tolerant. Sacrifice was regarded far more important than success, and renunciation was regarded as the crowning achievement.
Occupational pattern of India had filled the community with a sense of duty and trained them in obedience. It helped Indians to adjust themselves, without much difficulty, to most drastic changes in the past.
• Importance to ‘Self-discipline’, self-direction and ‘Self-effort’ – Every group was expected to lead a self restraint and self disciplined life in all respect, be it in the matter of daily routine, occupation or inter-group relationship.
• Segmental Ranking – In ancient India, the system was so conceived by the genius sages and ‘Munies’ (intelligentsia of ancient India) that there was hardly any room for any Varna to consider itself, as being placed in greater or lesser disadvantageous position with reference to another.
Segmental ranking of different groups was done according to relevance and contribution of their occupations to society. Social status of different occupational groups was dependent on their relative self-discipline (relative purity), morality, knowledge and spiritual standards. Considerations of self-discipline, hygiene and cleanliness on the basis of climatic conditions of the region were given importance.
Brahmins, occupying the highest place in the society, were put under maximum restrictions and were denied accumulation of wealth. They were directed to lead a simple life, devoted to the spiritual and intellectual pursuits. There was no hard and fast rule of ranking various groups. Usefulness of a profession to society as a whole, conduct and way of living of different people were the factors to determine social, economic or political status of a group in society vis-a vis others. There were times when gap between Vaishyas and Shudras became narrow or when Shudras acquired a better position in the society.
Ranking system did not put different groups within a framework of hierarchical layers of social order, each fitting neatly below the other, but more or less as a series of vertical parallels. ‘Adharma” (immoral behavior), “Alasya” (laziness) and Agyan (ignorance) were held responsible for evils, exploitation, and miseries of the people.
• Self-restrictions – Higher a group, greater were the self-restrictions on its behavior through rituals. Brahmins (intelligentsia) commanded respect of the whole society. They, being at highest place in the society, were put under maximum restrictions. They were supposed to lead a simple life, devoted to the spiritual and intellectual pursuits and denied accumulation of wealth.
The systems of ancient India stopped those in authority to exercise coercion against its working class. It prevented the development of resentment amongst masses for exploitation. Categorization of people as forwards or backwards or as weaker sections and powerful lobbies was almost non-existent at that time.
The systems stopped people from taking law in their own hands. While other nations passed through many bloody revolutions, India kept on adapting itself to changing times. In ancient Greece, Rome or other European countries, people were made to work under the threat of a whip.
System not too rigid – The system was not too rigid as far as pursuing an occupation was concerned. The work in the sectors of agriculture or army was open to all. Members of particular Varna did not exercise monopoly over authority or respect. It is an established fact of Indian History that Brahmin or even Shudras sometimes became the kings. There were times, when inter group marriages took place in the past in order to increase their strength.

HT Colebrooke, one of the early Sanskrit Scholars says, “It may be received as a general maxim that occupation appointed for each tribe is entitled merely to a preference. Every profession, with few exceptions, was open to every description of persons and the discouragement arising from religious prejudices is not greater than what exists in Great Britain from the effects of Municipal and Corporate laws.” (Quoted from ‘Indian Express’, dated 18.9.90, p 8). In England also it was not uncommon for a clergyman, a lawyer or soldier to educate and train his sons for his own profession. So was it in India. (Quoted fromShore Fredrick John Notes on India Affairs Vol II P.473)

Respect or honor not dependent on birth
Khatriyas and Shudra were accepted and revered as philosophers or spiritual teachers. Great respect had even earned by persons from humblest origin as a right. They had the all opportunity to pursue knowledge and reach up-to the top. For example, Sage Vashishta was the son of Uravshi, a prostitute, but he is highly respected allover India as the principal of the conservative school of Brahmanism. So was ‘Kshatriya’ Vishwamitra, the maker of the Gayatri Mantra, the quintessence of the Vedic Brahmanism, is recited even as of today almost in every house every day and on all auspicious occassions. Aitreya, after whom the sacramental part of Rig-Veda is named as Aitreya Brahamana, was the son from a non-Aryan wife of a Brahman sage. Vyasa of Mahabharata fame was the son of a fish-woman. Balmiki, the original author of Ramayana, was an untouchable according to present standards, but is still highly respected.

