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Potrayal of Brahmins and upper castes as oppressors

 

“In modern understanding of caste system, element of caste is predominant and element of system is less.”       Lata Sinha

Introduction

“National solidarity in a democratic set up demands Government to recognize only two ends – the individual at one end and the nation as a whole at the other. Nothing should be encouraged to organize itself in between these two ends to the detriment of the freedom of the individual and solidarity of the nation”. (First Backward class Commission’s Report, Chairman Kaka Kalelkar)

British rulers and missionaries during British rule and at present, some political Parties, portray Brahmins and upper castes in India as tyrants and the real enemy of non-Brahmins, backwards, minorities and Dalits, who have oppressed and exploited them for centuries.

Issue – Is there any rationality behind such kind of anathema against Brahmins? Why always the needle is towards Brahmins?

Why ‘Brahmins’ been given the highest place in ancient India? – In ancient India, Brahmins were given the highest place of honour, not because of material successes, but because of their intellectual and spiritual qualities, for their learning, character, spirituality and ability to guide the masses.

It was not by birth, but by the deeds and attitude, that entitled an individual to be called a Brahmin. People, who could keep themselves away from ignorance, illusions and lust, were put in this category. Their duty was learning, pursuit of knowledge and setting norms for common man, so that the whole society could benefit from their knowledge.

Maximum self-restrictions on Brahmins in ancient India – They were put under maximum self-restrictions and were debarred from indulging in the pleasures of material world. Those who were not able to lead the life of austerity and self-discipline, were not entitled to be called as ‘Brahmins’.

Fall from ‘Brahmanism’ – Later on, when the system of categorization of people started ‘by birth’, their morals began to disintegrate. One compromise led them to many compromises in real life in order to enjoy pleasures of money and benefits of name, fame and power. It made them to forget about the life of austerity. Combination of knowledge with greed and of superiority complex with arrogance led some misguided and ambitious Brahmins neglect their role as the trend-setters. By hook or crook, Brahmins known as ‘Brahmins’ by birth and not by their deeds. Such Brahmins were not in the true sense a being ‘Brahmin’) On and off, they tried their best to retain complete hold over the people and the society of their respective local areas.

Corrective measures – As India moved on to medieval and modern period, the irresponsible and arbitrary acts of some Brahmins added fuel into the fire. They started making compromises and took advantage of their high status given by Hindu society. Ignorance and superstitions of masses helped them in achieving their mission.

However, from time to time, Indian society looked inwardly and corrected the arbitrariness and irresponsible behaviour of Brahmins. In the past, rise of Buddhism in Ancient India, or Bhakti movement in mediaeval India, when Hindu and Muslim priests, alike, arbitrarily distorted and misinterpreted the tenets of their respective religions, and Reform Movement in the 19th and first half of the 20th centuries are a few examples of it. India never needed the help of any outside force for its exaltation. However, after establishing their rule in India, British rulers tried to correct the Indian society in its own way.

Anathema against Brahmins – The feeling against Brahmins domination in education and jobs was much more resented in the South rather than the North. Resentment amongst ‘Non-Brahmins’ against ‘Brahmins’ started in Southern part of India. Only 3% Brahmins occupied most of places in educational institutions and the modern callings. It resulted in anathema against Aryan-Sanskrit, against Brahmins, their language and culture and social structure based on Varna (caste) system. The aggressive attitude of non-Brahmins had succeeded in driving out many Tamil Brahmin families, basically non-militants by nature, to other parts of the country during the whole of twentieth century.

The opportunities in education and jobs were not the monopoly of Brahmins only in the North, as it was in the South. Therefore, anti-Brahmin currents remained mild in Northern part of India. It could not gain momentum in the politics of North almost for a century. The Hindu-Muslim divide also kept people occupied inhibiting the rise of Non-Brahmin movement in the North .ii Political formations in North could not afford to ignore upper castes in the past, which formed over 20% of the population.

In the North, the benefit of modern opportunities was availed by diverse groups, like Kayasthas, Banias and elite section of Muslims etc. Educated Bengalis occupied many jobs and other opportunities in Northern India.

