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Social and political Values and Systems in India.

Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru and ‘Reservations’ in ‘government Jobs’



The first Prime Minister of India (1952 -1964) was a visionary, a theoretical revolutionary, an idealist and a socialist by conviction. In his capacity as the Prime Minister of the country, he sent a letter on June 27, 1961 to all the Chief Ministers, in which he expressed his opinion about Reservation in Government jobs.

Immediately after Independence, situation was quite satisfactory. As was hoped by national leaders, higher civil services had attracted the best talents and most competent and qualified youth belonging to various sections of Indian society from all-over India. It was decided to create new all India services also, according to the aims, objectives and the role of government laying emphasis on national reconstruction and development—a shift from the traditional task of only maintenance of law and order and revenue collection. A large number of intellectuals, engineers, doctors, MBAs and other professionals joined different higher services.

Sardar Patel had assured the nation “I wish to assure you that I have worked with them during this difficult period. I am speaking with a sense of heavy responsibility and I must confess that in point of patriotism, in point of ability, you cannot have a substitute…I wish to place it on record in this house that if, during the last two or three years, most of the members of the service had not behaved patriotically and with loyalty, the Union would have collapsed. (Constituent Assembly Debates, pp. 48-50, 1949)

Shri C. Rajagopalachari had warned the nation right in the beginning that performance of bureaucracy depended on the caliber of officials, who are appointed to its strategic posts. “For any administration to be good and efficient, as a whole, we want right type of men. The quality of men placed in position is more important than laying down of rules and methods of operation”.

However, somewhere down the line, when many of the old visionary leaders had vanished from the national politics, political climate at provincial level started changing. In the early sixties a rot started setting up rapidly in the administrative set up as a result of changes in the political climate of provinces. Many regional political parties emerged in the states, pursuing the sectional interests of different groups of people.

New regional parties emerged at provincial level – Many new regional parties emerged at provincial level and came to power. Some states like Bihar, U.P., Haryana, and Punjab etc. witnessed political opportunism. Tall promises were made to win elections. Floor crossing, defections, attempts to topple Governments; betrayal of people’s faith and consequently political instability and frequent changes in provincial Governments became the order to the day. All this resulted in intensification of competitive politics.

Since then, every time before general elections, almost all political parties especially the regional ones constantly propose/advocate for some additional benefits to be given to one group or the other just to garner votes or to create a permanent vote-bank. Reservation Policy has become an inseparable part of the political wisdom of the day. No political party is confident enough to move even a step without the crutches of “Reservation Policy”. Such a mindset has attacked the very foundation of the constitution.

That was the time when talented youth started loosing interest in bureaucracy, calling bureaucrats ‘glorified clerks’. They started searching the foreign lands for greener pastures or preferred to join private or public sectors.  


Constant political interference has diluted the charm to join the government services for talented youth. Reservation of about 50% posts has further eroded its charm. Disincentives for merit, sincerity and honesty have demoralized the upright and hard working people. The youth find the work atmosphere suffocating, because there is no incentive to do creative works.

The willingness of talented and meritorious youths to join higher government services is like a passing tide now. The cream of the society either wishes to join the private sector or to go abroad in search of greener pastures. Liberalization and globalization of nineties have given a boost to this trend.

Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru’s opinion about Reservation in government Jobs

As the Prime Minister of India, Pt. Nehru had watched closely all these developments and expressed his views in a letter sent to all the chief ministers of the states on June 27, 1961. Following is the extract of the letter –

“Narrow, cynical, sectional calculations are what propel our politicians today. There was a time when everything was judged by one Talisman alone: the interest of the nation as a whole.”

“I have referred above to efficiency and to our getting out of our traditional ruts. This necessitates our getting out of the old habit of Reservations and particular privileges being given to this caste or that group. The recent meeting, we held here, at which the Chief Ministers were present, to consider national integration, laid down that the help should be given on economic considerations and not on caste. It is true that we are tied up with certain rules and conventions about helping Scheduled castes and tribes. They deserve help, but even so, I dislike any kind of Reservation, particularly in service. I react strongly against anything, which leads to inefficiency and second rate standards. I want my country to be first class country in everything. The moment we encourage the second rate, we are lost.”

