Latasinha's Weblog

Social and political Values and Systems in India.

‘Modern system of Employments’ and ‘Need for training’

 “The need for training arises in order to stay abreast with the new developments and to grow and mould oneself in accordance with the emerging needs of the time.” 


In modern times, unemployment-underemployment is one of the burning problems before all the nations. It is a big challenge for the governments to assess correctly the enormity of the problem and analyze rationally the reasons of unemployment.    

  • Recent economic depression, an outflow from agriculture and occupational shifts from artisan to unskilled employment in agriculture has further aggravated the problem. The number of marginal workers has been growing for the last few decades. The process of modernization has adversely affected employment prospects of unskilled workers, especially in rural areas.
  • New kinds of occupations are being continuously added to the traditional jobs of pre-industrial-society of earlier days. Many traditional occupations have become obsolete. With it, different kinds of problems are cropping up every day. The more the problems, better equipped the people should be to face the challenges and meet new demands of modern times.
  • Continuous increase retrenchment in the organised sector in the number of educated unemployed in the organised sector due to recent economic depression is a worrying feature. According to a survey, in India, the educated unemployment in India is increasing by 7.5 per annum. 9 million people were unemployed in Nov 2005 10.7% (2010). Most of the unemployed persons are employable mainly in organised sector, which had stagnated at 10% to 12% level for the last 40 years.
  • In addition to all this underemployment or unemployment of semi-educated youths has created innumerable social complications, in addition to the economic dimension of unemployment itself. Neither enforced employment nor compensated employment can be a substitute for employment.

It is a matter of concern for almost all the nations to look for everything that is possible to solve the problem of unemployment. How to provide ‘employment to all’ and put people back to work in the present scenario of economic distress? How the energies of its youth should be utilized for constructive purposes?

Employment before modernity

Before modernisation, masses were usually busy in their hereditary/traditional occupations. Skills were learnt more on job under the training and guidance of ‘elders’ already there on various jobs/occupations. For attaining more skills or furthering their future prospects masses did not depend on formal education, certificates/degrees/diplomas or on formal centres of education and training i.e. schools/colleges.

The manner, in which hereditary occupational knowledge and skills were transferred and developed, was through practice and experience; not through formal classroom lectures, which often kills originality and verve of people. The system led society to have more production, economic efficiency and specialization in different areas/activities like spinning, weaving, pottery making, bead making, seal making, terra-cotta, handicrafts, brick-laying, metal work etc.

Uneducated masses got the benefit of the knowledge of learned sages and Munies in ancient India. On the basis of their scholarly researches and experiences, the sages prescribed certain guidelines in the form of rituals to for the benefit of common men and keeping order in the society. In modern times, this job is done by the national governments by enacting laws and making people to follow them. 

Demands of modern times

Modern governments have taken up the responsibility of providing jobs for all without analyzing how to make it a reality. Without building efficiency, and expanding infrastructure to absorb surplus people into workforce, the efforts have ended up with half employment or quarter employed disgruntled men and women workers. It has not succeeded in concealing their inefficiency.

The government is more concerned about increasing the figures of literacy officially rather than preparing youth for employment by developing the required skills. It will not help a nation to provide gainful employment for all.

This is an age of specialization. Knowledge, skills and the need for specialization in present space age have been growing faster than human ability to handle it. As specialisation increases more, as knowledge advances and as new type of occupations emerges into the scene with industrialization, modernization and liberalization process, life becomes more ans more complex. Gone are the days to depend on Jacksonian theory that any man with common sense and some intelligence can perform any kind of work.

Neither education nor training alone can serve the purpose

In modern times, for sustainable development, neither education nor training alone can serve the purpose. There is a need for ‘education for all’. Education develops an understanding of social and economic problems and of society and public affairs generally. But only education does not prepare a person for any specific job. Such an ability comes through a combination of Training and Education. A focus on training alone does not cover the necessity of modifying behavior, attitudes and beliefs, which form part of education. Training confines itself to study of job – skills and knowledge related to a trainee’s immediate functions.

 ‘Education’ and ‘Training’, both are needed

For solving the problem of unemployment, it is necessary to impart new knowledge, new skills and to inculcate new attitudes in the youth of the nation through a well-planned and systematic arrangement of both ‘education’ and ‘training’. A well-planned education and training system would enable youth to get employed gainfully, to contribute to and guide the social changes and development into desired direction. It would help the nation to achieve its goals within time and cost parameters.