Almost after a century, backward castes and Dalits in the North raised their voice not against only Brahmins, but against whole of upper castes. The success in south in the past has encouraged backward and Dalit groups to follow the South. Liberalizations of economy in India (1990) and trend of globalization have given these groups opportunity to push the youth of North to Western countries.

Education in South and North in before Independence – To say that people in south are more aware than north about the advantages of education is a myth. Throughout India whether east or west, south or north, people always gave importance to education, dignity and self-reliance. They knew the value of education and knowledge and its role in leading to prosperity and in accomplish dignity.

Hindus always gave Importance to Knowledge – Many researches, European travelers and administrators bear testimony about the importance, Hindus, allover India, gave to education and training.

  • In ancient India – One of the earliest observations made on the subject of indigenous education was by Fra Paolino Da Bartolomeo, an Austrian, who spent fourteen years in India (1776-1789) – recalling what Megasthenese wrote about the method of teaching and writing of India two hundred years before Christ, he commented whatever was left he still found it in practice. “No people, perhaps, on earth have adhered as much to their ancient usage and customs as the Indians”. While teaching people three r’s, indigenous education also familiarized the people with the nation’s epics, religion, literature and other religious books which were available in their own language. But it did not suit the British rulers and missionaries.

 

  • In the North, Nalanda University continued its glorious existence for a thousand years till it was destroyed by the Muslims. Bakhtiyar Khilji invaded Bihar in 1197 AD and found that at Odantapuri (present-day Bihar-Sharif in Patna District) “most of inhabitants were Brahmins with shaven heads. They were put to death. Large number of books were found there, and, when the Muhammadans saw them, they called for some persons to explain their contents, but all the men had been killed. It was discovered that the whole fort and city was a place of study. (Elliot and Dowson, The History of India, Vol.11, p.306).
  • Medieval India – Brigadier-General Alexander Walker, who served in India between 1780 and 1810, says that “no people probably appreciate more justly the importance of instruction than the Hindus”. According to him, “they sacrifice all the feelings of wealth, family pride and caste that their children may have the advantage of good education”. He also found that this love of learning was no exclusive characteristic of the Brahmins but “this desire is strongly impressed on the minds of all the Hindus.”
  • Modern India –Education, being an important Institution, had attracted the vigilant attention of British rulers, after they consolidated their power. The Raj conducted many Surveys in the Bombay Presidency (1820-1830), Madras Presidency (1823-1826) and later on in Bengal and Punjab before introducing its own Modern education in 1834. The most prominent being the Report of W. Adam, an excommunicated Baptist missionary, who made the most comprehensive and thorough study of the prevailing indigenous educational system.

Adam’s Report (1835) – Education, being an important matter, had attracted the vigilant attention of British rulers. The Raj made a thorough study of the prevailing indigenous educational system. Many surveys were made before introducing its own system of Modern education in 1834, most prominent being the Report of W. Adam, of 1835 an excommunicated Baptist missionary. His data on indigenous education system of Madras was the most comprehensive.

Adam’s Report destroys the popular notion of monopoly of Brahmins in education – Data of Adam’s Report (1835) reveals a different story and destroys completely the popular notion that education in India was monopolized by the Brahmins.  The idea was purposely floated by the rulers and missionaries, which was picked up by colonized intelligentsia later on. Colonized Indian intellectuals still continue to sing their tune.