“The only real way to help a backward group is to give opportunities for good education.  That includes technical education, which is becoming more and more important. Everything else is provision of some kind of crutches, which do not add to the strength or health of the body.”

“We have made recently two decisions: one is universal and free education, that is the base, and the second is scholarships on a very wide scale at every grade of education to the bright boys and girls and this applies not merely to literary education, but much more so to technical, scientific and medical training. I lay stress on the bright and able boys and girls, because it is only they, who will raise our standards. I have no doubt that there is a vast reservoir of potential and talent in this country, only thing we can give it an opportunity.”

“But if go in for Reservations on communal and caste basis, we swamp the bright and able people and remain second rate or third rate. I am grieved to learn of how far this business of Reservation has gone on communal considerations. It has annoyed me to learn that even promotions are sometimes based on communal or caste considerations.”

“This way lays not only folly but disaster. Let us help the backward groups by all means, but never at the cost of efficiency.  How are we going to build our public sector or indeed any sector with second rate people?”

Time has proved again and again that whatever Pt. Nehru had said was correct.

Before Independence

Start of Reservation in 1919 – The employment in Government or association with it was considered lucrative and prestigious for all the educated Indians at that time. The desire to be associated with the Government opened up various channels of confrontation.

It was Justice Leslie C Miller, the then Chief Judge of Mysore Chief Court and chairman, 1st Backward Class Committee of Mysore, who officially introduced Policy of Reservation in government jobs in 1919. For this purpose, the Committee classified the Indian society into: –

  • Brahmins;
  • Other Caste Hindus, Mohammedan and Indian Christians, and
  • Depressed classes (including SCs and STs),

At that time itself, one of the members of the Miller Committee, Mr. Iyengar rejected most of the recommendations on the ground that any Reservation would harm efficiency of administration by preventing persons with merit from joining the services.

After Independence

Post-independent era has been witnessing the hysteria over job Reservation. It is increasing everyday in quantity and quality. Many non-beneficiary sections of society at the periphery are now demanding to be included in the beneficiaries’ list with insistence, so that they can also get the advantage of Reservations Policy.

Constitution of India and the Reservation Policy

Many diverse principles can be found in the constitution of India. Constitution framers have left much on time and to the discretion and fair-mindedness of people in authorities. Constitution-framers had the faith in the fair-mindedness of authorities.

The ‘principle of equal opportunities’ (Art 16) is in direct conflict with the principles of redress directing the authorities to make Reservations for SCT in ‘consistent with the maintenance of efficiency’ (Articles 335). The authorities have, however, over-looked for their political expediency, the clause on efficiency. They vehemently supported Reservation policy and converted it into ‘Quota system’ without giving due place to merit and efficiency in the governance of the nation.

Article 334 (a) and 334 (b) envisage, The Reservation of seats for the SC and ST in the House of People and in the legislative Assemblies of the States and The representation of the Anglo Indian Community in the house of the people and in Legislative Assembly of the States by nomination – shall cease to have effect on the expiration of a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution.

Procedure for de-reservation

The Constitution has set a procedure for de-reservation also through Article 336(1), though it was mentioned in the context of Anglo-Indian Reservation in the civil services, as follows: –

“During the first two years after the commencement of this Constitution, appointments of members of the Anglo Indian Community to posts in the railways, customs, postal and telegraph services of the Union shall be made on the same basis as immediately before the fifteenth day of August, 1947. [336(1)]

“During every succeeding period of two years, the number of posts reserved for the members of the said community in the said services shall, as nearly as possible, be less by ten percent, than the numbers so reserved during the immediately preceding period of two years. Provided, that at the end of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution, all such Reservations shall cease.And the procedure of de-reservation, mentioned in context with Anglo-Indians, is not meant only for a single community, but for all communities.