Meaning of education 

Education has unfortunately been misunderstood to be academic or theoretical studies leading to award of degrees. The scope of education is much broader. Education connotes the process of increasing knowledge, understanding and attitudes of the candidates.

In its wider sense, education embraces reading, observation and thought. It is a continuous process. It is identified with the complete up-bringing of the individual from the childhood. Within its jurisdiction, it embraces the formation of habits, manners and character and mental- physical aptitude.

Difference between education and training

Liberalization and Globalization has opened up many new opportunities in job-market for all. There are very few tasks, which could be performed well now without some measure of knowledge about subject-matter, training and specialization. Knowledge, nature, degree of specialization and professional norms for different kinds of jobs require can be geared up by planning proper education system and tailor-made training programs for each and every discipline in order to prepare youth for their future roles.

While education deals mostly with knowledge and understanding and enables people to get better adjusted to their working environment, training deals with understanding and skill. In modern times, one of the primary objectives of education is also to help youth to choose and decide their activity/career.

What is training?

 Training helps individuals to improve their performance in their particular area of work. It is primarily prepares an individual for certain lines of action, which are delineated by technology and by the organization in which he works. It is a process, by which the attitudes, skills and abilities of trainees to perform specific jobs are increased.

Training helps individuals to acquire and apply knowledge and skills, which they do not possess, but are needed by the organizations of which they are a part.

A Role of training

Training is one of the primary means of building up competence and effectiveness of people in general. People in developing or under developed nations face difficulties due to rapidly changing and turbulent environment. Training prepares to deal with the complexities of real life – the pressures, the limited resources, the choices and uncertainties, the conflicting motives etc.

For reducing heavy demand on capital and scarce resources, skills and its application need to be inculcated in youth by proper arrangement of training.

Initial/foundation training

Initial training becomes necessary, because new-entrants, while joining work force take some time and effort to understand and adjust oneself to the environment. The purpose of  training is to prepare employees to do their job well and to reach to their full potential. It fills in them confidence, will and strength to do their jobs well.

Continuing system of education and training

Not only initial education and training, but also there is a need for continuing education and training, even in industrially developed nations. Its need has been felt for reducing adolescence among work-force and organizations in the face of relentless technological innovations.

Importance of training

Training, not force, promises what is essential to modern technologies and economic systems – flexibility in action through understanding and confidence, inventiveness, initiative and ability to make decisions and also respect for the contributions of others and readiness for collaboration with others. One can depend on force for action, but such an action would be short-lived. It is only training, which can lead to sustained, self-generating action.

Whether it is a developed nation or an underdeveloped or developing nation, training has always been considered necessary for an action. Training has always been a large-scale activity in India.

Employability and training in ancient India

In ancient India, assignment of work was based on certain truths, facts of life and principles.

Principles behind the ancient system

It was believed that the whole world of activities was a result of complex intermixing of three basic qualities of human nature – goodness (Satwa), Passion (Rajas) and dullness (Tamas). `Goodness” was associated with purity, peace and knowledge; `Passion” with comfort and action; and `Tamas” with ignorance, sloth, sleep and carelessness.

These qualities determined the tendencies, potentialities, limitations, traits and character of individuals and give them direction for action. It makes individuals different from each other in attitude, aptitude, physical and mental capacity, aspirations, like and dislikes, inclination and expectations.

All the functions needed for the maintenance and growth of the society were divided into different occupations. On the basis of natural endowments, intelligence, aptitudes, attitudes, skills, personal needs and other innate characteristics, different functions were assigned to different social groups.

Salient features of the ancient system

Following were the salient features of employment and training in ancient India :-

Employment and honor for all

The unique system of ancient India provided employment, dignity and honor for all. Clear-cut definition of rights and duties for each group was based on its traditional occupation. It developed clear vision of one’s responsibilities. Separation of rights and duties combined with the principle of inter dependence provided its own system of checks and balances over arbitrary use of one’s authority. There was an automatic decentralization of authority.

Initially, according to “Smritis” it was not birth, but the qualities and deeds of an individual, that fitted him into a particular group. Later on, upbringing, atmosphere and convenience tended to make these groups hereditary. People found it more economical to practice one’s traditional occupation. The system saved them from confusion or unhealthy competition.

Even in modern world, when there is full freedom to an individual to choose a job of his liking, people usually prefer to join their family occupations. It has been seen that a Marwari, traditionally belonging to business community, invests his money in share market with more ease and confidence than a graduate from other communities possessing a degree in business management.