The data of the Reports reveals that –

  • There were 12,498 public schools containing 188,650 scholars in Madras. Madras Presidency reported 1,101 schools (with 5431 students) of higher learning, Rajahmundry heading the list with 279 such schools.
  • besides the system of public education, there was also widespread private coaching. In Madras, the number of pupils taught privately at home was considered to be “above five times greater than that taught in the schools”, according to Sir Thomas Munro, Governor of Madras Presidency.
  • Non-Brahmins were not unrepresented in learning. In Malabar, out of 1,588 scholars of Theology, Law, Astronomy, Metaphysics, Ethics and Medical Science, only 639 were Brahmins, 23 Vaishyas, 254 Shudras and 672 “other castes”.
  • Brahmins had a near-monopoly only in the Vedas and Theology.
  • Shudras and the “other castes” had in other branches of advanced learning like Astronomy and Medical Science.
  • The share of the Brahmins in certain areas was indeed very low. Even in higher learning in Malabar, out of 1,588 scholars of Theology, Law, Astronomy, Metaphysics, Ethics and Medical Science, only 639 were Brahmins, 23 Vaishyas, 254 Shudras and 672 “other castes”.
  • In Astronomy, out of a total of 806 scholars, Brahmins were only 78, Vaishyas 23, Shudras 195, and other lower castes 510. In Medical Science, the share of the Brahmin scholars was only 31 out of a total of 190. The rest belonged to the Shudras and “other castes”.
  • In many places like in Seringapatam, it was only 7.83% in Madura 8.67%; in North Arcot, Brahmin boys were 9.57%, while the Shudras and “other castes” were 84.46%.
  • the female education was very much neglected though it was not altogether absent.
  • In some regions, Shudras did better in the matter of female education than the upper class Hindus including the Brahmins like Malabar and Joypoor in Visakhapatnam.
  • According to the data, out of the total number of 175,089 students, both male and female, elementary and advanced, only 42,502 were Brahmins (24.25%); 19,669 were Vaishya students (about 11%); but 85,400 were Shudras (about 48.8%); and still 27.516 more were “all other castes”, meaning castes even lower than the Shudras including the pariahs (15.7%). Thus the higher castes were only about 35% and the Shudras and other castes were about 65% of the total Hindu students. If we also include the Muslims who were about 7% of the total Hindu and Muslim students, then the share of the Brahmins was even less.

Adam’s Report also tells that –

  • It was during the British rule, that illiteracy increased and indigenous education was decayed.
  • Before the introduction of modern education system, there was widespread private coaching besides the system of public education.
  • In Madras, the number of pupils taught privately at home was considered to be “above five times greater than that taught in the schools”, according to Sir Thomas Munro, Governor of Madras Presidency.
  • There were 12,498 public schools containing 188,650 scholars in Madras. There were 16 schools of higher learning in Ahmednagar; and in Poona. There was as many 164 such schools out of a total of 222 educational institutions of all description.
  • It was a myth that there was preponderance of Brahmins in the field of education. According to reports caste-wise division of all, in all the schools of 20 districts in Madras Presidency, the number or the percentage of Brahmins male school students was low. In Seringapatam, Brahmin boys were only 7.83% in Madura, 8.67% in North Arcot, and 9.57%, while the Shudras and “other castes” were 84.46%.
  • Only in the Vedas and Theology did the Brahmins have a near-monopoly. The share of the Brahmins in certain areas was indeed very low.
  • Shudras and the “other castes” had in other branches of advanced learning like Astronomy and Medical Science. In Astronomy, out of a total of 806 scholars, Brahmins were only 78, Vaishyas 23, Shudras 195, and other lower castes 510. In Medical Science, the share of the Brahmin scholars was only 31 out of a total of 190. The rest belonged to the Shudras and “other castes”.
  • Even in higher learning in Malabar, out of 1,588 scholars of Theology, Law, Astronomy, Metaphysics, Ethics and Medical Science, only 639 were Brahmins, 23 Vaishyas, 254 Shudras and 672 “other castes”.
  • In many places like in Seringapatam, it was only 7.83% in Madura 8.67%; in North Arcot, Brahmin boys were 9.57%, while the Shudras and “other castes” were 84.46%.
  • In Bombay, Brahmins constituted only 30% of the total scholars in that province.
  • Adam tells the same story about Bengal and Bihar. In the five districts he investigated, the total number of Hindu students was 22,957. Out of these 5,744 were Brahmins, or about 25%. Kayasthas were about 12%. Students belonging to 95 castes find representation in his Report. It includes 66 ChanDals, 20 Muchis, 84 Doms, 102 Kahars, and 615 Kurmis.
  • The Collector of Malabar district narrates the pathetic story of this ancient institution, first destroyed by the Muslims in 966, and later on ruined by being denied its revenues by the British.
  • Female education was though neglected, but was not altogether absent.
  • In the Punjab, according to Leitner, “female education is to be met in all parts”. According to him, the Punjabi woman had not only educated herself, but were also an educator of others. Even before the annexation of the Punjab, six public schools for girls in Delhi were kept by Punjabi women.
  • In some regions of Malabar and Joypoor in Vizagapatam, Shudras did better in the matter of female education than the upper class Hindus including the Brahmins like Malabar and Joypoor in Visakhapatnam.
  • In spite of the claims of the missionaries, they did not pay much attention to Hindus of low-castes in North. They paid more attention to port cities like Madras, Bengal and Bombay, where they preferred to settle down due to their accessibility for navigational purposes. According to Adam’s findings, Burdwan had 13 missionary schools, yet they had only 1 ChanDal student while the native schools had 60. The former had only 3 Doms and no Muchis while the latter had 58 and 16 respectively. Of the 760 pupils belonging to the lowest 16 castes, “only 86 were found in the missionary schools and the remaining number in native schools”.
  • As teachers, the Brahmins were even less represented. Out of a total of 2,261 teachers in these districts, Brahmins were only 208, or about 11%. In this region Kayasthas were the teachers par excellence. They were 1,019 in number, or a little less than half the total. Other teachers belonged to other 32 castes. ChanDals had six, Goalas had five, Telis had eleven; while Rajputs had only two, and Chhatri and Kshatriya taken together had only three.