 Provision of regular review – According to Art 15(4) and 16(4), there should be impartial review at regular intervals (ten years) to assess the situation. With the spread of educational awareness and progress, there should be progressive decline in the quantum of Reservation. Instead, it has increased in its scope, extent and number of beneficiaries.

Some experts say that it is not obligatory for the government authorities to make Reservations in the services. Neither in Article 335 nor in Article 16(4), the Constitution says, There shall be seats reserved in the services”. While dealing with Special Provisions Relating to Certain Classes for elective posts in Part XVI of the Constitution, the Constitution framers used the words Seats shall be reserved, whereas for services it only mentions The claims…shall be taken into consideration. The constitution remained silent about who would be the beneficiary, what would be the percentage or form, what would be the duration for reservations in government services etc.

Opinion of the Constitution framers  

During the Constituent Assembly Debates, it was hoped, that after ten years, or so, there would be no need for Reservation.

MV Kamath – MV Kamath, on October 14, 1949, said, Members and even friends outside may dispute the wisdom of this course (Reservations for SC/ST)…. I only wish to express the hope that before ten years has expired from the commencement of the Constitution…. there will be not merely no backward classes, socially and educationally backward classes left, but that all the classes will come up to a decent normal human level, and also that we shall do away with this stigma of any caste being, scheduled, this was the creation of British regime, which happily has passed away. We have taken many strides forward in removing or do away with the numerous evils that were associated with the British regime. This is one of the few that still remain. I hope… that ere long, this stigma, too, will disappear from our body politics and we shall all stand before the world as one single community.”  (Constituent Assembly Debates, Vol. X, pp 242-43)

Dr. Ambedkar on Reservations – On August, 1949, while defending SC Reservation for ten years, Dr. Ambedkar also said, For the scheduled tribes, I am prepared to give far longer time, but all those, who have spoken about the Reservation to the SC or to the ST, have been so meticulous that the thing should end by ten years. (Ibid. P.697)

Not only Nehru, but Ambedkar, the undisputed leader of untouchables and Doyen of contemporary Dalit Politics himself declared in a speech sometime before his death that the provision of Reservation in service should not extend beyond 1960/61. (Indian Express, Dated September 14,1990.). Dr. Ambedkar later in life also believed that Policy of Reservation had Encouraged backwardness, inefficiency and lack of competitive merit among them barring a few stray cases.” (Balraj Madhok, Aryan Heritage,May 1985)

During his last days, Ambedkar was a depressed-man saying, I have not been able to fulfill my mission”. …  “my own people have deceived me. Whatever I have been able to do, is being enjoyed by the educated people and they are the worst fools. I now want to divert my attention to the uneducated masses, but life seems short. The second worry to my mind is that I wanted that somebody from the SC should come forward and take the responsibilities from me. There, however, seems none to shoulder such a heavy responsibility. All are selfish and quarrel themselves on petty matters. (Chandra V and Mowli, BR Ambedkar – Man and his vision, 1990)

Dr. Rajagopalachari – Dr. Rajagopalachari warned the nation, Short sighted favoritism and concessions to produce contentment among classes and castes will be short lived, and will deteriorate into constant pondering to intrigues and factions, if we do not look to real efficiency. All these statements make it clear that the forefathers desired Reservations to exist for a short time i.e. till the time other welfare measures for uplifting the submerged people started yielding results.