Natural training without investment

The system inheritance of different functions led the people to acquire basic qualifications and learn tricks of the trade within their families itself from their elders. It transmitted from one generation to another the knowledge, values, skills and expertise in a natural way. People, while growing up, learnt the secrets of their trade, hidden intricacies, solutions of their occupational problems, informally from their elders. It gave them confidence. Being in constant contact with the family occupation, it was natural for the people to learn maximum about their traditional occupations. It evolved an atmosphere, where a high level of Specialization and wisdom in different areas of activities could be achieved.

High level of excellence

The manner, in which these hereditary occupational skills were transferred, was through practice and experience; not through formal classroom lectures, which often kills originality and verve of people. It led society to have more production, economic efficiency and expertise in almost all the areas and activities.

The system served as a spawning bed for social and technical skills. By its very nature, it encouraged the development and preservation of local skills. There was a tendency to bring in the most diversified skills to high level of excellence. It was encouraged with religious and semi-religious sanctions.

Developed a common bond

The system developed a common bond underlying their activities and minds. There was closeness and cooperation within each and every group, engaged in common occupation due to common callings, common problems, and common solutions. It led to accomplish skill, specialization, success and happiness, decentralized authority and resources, made management within each unit effective and organized human and social behaviour in tune with the objectives of the society.

No confusion or unhealthy rivalries

It avoided rivalry or bitterness for pelf, power or position amongst different sections of society.

There was no unemployment, no confusion and no frustration on matter of work, because every body had his traditional occupation. Each and every group served the community having a feeling that it, too, was contributing something to the society. ‘Adharma” (immoral behavior), “Alasya” (laziness) and Agyan (ignorance) were held responsible for evils, exploitation, and miseries of the people.

Change in scenario

In the 19th century during British rule, modernisation and industrialization process has changed the scene.

Modernisation and industrialization

Industrial revolution has made many traditional jobs obsolete, less paying, more hazardous or time consuming. Outcome of such a development has been casualty of workers first, afterwards their work style, commitment, motivation and culture. Work culture has changed.

White collared jobs

White collared jobs gained importance and popularity. Menial work was considered derogatory More a person withdraws from physical labour, more honoured, civilized and qualified he/she is regarded by modern society. The trend of easy and quick money started.

Casualty of workers first, afterwards their work style

Many traditional occupations were discredited. Indian handicrafts and cottage industry were destructed. Efforts, sense of direction and manufacturing skills of millions of artisans, craftsmen and weavers were scattered. Outcome of such a development has been casualty of workers first, afterwards their work style, commitment, motivation and culture. They lost their creativity, sense of achievement and pride.

Majority of them could neither enter into modern sector, nor could stick to their traditional occupations. Very few of them could join modern occupations. In the near absence of industrial, commercial or social service activity, most of them had no option, but either to join band of agricultural labourers, industrial workers and marginal labour for their survival or increase number of unemployed or under employed.

System benefitted “Haves” only

Some young entrepreneurs, having education, money and awareness, did market survey and hijacked many discarded traditional occupations. They modernized such disdained and contemptuous jobs like mechanization of fishing or leather industry and made them profit oriented.

Even less capital-intensive occupations like that of barber or washermen have been overtaken by educated middle class. They re-christianed them as saloon, laundry etc and employed those poor traditional workers, who were earlier practicing such occupations independently.

Twenty first century India

Modern India has everything a nation needs for development. Total labour-force is about half a million. It is estimated that by 2020, India will have the largest and youngest labour force in the world. Its average age will be less than 30 years.

There is no dearth of talent, intelligence, quality or knowledge in any given area. There is ttremendous amount of skilled and unskilled manpower, all kinds of raw materials, a good legal system, a huge market and potential to export virtually everything, provided the cost of its inputs are kept at international levels. India is the 11th largest economy in the world and is 4th largest purchasing power parity.

It is the world’s youngest country and land of entrepreneurship with largest number of self employed. About 52% of Indians are self-employed, about 55% in rural communities and 41% in urban areas. Many of these (about 20%, according to the international labor organization) are at the bottom of pyramid. Bringing together India’s creativity in entrepreneurship and youthful dynamism would ultimately allow for sustained inclusive growth in the process of tiding over the slowdown.

Recent global financial and economic turmoil, India has shown that it has talent for creativity in the face of adversity. It has the capacity to emerge without much difficulty from the crisis.


Magnitude of unemployment in India is alarming. Majority of unskilled workers live in rural areas. Over the years, the number of unemployed has increased. In 1951, the total number of unemployed was 3.3 million, in 1990, it was 13.09 millions.