 Advantage of English as medium of instruction/education – Madras Presidency was one of the first British settlements in India. Missionaries opened many English medium schools in Madras. They concentrated on educating the lower strata there. There were some government schools as well, where the means of school education were vernacular languages. British government gave funds to indigenous schools in need of help and dictated its own terms. Slowly more and more schools got government’s aid there. Higher education was granted in English only.

In the near absence of industrial, commercial or social service activity, the educated Indians depended on Government jobs entirely. When in 1944, through a Declaration knowledge of English was made compulsory for Government employment, missionary schools became very popular amongst the lower strata also, as it gave them opportunities to get free modern English-medium education, jobs in government and to improve their social status.

English became just like their mother tongue for educated people in Madras long ago, whether belonging to Brahmin community or non-Brahmin communities. In 1855, Education departments were created in the provinces of Madras, Bombay and Bengal. In 1857 Universities were established in Madras, Bombay and Calcutta. All these developments gave leverage to all people in South India.

Portrayal of Brahmin’s as oppressors? – Arbitrary acts of a few Brahmins gave opportunity to British rulers to pin-point them as exploiters of other sections of society. But much more than arbitrariness of Brahmins, it was the missionaries and the British rulers in India, who portrayed Brahmins as oppressors and tyrants. Why?

  • Brahmins ahead of others in opting for Modern education – During British rule, initially, British, who annexed authority from Muslim rulers, looked favorably towards Hindu community. The gradual displacement from their source of income, after the decline in financial status of their patrons – Princes and Zamindars, the appalling poverty of Brahmins compelled them to switch over their attention towards modern education.
  • To earn their living respectfully – Initially, it was the impoverished group of Brahmin and caste Hindus in search of livelihood, which looked upon modern education as means to earn their living respectfully. They devoted their scarce resources and energies to get costly Western Education. Sir Alfred Croft, Director of Public Instruction in Bengal wrote to Rev. J. Johnston in 1881, We know well that any considerable increase in the fees paid by college students would compel many to withdraw. It seems not to be fully understood… how poor the middle classes that flock to our colleges really are. Half the students live from hand to mouth…. And yet though, far behind in point of wealth, they correspond to, and are in fact the only representative of our professional classes at home, and the pressure on them for the means of subsistence is so great, that they must either be educated or go to wall.

Their poverty gets confirmed by a study done to examine the annual income of the guarantors of 1271 Brahmin Students enrolled at Ferguson College, Pune from 1885 to 1895. According to it, 76% of the Chitpavan Brahmins guarantors belonged to the low or medium income groups. Similarly of the 277 Deshastha Brahmin guarantors, 70% came from low or medium groups.