Political expediency more important than efficiency for present day politicians

The political expediency rather than efficiency has been taken into account, so far, in the matter of reservations, is clear from the facts that: –

  • Norms have been relaxed for the candidates of reserved category. These relaxation range from age limit to cut off marks,
  • In order to fill the quotas in full, easier questions are asked from reserved category candidates in interviews,
  • Vide an order issued by Ministry of Home Affairs in O.M.No.1/1/70-Estt (SCT) dated 257.70, in direct recruitment, whether by examination or otherwise, if sufficient number of SCT candidates are not available on the basis of general standards to fill all the vacancies reserved for them, candidates belonging to these communities should be selected on relaxed standards, provided they are not unfit for such posts. The Union Public Service Commission is continuing the practice of relaxing standards to fill up the reserved vacancies, so far.
  • While recommending the names of candidates on relaxed standards, the need for additional training and coaching is recommended, so that they could come up to the standard of other candidates appointed along with them. But authorities have not paid much attention to it.

After every ten years the politicians in Parliament have extended the period of reservations through constitutional amendments without ascertaining through comprehensive social audit, whether reservations are still required or not. Has the Reservation policy achieved its targeted goals? Politicians have found the idea of quotas as a convenient tool to create captive and permanent vote banks.

Views of some present-day Constitutional experts on Reservation

Seervai’s comments on adverse effects of Reservation – According to Seervai, a Constitutional Expert, Reservations in services affect five parties adversely (Seervai H, Is an efficient public service irrelevant in India, Indian Express Sept 1990, P.1):-

  • The state, to whose service, persons are recruited by open competition in examinations held by independent Public Service Commission;
  • The Public, as the very phrase public servant shows;
  • The persons, who are discriminated against, by Reservation in favour of members of SC/ST/OBC;
  • Members of SC/ST/OBC, in whose favour discrimination is being made by fixing Reservation quota, and
  • The service, that is each service considered as a whole.

Nani A  Palkiwala on short-comings of Reservation policy Nani A Palkiwala, a leading lawyer and Constitutional Expert says (Palkiwala – Unity and Security of State at Stake Indian Express September 14, 1990) that Reservation Policy suffers from five fatal flaws:

  • The substandard replaces the standard and the reigns of power are to pass from meritocracy to mediocrity,
  • It ignores the reality that there is no backward castes, but backward individuals,
  • Reservation in promotion is disastrous enough for the Civil administration,
  • It divides the country along caste lines and is against social harmony and social intermingling of various castes, and,
  • Equality is the very heart of free republic, the foundation stone of true republic, the source of inspiration, the criteria for its citizenship and the hope for its welfare. The bedrock of Reservation is discrimination in reverse; it is discrimination against merit and caliber.i Palkiwala opines that Mandal has revived the casteism, which the Constitution emphatically intended to end.

Arun Shourie’s commentsArun Shourie an eminent journalist and former Union Minister, believes (This way lies not only folly, but disaster, Indian Express, 22.8.1990)   that a society, based on the principles of social justice, integrity, equal rights and opportunities for all, means recognition for the inherent rights of every human being to work and achieve the essentials of life like food, clothing, housing, education, social amenities and security. These should not be determined by accident of birth or sex, but by planned social distribution, to accept the claim of every citizen to the right to enjoy basic rights and liberties. It also means to create awareness among its citizens, so that they can justly exercise their rights and perform their duties.

“A job should be something, which one has to work to get, something which one has to do one’s utmost to retain and advance in it. It should not be, advancement in it must not be any one’s right. Reservations definitely develop ethos that the job, the promotion is mine by right and that too, because of my birth, not work. How can a modern society survive, let alone grow with this as its ethos. According to him: –

  • Reservations were introduced as an exception, a temporary one, but it became a permanent feature,
  • It tends to grow. Concessions once given to a group is grabbed one after another group,
  • Concessions introduced in one sphere, spreads to others.
  • With its growth, it suffers progressive, rapid debasement.
  • A concession, once given, becomes a right.

Comments of some Judges

Democratic institutions like courts also find it difficult to arrest the rot and to ensure that the policy sub-serves the end, for which it was meant. Judges have also commented on various aspects of Reservation Policy from time to time.