Salient features of occupational pattern of the ancient system

Following were the salient features of employment and training in ancient India:-.
• Division Of labor – All functions needed for the maintenance and growth of the society were divided into different occupations. On the basis of natural endowments, intelligence, aptitudes, attitudes, skills, personal needs and other innate characteristics, each group was assigned a distinct function to perform. Thus the system gave job-satisfaction to almost all individuals except for a few and managed smoothly daily necessities and day to day relation of its members.
• Automatic system of checks and balances – Such a system of division of labor developed its own systems of checks and balances over arbitrary use of its authority. Separation of rights and duties combined with the principle of inter dependence provided its own system of checks and balances over arbitrary use of one’s authority. There was an automatic decentralization of authority. The principles behind the whole system together provided the society a quality of life.
• Interdependence – Local character and semi-autonomous nature of the system made close interaction and cooperation between different groups a reality. Not a single group could claim to be self sufficient, capable to survive alone and fulfill all needs of its people. Still people enjoyed a large measure of freedom in respect of their personal matters. The system as a whole was capable to fulfill all the needs of its people.
• Control over natural resources of the nation – Society as a whole had control over its natural resources. All local groups, whether high or low, living in an area mutually depended and supported for fulfilling different kind of needs and cared for each other.
• Combination of inter-dependence ans self-reliance – Inter-dependence in social life and self-reliance in personal life were the intrinsic features of ancient system making each local area self-sufficient. Interdependence of different groups made it possible to have close contact amongst the people living in a local area. People whether living in a village or city, were bound together by economic and social ties and had a strong bond of mutual dependence.
• Downward filtration of culture – It made downward filtration of culture, sophisticated language and knowledge possible. In modern society, everybody lives in one’s own world, hardly having any interaction with others. There are watertight compartments between different groups living in an area
• Developed a common bond- The system developed a common bond underlying their activities and minds. There was closeness and cooperation within each and every group, engaged in common occupation due to common callings, common problems, and common solutions. It led to accomplish skill, specialization, success and happiness, decentralized authority and resources, made management within each unit effective and organized human and social behavior in tune with the objectives of the society.
• More stress on attitude and aptitude than birth – According to “Smritis” it was not birth, but the qualities and deeds of an individual, that fitted him into a particular group of occupation. Later on, upbringing, atmosphere and convenience tended to make these occupational groups hereditary. Gradually different hereditary occupational groups emerged in the society. People found it more economical and convenient to practice one’s own traditional occupation.
• Clear vision of responsibilities- Principles of Dharma and Karma made clear-cut vision of rights and duties of each group, based on and due consideration of the requirements of different occupations. It developed understanding amongst people for their liberties, limits and responsibilities.
• All professions worth pursuing – All occupations were supposed to be worth pursuing. Principle of Dharma inspired people to do their jobs well, as all worldly honor and spiritual happiness were vested there. It assured the people that proper performance of one’s work, whether high or humble, whether of a priest, warrior, Shudra or yogi were equally important for the society and were, therefore, right, respectable and worth pursuing. It brought worldly honor and spiritual happiness for individuals and provided the whole society a quality of life.
• Benefit of knowledge to the ignorant and illiterate masses – In ancient India, illiterate masses got the benefit of researches and knowledge of intelligentsia – learned sages and Munies. On the basis of their scholarly researches and experiences, the sages prescribed certain guidelines in the form of rituals to for the benefit of common men and keeping order in the society. In modern societies , this job is done by the national governments by enacting laws and forcing people to follow them.
• No confusion, bitterness, rivalry or frustration on matter of work – Each individual and every group served the community in one way or the other and was, therefore, satisfied. All the social groups lived the life of dignity and honor with the feeling that they, too, were contributing something to the society.
All castes including untouchables were assigned important social duties. Harijan women helped all castes at time of child-birth, Harijan males beat drums in front of Hindu’s houses or in front of a procession on auspicious occasions/ceremonies. Village barber spread news, arranged marriages and served food during celebrations. Occasionally non-Brahmins or Harijans served as priests of temples of goddesses like Sita or Kali, where all castes made offerings.