  • Hold of educated Brahmins on Hindu society – Brahmins, being natural learners and pursuers of knowledge, were quick to move ahead of other communities. Their long tradition and undisputed role in the field of knowledge and learning, their intelligence, sincerity and hard work helped them to take a lead in all newer areas of advancement and secure an important place in the society.

British rulers got alarmed – Witnessing the preponderance of Brahmins everywhere, their influence over Hindu society and their role in national movement alarmed the rulers. In 1900, Sir William Lee, an important official in the Government of Bombay and Government of India, noted Brahmins dominance in the Civil Service, during 1869 to 1899. The British authorities also noticed the preponderance of Brahmins in other areas, too, including National movement and their growing influence and hold over the Hindu Community.

Overwhelming support of Brahmin lawyers to Congress Party and Mrs. Anne Besant’s Home Rule made the British to believe that Brahmin Community was a threat to imperial rule.

Preponderance of Brahmins at all levels of freedom movement alarmed the rulers. They considered it necessary to counter the hold of Brahmins by raising a strong force against them. Innumerable C.I.D. Reports of that period confirmed the active role played by Brahmins in National movement.

In 1879, the Collector of Tanjore wrote to James Courd, a Member of the Famine Commission, There was no class except Brahmins, which was so hostile to English (rule) In the words of an observer, If any community could claim the British out of the country, it was the Brahmin community 70% of those, who were felled by British bullets, were Brahmins.

Sir Richard Temple, the governor of Bombay said that ever since 1818, when British finally defeated the Peshwa in the third Anglo Maratha war, Brahmins were, Inspired with a national sentiment and with an ambition bounded only with the Bonds of India itself.

Rowlett Report (1880) also confirmed that the British regarded Brahmins as the main force behind all terrorist movements and agitation leading to violence in almost all the provinces.

Many British administrators including Temple advised the Government to stop the dominance of one or few groups in administration and begin to rely on other groups or castes, in order to keep the balance of power.

In 1881 the Government decided to secure a reasonable combination of various races and castes in order to counter Brahmins hold in education and administration.

Successful in creating venom – The atmosphere was already ripe for it as there was a fear in the minds of minorities and non-Brahmin community that if by any chance India would get Independence in near future, Brahmins would dominate them completely. On one hand, the British slighted the role of Brahmins as Indian intelligentsia and reformers, and on the other, portrayed them as oppressors and tyrants.

Starting point South – Missionaries and the British rulers initially spread the idea to generate the resentment in the minds of ‘Non-brahmins’ of South against ‘Brahmins’ that Brahmins had occupied most of the places in education, jobs and places in modern callings. It succeeded in developing an in anathema amongst South Indian non-Brahmin population towards Brahmins (who constituted only 3% of the total population of Tamil Nadu), Sanskrit, and northern culture.

Being a minuscule non-militant community by nature, the Brahmins have surrendered to their fate. Brahmins yielded to the pressures of aggressive attitude of non-Brahmins. The geographical cum social mobility of Brahmins from Madras earlier to other parts of the country, where non-Brahmin movement was either weak or non-existent and then abroad led them to explore new pastures.

Discriminatory Acts – The rulers created other new identities in Indian society for the purposes of creating rift among different sections of Indian society, like Upper castes-lower castes, Brahmins-non-Brahmins, Backward castes, Dalits, Majority-minority communities etc. The newly created identities generated venom in the hearts of the people against each other. A strong force against Brahmins was thus raised to counter their hold on masses.

While laying the foundation of democratic institutions in India, some discriminatory Acts were passed on electoral reforms and quota system like Act of 1919 (Minto Morely Reforms) or Communal Award of 1932, in order to secure a reasonable combination of various races and castes in administration and other modern callings. It created a wide gulf amongst various sections of Indian society.  Gandhiji along with other National leaders regarded it as the “Unkindest cut of all” intended to “divide population into communal groups” and to create a permanent split in Hindu Society.

Now onwards, Muslims and non-Brahmin castes resisted vociferously the dominance of Brahmins everywhere. The Imperial government allowed formation of many caste groups against Brahmins. The movement against Brahmins forged ahead with ferocity in the Southern and Western parts of India. It remained mild in North India, where communalism had already disrupted the peace of the land.