Rural India is home to 72.26% of country’s 238 million households and 10.1% of its workforce is unemployed compared to 7.3% in urban areas. In addition to unemployment their sufferings doubles because of low availability of social security benefits for Indian workforce.

It is reported that 70% educated youth is unemployable, as they could not fit well for job requirements. The skill deficit becomes more acute in professional courses where 90% are unemployable. It will not help the nation to move forward. As far as unemployment is concerned, nine million people were unemployed in Nov 2005; it was about 10.7% in 2010.

Policy-makers have to assess what are the reasons for such a large number of unemployed? How far, global economic downturn is responsible for increased unemployment rates? And how the situation can be improved?

Pressures on workforce

Since 1990, the workforce is facing tremendous pressures due to globalization and liberalization of world economy and consequent structural adjustment. The shift is more towards irregular, casual, temporary or contractual employment affecting adversely the quality and condition of employment.

There are challenges of talent crisis, rising multi-generational workforce, increase in the global worker mobility, organizational changes and cultural issues emerging from the fast pace of business changes of the past decade. Manufacturing and service sectors would provide more lasting results.

The present system of education and training has failed to produce skilled workforce for various jobs/disciplines and instill in them relevant knowledge, skills and sense of responsibility. What is required for their development is learning, acquiring required knowledge and skills through a well-planned system of education and training. It would enhance their wisdom, confidence, and will power, courage to face the challenges and move forward without crutches.

India’s vision 2020

India vision 2020 aims at education for all, increased employment etc, but its implementation itself is a big challenge for policy makers.  The nation only requires matching/coping with the changing demands of the modern times by upgrading skills of urban and rural workforce. As a nation, it needs to tap its abundance of talents and its wealth of entrepreneurial talent, which thrives outside the country in alien countries.

It seems that under present circumstances, creation of a sound system of education and training is urgently required for improving unemployment situation and prepare the youth to meet new challenges/to deal with the competitive and complex situations of the day. Proper training would improve performance of new entrants and contribute to organizational growth.

Seniors’ guidance, protection and unbiased feed-back about the strengths and weaknesses would make the youth familiar to their workplace. People would feel comfortable in their work environment.

Types of unemployment

Problem of unemployment is quite alarming in India. Mass unemployment or under employment is one of the major causes of deprivation and disparities. Any body, who is not gainfully employed in any productive activity, may be called unemployed.

Unemployment can be of two kinds: –

(1)  Voluntary unemployment – out of job of one’s own desire either because of higher wages or does not want to work at all.

(2)  Involuntary unemployment – when persons are able and willing to work, but can not find jobs.

Unemployment may be further divided into following groups:


(1) Disguised Unemployment – People apparently seem to be employed, though enough work is not available for all. It is perennial in nature.

(2) Seasonal Unemployment – A large number of people engaged in agriculture remain idle for about six months in a year.


(1) Open Unemployment – People willing to work have no work. It mainly includes uneducated and unskilled people migrating from rural areas to city and illiterate urban people.

(2) Underemployment– it is similar in nature to disguised unemployment. It results, when a person contributes to production less than what he is capable of.

(3) Educated Unemployment

Employment may increase due to –

–         Increased Unemployment due to economic crisis/depression, as has been seen recently or earlier in 1929.

–         Seasonal unemployment.

People have to be put back to work.

Occupation-wise distribution of work-force

In present scenario of economic distress, one should be able to make maximum utilization of available resources of men, money and material within minimum time limit. Occupation-wise distribution of work-force is as following –

– Agriculture 52%

– Service-sector 34%

– Industrial- sector 4%

Still agriculture is the dominant employer (57%) followed by construction (7.2%), manufacturing (6.7%) and community services (6.3%). The alarming number of unemployed indicates the urgency of labour force to be moved from agriculture and allied activities to manufacturing and service sectors.

Reasons for unemployment

The main reasons for such a large unemployment is:

Too much dependence on agriculture

RP Dutta, in his widely quoted book ‘India Today’, has pointed it out as early as in 1940, “The millions of ruined artisans and craftsman, spinners, weavers, potters, tanners, smelters, smiths alike, from the town and from the villages, had no alternative, save to crowd into agriculture. In this way, India was transformed from being a country of combined agriculture and manufacturers into an agricultural colony of British manufacturing capitalism.” The position is still more or less the same.

Loss of traditional occupation

In ancient India, there was no unemployment. Every body was busy with his traditional occupation. There were traditional social control mechanisms to check the people from getting confused in this matter. However, rising aspirations of people unmatched with skills and qualification and absence of traditional social control mechanism lead many to become unemployed.