On efficiency – Justice Gajendra Gadkar has said that “It must not be forgotten that the efficiency in administration has such paramount importance, that it would be unwise and unpermissible to make any Reservation at the cost of efficiency of administration. That undoubtedly is the affect of Article 335. (in Rangachari case 1961)

On Special protection Special protection under Article 16(4) is not in the nature of an exception. The principles of Art 46 are to be kept in mind, viz. that it is extended to the weaker sections of people. However, the Reservations should not be used to imperil administrative efficiency in the name of concessions to backwardness… Efficiency of administration is bound to be adversely affected, if general candidates of high merit are excluded from recruitment…. The politicization of casteism, its infiltration into unsuspected human territories and the injection of caste concession’s in schools and colleges via backwardness Reservations, are a canker in the rose of secularism”. (Akhil Bhartiya Soshit Karamchari Sangh Vs UOI 1981)

On Constant review of the list of beneficiaries All the same, the Government should not proceed on the basis that once a class is considered as a backward class, it should continue to be backward class for all time to come. Such an approach would defeat the very purpose of the Reservation. Therefore, the list of castes, which are entitled to Reservation must be kept constantly under review.(Supreme Court in Periakarpan Vs Tamil Nadu (1971), Chote Lal and others Vs State of UP)

Reservation as temporary measureIf freedom, justice and equal opportunity to unfold ones own personality belong alike to Bhangi and Brahmin, prince and pauper, if the Panchama proletariat is to feel the social transformation, Article 16(4) promises, the state must apply equalizing techniques, which will enlarge their opportunities and thereby, progressively diminish the need for props. The success of State action under Article 16(4) consists in the speed, with which result oriented Reservation withers away as no longer a need, not in the ever widening and everlasting operation of an exception (Article 16(4)) as if it were a superficial right to continue backward all the time. To lend immortality to the Reservation policy is to defeat its raison’detre. To politicize this provision for communal support and party ends is to subvert the solemn undertaking of Article 16(1). To castefy Reservation even beyond the dismal groups of most backward people, euphemistically described as SC and ST, is to run a grave constitutional risk. Caste, ipso facto, is not class in a secular state.” (Karamchari case 1981)

Reservations in the eyes of common man

A fraud on constitution – In public eye, the role to ‘Reservation Policy’ to yield the desired results has become doubtful. Common-man regards reservations as a fraud on constitution, because it has lost its neutral character and is being used to serve vested interests of some. Deep in their heart, most of the educated conscientious politicians know well the grave dangers involved with the policy of Reservation. But the fear of being hauled politically leaves no choice, but to support Reservations, especially when all others are supporting it. They can not go against the popular current.

“Mistake of one time, being repeated several times” – After every ten years, Reservations are reviewed on the floor of Parliament. However the net results remain the same – “Mistake of one time, being repeated several times”. Reservation has degenerated democracy into a number game and palliatives. It has pushed the real issues, principles and ideologies into the background.

Created unbridgeable political identities – The policy has led the nation to build unbridgeable political identities in most insensitive manner. Each and every section of society is increasingly distancing itself from the mainstream and is trying to establish firmly its separate identity. Such an attitude is based on negative exhortations and condemns all traditional values and structures. Too much stress on their rights, fragmented from duties has created agitation and confrontation leading to further fragmentation. The new culture of consumerism adds fuel to fire.

Vested interests – In their self interest, some shrewd political leaders have spread many myths and illusions to divert public mind from real issues to abstract ones. It has disfigured certain aspects of reality, flared up emotional issues, tried to unite the people by diagnosing A common enemy to be defeated and put the blame on the unverifiable past. In the absence of independent records of events, around which its arguments are woven, its own analysis becomes the only record. The emotional issues earn for them the faith of the people and help them to further instigate the feelings of the people. Through Reservation Policy, it has exploited for its personal benefits the principles of equality, secularism, social justice and unity – the four pillars of Indian Constitution.

Developed inaction and parasitism – The beneficial or protective nature of political authority has lulled the people to make efforts for self-development. They look towards the government’s support at each step. They expect change to originate at the apex and not at the base.