Winding up

First Backward class Commission’s Chairman Kaka Kalelkar had commented in First Backward castes Report – “National solidarity in a democratic set up demands Government to recognize only two ends – the individual at one end and the nation as a whole at the other. Nothing should be encouraged to organize itself in between these two ends to the detriment of the freedom of the individual and solidarity of the nation. All communal and denominational organizations and groupings of lesser and narrower units have to be watched carefully, so that they do not jeopardize the national solidarity and do not weaken the efforts of the nation to serve the various elements in the body politic with equity. Mutual help, mutual respect and mutual trust are the touchstone, on which all communal and denominational activities will be tested and anything that undermines it, will be expected and brought to book.

Also, Communalism and casteism are bound to destroy the unity of the nation and narrow down the aspiration of our people.” …It would be well, if representatives of the Backward classes remembered that whatever good they find in the Constitution and the liberal policy of the Government, is the result of the awakened conscience of the upper classes themselves. Whatever Government is doing by way of atonement is readily accepted and acclaimed by the nation as a whole. The upper classes have contributed their share in formulating the policies of the Government Removal of untouchability, establishment of equality and social justice, special consideration for backward classes, all these elements found place in the Constitution without a single voice of dissent from the upper classes.

“If the backward communities have neglected education it is because they had no use for it. Now that they have discovered their mistakes, it is for them to make the necessary efforts for making the leeway…As far as the assistance in the matter of education for the backward classes, I am convinced that introduction of basic education in all the states with help the backward communities to cultivate self-confidence. They will also have a better chance of succeeding in life and have the advantage of mixing with other people.

Irrespective of caste or creed, materialism and consumerism have taught people in general to fulfill all their desires and enjoy the life to the core, even if one has to ‘beg, borrow or steal’.  Such a tendency ignites the desire or craving for ‘more’, which instead of making them happy and contended, limits human aspirations to sensual enjoyment only, meaning eating delicious food, nights out, wearing good clothes and possess all the riches and worldly possessions to enjoy pleasures of life and make people very selfish. Achievements only at physical plane does not always make a person happy, successful and strong. Such a mindset gives rise to greed, anger and passion and most of the times (s)he is not able to maintain good relations with others. Materialism, consumerism, ruthless competition for positions of power, money and VVIP status to get access over all the luxuries of life at tax-payers cost have brought some unpleasant changes in the mind-set of people recent past and are increasing every day in the character, role and inter-relationship of the six main constituent of the national elites – political executive, legislators, businessmen, organized workers, surplus farmers and bureaucrats.

India is in a critical phase of history. The actions of present generation in right direction can lead the nation towards a better future. Therefore all citizens should join hands and work for the sustainable development of the nation. They must realize that they are one human family with a shared vision and common destiny. All Indians must give preference to their national identity over their class, caste, community, gender, linguistic or regional identities and must align together their efforts to restore the vitality, strength and dignity of their nation.

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October 5, 2010 - Posted by | Social and political values and systems |

7 Comments »

  1. Potrayal of Brahmins and upper castes as exploitators…

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  2. Excellent, eloquent and comprehensive essay. Kudos. I would also like to add a few points. Caste system was not as rigid as it is portrayed. There have been cases of caste upward and downward mobility. The first empire builders were the Nand emperors of Magadha who were shudra. They were followed by Mauryas, the greatest emperors. They were shudras too. Mauryas were followed by Shungas who were brahmins. Kanva kings were Brahmin. Gupta emperors were vaishya. The East India Company had a large number of soldiers from the brahmin community before the 1857 Revolt. You see, if we go by the traditional texts then only kshatriys could be rulers. But that was not the case. Any enterprising person could rise in any field, irrespective of caste. Upanishads, the most philosophical works of Hindus, were a creation of the Kshatriya princes. Since the medieval period, Kayasthas have been a community as well educated as brahmins.
    The whole idea behind anti brahmanism is to finish off brahmins. Cut the head and the body would fall by itself. Finish off brahmins, the custodians of Hindu religion and Hindus would be ripe for conversion.

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