Low wages

Low wages especially in unorganized sector distracts many people from taking up any job. Such people are in a constant search of a job.


Most of the youngsters believe in the concept of ‘easy money’. Present trend to earn easy money makes many young men not to work at all. For smart people, it is better to beg, borrow or steal.

Ignorance and unawareness

Ignorance and unawareness about opportunities available cause many to remain unemployed.


There are many lazy people, who prefer to be parasite and live on their near and dear ones or sustain themselves through help, which may come from any source.

Modern system of education in India

Literacy rate in India was 12.2% in 1947. Now according to 2001 census, it has increased up-to 64.8% (73.3% male and 53.7% females).

Gaining mere knowledge is not the purpose of learning. As Khalil Gibran has said, a little knowledge that acts is worth more than much knowledge that is inactive. Also, one whose knowledge is confined to books can not use his knowledge wealth when the need for them arises. Knowledge, the object of knowledge and application of the knowledge – all the three are equally important for motivating to take a wise action.

The stress on quantitative increase has subverted all the attempts to improve the quality of teaching and learning or preparing youth for employment by developing the required skills. It has led to continuous fall in the standard of higher education.

The quality of education is such, that it hardly makes majority of students either intellectually competent or motivated to do their work hard or do constructive work in a responsible manner.

Modern system of education-training and employment                              

Earlier, especially during mid twentieth century, there were very few options that ensured a secure and successful career for educated youth like government services, medicine, engineering or teaching. With changing times and widened horizons, many new careers emerged. Today there are ample of choices in matter of profession. A youth can choose an innovative and creative career. Careers in gemstone designing, mass media, fashion designing, legal profession or in management are becoming very popular. Specialization in each area has again created in each area many new opportunities. Only in present neck to neck competitive world, an individual requires to attain necessary qualifications.

For a long time, a simple graduate degree has been considered to be the master-key for getting a nice and respectable career, giving status, authority and final reprieve from manual work. Gone are the days for the Jacksonian principle of “Jack of all, but master of none”.

The government is more concerned about increasing the figures of literacy officially rather than preparing youth for employment by developing the required skills. Modern society considers a simple graduate-degree to be the master-key for getting a nice and respectable career, giving status, authority and final reprieve from manual work. This has led to some serious social and administrative complications.

The requirement of degrees for getting white collard jobs has resulted in over-crowding the institutions of learning. The stress on quantitative increase has subverted all the attempts to improve the quality of teaching and learning. It has led to continuous fall in the standard of higher education.

The need of a university degree as a Passport for starting nice and respectable career has made a mockery of higher education. Mass education at College and University level has become order of the day. It has also led to a decline in the academic standards and students’ discipline regional imbalances in the growth of educational institutions and politics in the temples of learning. Since Independence, there has been much criticism about the requirement of university degree as an education qualification for all kinds of jobs in organised sector.

It has failed to develop in students skills for employability, self-entrepreneurship and self-employment. There are very few individuals who understand the importance of knowledge, work hard, sincerity.

At present, the soul objective of education for modern youth is not so much learning and acquisition of knowledge, but to acquire more/higher degrees and get a white collared job in order to improve ones status. Such an attitude by-passes the need to educate all and costs negligence of primary and higher secondary education.

The youth of the day, only pay-package matters. They do not bother much about aptitude and attitude or about channelizing their further education and training accordingly.  

Pursuit of material success is super-most objective in the minds of young students. Too much importance is being given to academic background, career and good earning. There is virtually no stress on quality of life, humanity, compassion and self discipline. The system is making majority of youth selfish and intolerant to others. They are drifting almost rudderless without sense of direction.

Such a narrow mind-set has put tremendous pressure on higher education system. The demand is met at a great cost. A large number of new substandard and superfluous institutions are being created every day to meet the demand.

The examination and evaluation system tests only a narrow range of skills, especially those of memory and suffers from grave errors, so much and so, that people question the legitimacy of a modern education system itself.

Bookish-knowledge and award of degrees through formal education without effective training-systems does not help the people to move forward. It has failed to develop in youth skills for employability, self-entrepreneurship and self-employment. It is reported that 70% educated youth is unemployable, as they could not fit well for job requirements. The skill deficit becomes more acute in professional courses where 90% are unemployable.

The present scheme of education and training has failed to instill in masses relevant knowledge, skills and sense of responsibility. It has failed so far to produce such a workforce, which is either intellectually or skill-wise competent or motivated to do constructive work in a responsible manner.