The great lesson of the 20th Century, which can be learnt from it is that the government of a nation should not become so benevolent that it tend to undermine people’s will/capacity to help themselves and develop in them inaction and parasitism. Quite often, State intervention in many matters can bring only short term benefits.

Administration no more a simple job – With the growing expectations of various emerging groups, too much consciousness about one’s rights, spread of education and awareness among general masses, the challenges before administration have become very complex in nature. At this crucial junction of economic depression the nation requires the services of bright meritorious, hardworking and sincere people in its administrative set-up. Any laxity in the qualifications of officials could lead to inefficient or mal-administration and substandard services to general public.

Reason behind the success of ‘private sector’ – The way the Reservation Policy is being implemented affects adversely the efficiency of the institution. The private sector survives and prospers, only because it does not allow substandard working. It picks up the best talent available in the country, from educational institutions itself, by conducting campus interviews. Efficiency of any organization depends on:-

  • Stress on Quality,
  • Merit, and
  • Work-culture

No discrimination, whether positive or reverse – The idea to follow reverse discrimination to right the wrongs of the past appears illogical. Discrimination, whether positive or reverse, will always remain discrimination. Prejudices do exist everywhere, especially in India on the basis of caste, community or gender, but it is not a daily intrusion in one’s life. Therefore, people should be prepared to face the challenges of life with courage. They should not treat such prejudices as hurdles, every time they encounter one.

More so, preferential treatment to some on the grounds of caste or community hurts more. Many talented youth belonging to non-beneficiary groups are so disgusted that they migrate to other nations in search of greener pastures. Once a senior politician, on a fact finding tour of a riot torn city facing acute communal disharmony, was being escorted around by a Colonel, And to which community do you belong Colonel? asked the politician. The officer replied, I belong to the minority community, Sir. How is that asked the politician. Said the Colonel, I am an Indian and Indians, Sir, are in minority here”(Quoted from Indian Defense Review, July 1989)

Common abuses of Reservation Policy

It has been observed that Government has not been successful so far in bringing desired social changes or undo the social wrongs through Reservation Policy. The beneficial or protective nature of political authority has lulled the people to make efforts for self-development. They look towards the government’s support at each step. They expect change to originate at the apex and not at the base.

The experience of yester years has brought into the forefront the most common abuses of Reservation Policy both at the Central and State levels. It has been observed that  :-

  • SCT list is lengthened by the Center on 20 occasions, and numerous times by the states,
  • Some States are allowed by the Center to exceed 50% limit,
  • Reservation is extended to advanced castes,
  • Creamy layer rule is disregarded by States,
  • Madhya Pradesh scraps cut off marks for SCT in entrance examination to professional courses,
  • Attempt to manipulate recruitment process to favor their people by political authorities pursuing sectoral interests,
  • To be called backward no longer remains a social stigma, and
  • Many people produce fake certificates. (Mittal Manage-Racketeering in Quotas, India Today Nov 15, 1994, P-91)

Reservations have today become an ideological slogan, which has not much to do with the uplift of downtrodden. However, it veers the nation towards paternalistic-totalitarianism and cripples the public consciousness. In order to lure the masses and capture power, many politicians make false promises, which can not change the position of deprived. How to get out of the clutches, false promises, manipulations and twisted ideologies of the politicians is a major task ahead the people.

Rajiv Gandhi, Prime Minister of India between 1985 to 1989, in a talk with Dileep Padgaonkar, said, Today the major challenge for the nation is rapid development. If the nation does not move ahead at the fastest possible pace, it is going to miss-out on global changes that are taking place. If we are not on the scene as a major player, very soon we will not be a player at all…Hence rapid development. Common wisdom is that you get meritocracy in all the right places and then everything will work well. Meritocracy does not belong to particular groups. The idea that it belongs to certain groups creates social tensions. It is the duty of the Government to bring more and more people out of their economic, social and educational backwardness…Forty years ago; it may not be possible to take an alternative action. Now India has reached to the stage, when an alternative action has to be given to the disadvantaged groups to come up. (TOI, Sept 2, 1990, p.11)

Ministry of Personnel Notification of 31st Jan. 2012

Perform or perish – At last, on 31st January, 2012, the ministry of personnel, responsible for regulating conditions of bureaucrats, notified changes in All India Services (Death-cum-Retirement Benefits) Rules empowering the government to enforce early retirement of bureaucrats after a mandatory ‘review’.