The system saved common-men from confusion or unhealthy competition. It avoided rivalry or bitterness for pelf, power or position amongst different sections of society. There was no confusion, unhealthy rivalry or frustration on matter of work, because every body had his traditional occupation.
• Specialization – System as a whole evolved an atmosphere, where a high level of specialization and wisdom in different areas of activities could be achieved. Being constantly in contact with the family occupation, it was natural for the people to learn maximum about their traditional occupations.
• Spawning bed for social and technical skills – The manner, in which social, technical and occupational knowledge and skills were transferred and developed, was through practice and experience; not through formal classroom lectures, which often kills originality and verve of people.
The system served as a spawning bed for social and technical skills. By its very nature, it encouraged the development and preservation of local skills. There was a tendency to bring in the most diversified skills to high level of excellence.
• Natural training without investment -The system inheritance in matter of assignment of different functions to different groups led the people to learn basic qualifications and tricks of the trade within their families itself from their elders. Skills were learnt more on job under the training and guidance of ‘elders’, already there on various jobs/occupations.
The system transmitted knowledge, expertise, the traits of a trade, intelligence, abilities, experiences, values and skills from one generation to another in a natural way. Chidren, while growing up, learnt about hidden intricacies of a profession and solutions of their occupational problems, informally from their elders. The system as a whole increased the confidence of the workers and saved them from confusion or unhealthy competition.
• Reservoir of natural leaders – Don Martindale said that India possessed a reservoir of natural leaders – Brahman naturally trained in literary skills, Kashitryas in art of leadership and different service groups in skills. It was with their sincere efforts that the nation entered into modern era without any cultural break.
• Job satisfaction – The system as a whole and total environment of working gave people job satisfaction.
The traditional system of occupation of ancient India had led the society to have more production, economic efficiency and expertise in almost all the areas and activities like spinning, weaving, pottery making, bead making, seal making, terra-cotta, handicrafts, brick-laying, metal work etc. The system worked so well that when the world was passing through the Dark Age, India was full of light. The first few centuries are recognized as the golden period of Indian history. During this period, arts, commerce, crafts, philosophy and knowledge flourished magnificently.
Many travelers visiting India, from alien lands at different points of time, confirmed that India possessed huge wealth, knowledge, and quality of life. It was a cheerful land. Each person found a niche in the social system. Its people reached a high level of intelligence having specialization in different areas. An average Indian, according to Dr. Albert Swheitzen, “Did not find life a vale of tears, from which to escape at all costs, rather he was willing to accept the world, as he finds it and, extract, what happiness he could, from it”. Recently U.S. Ambassador John Kenneth Galbrigth remarked, “While he had seen poverty in many countries of the world, he found an unusual attribute among the poor of India. There is richness in their poverty. They did not count wealth in money alone”.
Change in scenario with modernization and industrialization
Modernization and industrialization process has changed the traditional pattern tremendously. With the passage of time, many changes took place in occupational pattern especially during 19th and 20th centuries under British rule. It has made many traditional jobs obsolete, less paying, more hazardous or time consuming. Outcome of such a development has been casualty of workers first, afterwards their work style, commitment, motivation and culture. It has changed Work culture of the nation.
• Casualty of workers first, afterwards their work style – Many traditional occupations were discredited. Indian handicrafts and cottage industry were destructed. Efforts, sense of direction and manufacturing skills of millions of artisans, craftsmen and weavers were scattered. Outcome of such a development has been casualty of workers first, afterwards their work style, commitment, motivation and culture. They lost their creativity, sense of achievement and pride.
Majority of them could neither enter into modern sector, nor could stick to their traditional occupations. Very few of them could join modern occupations. In the near absence of industrial, commercial or social service activity, most of them had no option, but either to join band of agricultural laborers, industrial workers and marginal labor for their survival or increase number of unemployed or under employed.
• White collared jobs – White collared jobs gained importance and popularity. Menial work was considered derogatory More a person withdraws from physical labor, more honored, civilized and qualified, he/she is regarded by modern society. The trend of easy and quick money started.
• System benefitted “Haves” only – Some young entrepreneurs, having education, money and awareness, did market survey and hijacked many discarded traditional occupations. They modernized such disdained and contemptuous jobs like mechanization of fishing or leather industry and made them profit oriented.