Standard of general education has deteriorated considerably. It is incapable to produce much-needed dynamism in youth. Higher education appears to be irrelevant in equipping youth with required knowledge and skills for getting gainfully employed or for preparing new entrants into workforce to perform their jobs well. There is an urgent need to develop a good system of training.


In modern times, there are very few tasks, which can be performed adequately without acquiring some measure of specialization through education, training or experience. The nature and the degree of specialization require to be geared according to the needs that have to be met.

In order to enhance creative thinking and meet future challenges of 21st century, the focus of the authorities should be on inculcating in youth knowledge and innovative skills for each and every discipline of the nation. Time and again it has been proved that progress and specialization go together.

It is not only quality of mind, which is required to do a job efficiently and effectively, but also needs the subject-matter contents in their minds. The qualities and knowledge needed for different kinds of jobs differ from each other to a great extent. Well-planned training programs enhance knowledge, nature, degree of specialization and professional norms for various jobs and gear candidates up for their future roles. Without proper training work suffers.

Foundation training

There is a need for a well-planned initial or foundation training for new-entrants at the time of joining work force, as it prepares them to understand and adjust them-selves to new environment. It encourages youth to make full efforts for improvement and prepares them-selves to meet new challenges/to deal with the competitive and complex situations of modern times. A sound system of education and training helps in organizational growth and better performance of new entrants.

Seniors’ guidance, protection and unbiased feed-back about their strengths and weaknesses during foundation training play a big role in making new-entrants familiar of their workplace and comfortable to one’s work environment. Highly interactive and participative initial training develops overall personality of trainees.


Catch them young and train them

Only when degrees lose their present life and death significance, then only a sound system of further education and training could be created. Students could plan rationally about their learning/higher education or training, career and future course of action. They could channelize/utilize their learning, training, efforts and energies to settle down in life smoothly and well in time.

The principle of Catch them young and train them well in different occupations should be followed. It would give enough time to new-entrants into the work-force to get acclimatized with new atmosphere and be equipped with intellectual, moral and physical qualities, essential to perform different kinds of jobs effectively and efficiently.

  • It would also ensure that degrees loose their significance vis-a-vis jobs. At the same time, it would avoid over-crowding in universities and colleges.
  • It would make the task of training easier as the minds of trainees are in the formative stage. It will deepen amongst trainees the awareness of professional norms.
  • It would give enough time to trainees to get a feel of their specific discipline. It is well known that Indian Engineers, especially from IITs and Indian Doctors, who get four or five years professional training are in great demand abroad.
  • Diversification at proper age would save their money, invaluable time and energies of youth, right now wasted purposelessly. It will avoid postponing their career decisions for long. Job seekers would get enough time and opportunity to find out various avenues open to them according to their attitude and aptitude.
  • It would facilitate training institutes to take a purposeful approach to articulate the essential intellectual, moral and physical qualities, attitude and knowledge in different areas. Training institutes can plan rationally about imbibing required knowledge and skills in new entrants into various professions through a sound job-oriented system of education and training.
  • Proper training would inculcate in youth intellectual knowledge, qualities, attitudes and skills according to the increasing and diversified needs of the modern job-market, such as social purposefulness, public service consciousness, ability to understand socio-political and economic implications of their work, resourcefulness in solving day to day practical problems, creativeness, dynamism, up to date knowledge in their particular discipline, capacity for team-work, good fellowship, ability to cooperate, alertness in grasping a situation and quickness in assimilating relevant facts and confidence. It would facilitate the job-marked to have right type of people for different kinds of profession. The demand for more job-oriented courses would also increase.
  • The candidates belonging to the vulnerable sections would be especially benefited. With a purpose to empower people of underprivileged sections of society with employment skills, recently in India the system of community colleges has emerged. It came into existence in 1996 with establishment of Madras Community College. Now there are 206 community colleges existing in 17 states. There are four types of community colleges – for the urban poor, the rural poor, people belonging to tribal areas and women.

Government is not yet so much interested in training people properly in their traditional occupations as it is in increasing literacy data. Most community colleges are the result of initiative taken by private organizations. Internationally community colleges offer an associate degree, which gives students lateral entry into a university. Main features of community colleges are – access, flexibility in curriculum equal opportunity and quality in training. India has adopted US model. But whereas in America emphasis is more on work skills, in India, it is on job as well as life skills that include language, computing, fluency in speaking and writing and the knowledge of English.

March 15, 2011 - Posted by | Education and training of civil services |


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