The performance review will include appraisal of the entire service record of an officer “regarding suitability or otherwise” for further retention in the service. The rule covers IAS, IPS and other all-India services including Indian forest service, customs and excise etc. An officer must retire in “public interest” if found to be inefficient in 15 years of service; second evaluation after 25 years. Performance review may be done by government at any other point in a bureaucrat career

The new rules say:”The Central Government may, in consultation with the state government concerned, require a member of service to retire from service in public interest, after giving such member at least three months previous notice in writing or three month’s pay and allowances in liu of such notice.”   

Making bureaucrat go through mid-career review is a good step. In fact it was long overdue. Along with this step government should ensure that bureaucrats must serve the people and become accountable to them rather than serving their political masters and remain at the mercy of their political masters for getting posted at the places they deserve. No bureaucrat should expect a preferential or special treatment for getting an employment in the higher civil services, or for getting good postings or for progression in career.   


It is better to be late than never – There is still time before the nation to change its course towards betterment by introducing healthy competition, instead of rat race generating inter-caste and intra-caste rivalries :-

  • By widening mental horizon,
  • By developing understanding and tolerance in people through sound education,
  • By encouraging people for self-employment,
  • By curbing corruption and preventing public money from flowing into the pockets of middlemen.
  • By introducing administrative reforms to cut down unproductive growth of personnel and government expenditure.

Drucker has said, The world is moving fast towards knowledge based systems. For the first time in human history, knowledge and therefore, education really matters for progress. Every section of the society now a day needs to be literate not just in three Rs (Reading, Writing and Arithmetic) but also in basic computer skills. They should be well aware of the political, social, economic and historical systems of the country. The vastly expanding area of knowledge also requires that people must know, what to learn, how to learn and when to learn. Along with knowledge, the people should acquire ability to present ideas orally and in writing, the ability to work with people (team work) and ability to shape and direct one’s own work, contribution and career. ((Drucker, Peter F, Managing for the Future, p4)


Reservation to be phased out gradually – For encouraging people to work for their betterment, the reservation should be phased out gradually. Rajagopalachari has rightly said that, Short sighted favoritism and concessions, to produce contentment among classes and castes, will be short lived and will deteriorate into a constant pondering to intrigues and factions, if we do not look to real efficiency.

In the end it can be said that Nehru’s dream of making “my country to be first class country in everything” can be fulfilled only when “the bright and able people” are not “swamped”. The moment “we encourage the second rate, we are lost.” There is no shortcut for growth other than attaining qualifications through sound system of education and training. Of course, there should be education for all, equal opportunity for all and hard work by all, then only a nation can march with confidence towards progress. If the authorities want to give to the downtrodden something worthwhile, they should give them dignity, not doles.

February 9, 2012 - Posted by | Bureaucracy/Civil Services, Reservation/Affirmative action program | ,


  1. Urlaub in Phuket
    Good idea. Thanks

    Comment by Urlaub in Phuket | February 9, 2012 | Reply

  2. Very True…..How did Mr Ambedkar come up with such an idea of reservation?

    Comment by sreejith | April 14, 2012 | Reply

  3. High people high thinking . who bothers for poor . earlier you people kicked from schools , colleges , temples kept our fathers and fore fathers at your feet and treated as slaves. Now when the law is helping the suppressed people you don’t agree . yes why you agree after all you are high class people you want us to not to compeet.