Scenario after Independence
Instead of being a facilitator, Indian government of ‘socialist’ and ‘Welfare state’ has become provider. Instead of teaching people ‘how to fish’, benevolent they believe in ‘giving a fish’. They have taken up responsibility to provide employment to its citizens, which led to centralization of control systems in matter of occupations. It has weakened the traditional system of occupations. The outcome of such development has been neck to neck competition for fewer jobs in the market, especially in organized sector. Rivalry and bitterness for pelf, power or position is continuously increasing.
Less capital-intensive occupations like that of barber or washer-men have been overtaken by educated middle class. They re-christened them as saloon, laundry etc and employed those poor traditional workers, who were earlier practicing such occupations independently.
Total aversion of modern youth from their traditional occupations has today rendered millions of them unemployed or underemployed, thus wasting their time, energy and efforts in pursuit of those jobs, for which they neither have aptitude nor attitude or which are beyond their reach for one reason or the other. This they could have utilized otherwise for constructive purposes.
Stiff competition at present everywhere has pushed millions towards a situation, where they face hardships in getting a satisfactory job for themselves. It has rendered majority of them unemployed or underemployed, who are wasting all their efforts and most energetic and creative time of their lives in constant search for a job. By proper career planning, this valuable time could have utilized for constructive purposes.
Conclusion
Do not reject out-rightly family occupation – Modern youth should not out-rightly reject the option of following traditional professions. Rather, it should be encouraged. The qualities and knowledge inherited due to family background could always be honed further in various training institutions by making youth aware of recent technological developments.
Even in modern world, when there is full freedom to an individual to choose a job of one’s own liking, many smart youngsters prefer to follow their family occupations. And they are doing very well. It has been seen that a Marwari, traditionally belonging to business community, invests his money in share market with more ease and confidence than a graduate from other communities possessing a degree in business management. In 21st century, the trend of following family occupations is increasing continuously in many sectors, like the Film world, legal profession, business world.
Recent global financial and economic turmoil, India has shown that it has talent for creativity in the face of adversity. It has the capacity to emerge without much difficulty from the crisis.
In a changing world, nothing can be more disabling than its isolation of past. Nothing is more needed than the constant interpretation of what was seen then in terms of what is seen now. Today must be a constant challenge to the opinions, systems and practices of yester times. Therefore people should not retain a system or outlook, which in the light of modern times can be replaced by a better form and which could be more effective and beneficial to the people. At the same time, society must not sacrifice an ancient form or system to an unreasoning passion for change.

Twenty first century India
Modern India has everything a nation needs for development. Total labour-force is about half a million. It is estimated that by 2020, India will have the largest and youngest labour force in the world. Its average age will be less than 30 years. There is no dearth of talent, intelligence, quality or knowledge in any given area. There is tremendous amount of skilled and unskilled manpower, all kinds of raw materials, a good legal system, a huge market and potential to export virtually everything, provided the cost of its inputs are kept at international levels. India is the 11th largest economy in the world and is 4th largest purchasing power parity.
It is the world’s youngest country and land of entrepreneurship with largest number of self employed. About 52% of Indians are self-employed, about 55% in rural communities and 41% in urban areas. Many of these (about 20%, according to the international labor organization) are at the bottom of pyramid.
Recent global financial and economic turmoil, India has shown that it has talent for creativity in the face of adversity. It has the capacity to emerge without much difficulty from the crisis. Bringing together India’s creativity in entrepreneurship and youthful dynamism could lead to sustained inclusive growth and overcome the recent economic slowdown.

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March 11, 2013 - Posted by | General | , ,

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