    Comment by praveen kumar | May 12, 2012 | Reply

  4. An over view of Reservation

    1. In most of the states except for Brahmin community other forward communities has got some sub groups identified as OBC/MBC. These forward community people gets bogus certificate of the sub groups and avails the reservation benefit. Similar in case of OBC/MBC to SC/ST

    2. The Government should pass a law with a time limit stating whoever got the bogus certificate and availed the reservation benefit should announce the same. Those people are warned with a nominal fine and left out. Beyond that time frame if any one caught with bogus certificate they should be severely punished.

    3. To-day’s politicians are all mostly bogus certificate holders and they only raise their voice for more reservation and also oppose the creamy layer concept.

    4. The families of (OBC/SC/ST) having got the reservation benefit for all the family members once and there is no justification in extending the same to their future generation. Hence Government should publish those family names in the Gazette time to time so that the benefit can be extended to other needy persons.

    5. Except in Hindu religion cast division is not there in other religion and our constitution also clearly says that cast base reservation is not applicable to other religion. But most of the converts are having two certificates with a Hindu name and availing the reservation benefit in Hindu religion and also in minority institution. No one is bothered to verify the same.

    6. Suppose a forward community male or female marries a lower cast person their children should be identified only as forward community.

    7. Now the Government has introduced creamy layer concept in higher education. Initially for this purpose the annual income was fixed at 2.5 lacs. But the bogus certificate holding politician opposed this limit and now the same was revised to 4.5 lacs. That means those who are earning an annual income of less than 4.5 lacs are considered to be poor. Then why the Government is taxing the salaried people who are earning an annual income of more than 1.5 lacs per annum. The Government should increase the tax ceiling to 4.5 lacs and establish social justice.

    8. It is Justifiable giving reservation in education and there is no logic in extending the same in employment also. It is not stopped at this stage reservation is still extended in promotion also.

    9. Backward people are allowed to apply in general quota as well as in reserved quota. If he gets a seat in general quota one number is reduced in general quota for the forward community and there is no reduction in backward quota at the same time but the left out number is carried over to the next year. Is it OK?

    10. Upon introduction of reservation in educational institution every body forgot character building along with the education. Thus a generation of educated character less people has been created and we are now witnessing the tragic end of the same to-day in all the administrative mechanism. Without bribing you can not do any work from burial ground to parliament. State assembly & Parliament is functioning like a fish market. Doctors are engaging in long strike without bothering about the valuable human life. Very often Lawyers are breaking the law and behave like a street rowdy.

    11. A trend is set that every community wants to identify them as backward.

    12. Hence cast base reservations are to be abolished and creamy layer system only helps the needy people. If required we can have 2 or 3 income limits for reservations. This alone will eradicate the cast barrier on the long run.

    13. Swami Vivekananda said “True equality has never been and never can be on the earth. How can we all be equal here? This is impossible kind of equality implies total death. Inequality is the basis of creation. At the same time the forces struggling to obtain equality are as much a necessity of creation as those which destroy it” That is why the Supreme Court restricted the reservation to 50% maximum. Providing reservation beyond this only leads to pushing the forward classes to backwardness.

    A few points regarding election:-

    1. 100% voting should be made compulsory
    2. Those who are contesting for the election should be free from any criminal charges
    3. All the contesting candidate should have passed “Political Science” graduation
    4. Only ballet paper system to be followed
    5. Those regional parties which are not formed at least one time the ministry at the state level on its own should not be allowed to contest for the parliament election.

    Comment by vedamgopal | December 30, 2012 | Reply

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  6. Only answer to these questions is universal education system (saman siksha pranali) in same environment and equal opportunities for SC/ST and backward in all other fields where you have monopoly or 100% self declared reservation since thousand years. Would you like to dare for this ? If not, then reverse discrimination shall prevail. We want representation in all field. How do you have decided yourself that you people are only meritorious because of your birth? How do you presume that only you people think about development of country, not others ?

    Comment by Rajeev Kumar | September 3, 2014 | Reply

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