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Need of more All India Services

 

In every country, there are certain posts in its administrative set up which might be called strategic from the point of view of maintaining the standard of administration. In a large country like India, where perplexing diversities in geography, language, race and culture have existed through the ages and pervaded every aspect of life, it is necessary to evolve some systems and standards, whereby the interest of the nation as a whole can be taken care of. Keeping it in mind, the British Government in India had evolved the system of All India Services.

India has been fortunate enough to inherit from the past a system of administration, which is common to whole of the nation and it knows what are these strategic posts. All India Services provide manpower to these strategic posts throughout India.

The shift from traditional to Developmental tasks after the Independence and now Globalization and liberalisation, demand that apart from control functions, there should be more All India Services in developmental sector also at par with IAS in other disciplines as well – be it economic, educational, legal, industrial, technical, scientific or agriculture.

Even on the eve of the Government of India Act 1919, the following services were in existence –

  • Indian Civil Service;

  • Indian Police Service;

  • Indian Forest Service;

  • Indian Education Service;

  • Indian Medical Service;

  • Indian Civil Veterinary Service

  • Indian Forest Engineering Service

  • Indian Agricultural Service; and

  • Indian Service of Engineers.

As the national movement gained momentum, of all the nine All India service, only IAS and IP remained unaffected and continued to act as an unifying force. All the technical services were either abolished or provincialized by the time India got Independence. Even though independent India was committed to rapid socio-economic development, the services engaged in control functions – IAS and IP – were allowed to continue. B.B. Misra says, “Most of the other services were abolished. Considerations of national unity, the positive need of India’s all-round development and the attainment of a minimum uniform standard in administration were allowed to go by default.”

After Independence, some leaders as well as some states like Punjab, West Bengal, J&K etc., became critical of All India Services. Pt. Nehru the first Prime minister of Independent India also wished that the ICS and the similar services must disappear completely.

But Sardar Patel, while presiding the Premiers Conference in 1946, advised that it was not only advisable, but essential to have the institution of All India Service for efficient service and for introducing certain amount of freshness and vigour in the administration of both at the centre and in the provinces.. “This will give experience to the personnel at the Centre leading to efficiency and administrative experience of the district, which will give them an opportunity of contact with the people. They will thus keep themselves in touch with the situations in the country and their practical experience will be most useful to them. Besides, their coming to Centre will give them a different experience and wider outlook, in a larger sphere. A combination of these two experiences will make the services more efficient. They will also serve as a liaison between the provinces and the government.

Again, speaking in the Constituent Assembly, Sardar Patel said “There was no alternative to this administrative system….The Union will go, you will not have a united India, if you have not a good All India Service, which has the independence to speak out its mind, which has a sense of security …. If you do not adopt this course, then do not follow the present Constitution…. This constitution is meant to be worked by a ring of service, which will keep the country intact. There are many impediments in this Constitution, which will hamper us. ….. These people are the instruments. Remove them and I see nothing but a picture of chaos all round the country.”

As the result of Sardar Patel’s endeavours, the Constitution of India provided, “Without depriving the states of their right to form their own civil services, there shall be All India Services recruited on All India basis with common qualifications, with uniform scale of pay and members of which alone could be appointed those strategic posts throughout the Union.” All India Services are to be governed by Article 312 of the Indian Constitution. Also Indian Administrative service (IAS) and Indian Police Service(IPS) got incorporated in Article 312(2) of the Constitution.

During early 60’s, a need was felt to create more all India service, so that apart from control functions, best talents could be provided on strategic posts in the areas of development/specialised functions as well at various levels from district to state to central government. Talented persons with specific knowledge, skills, attitude and techniques were needed to perform developmental tasks in an efficient way, to co-ordinate and settle differences between different provinces and to meet different kinds of challenges of new economy and current socio-political developments.

In accordance with the Constitutional provision for creation of more All India Services, Rajya Sabha adopted a Resolution, on 6.12.1961, for the creation of All India Service of Engineers, Indian Forest Service and Indian Medical and Health Service, and later on for Indian Legal Service and Indian Education Services. Out of it, only Indian Forest Service could be formed. For other services, state Governments of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Punjab, West Bengal, Jammu & Kashmir, Assam and Himachal Pradesh revised their stand mainly on the ground of State Autonomy. Indian Service of Engineers, Indian Medical Service, Indian Legal Service and Indian Education Services are still waiting to come into existence in the near future.

The vision of Sardar Patel in continuing the Institution of All India Services proved to be a step in right direction even after so many years of Independence. In 1967, Setalvad Team on Center-State relation had commented: “The Indian scene has changed in many ways since then. But in this respect, the change that occurred over the years serves on to confirm all that Sardar Patel said with prophetic insight many years ago. It should be needless to affirm the continued validity of all the objectives underlying the All India Services and yet in a country in which the constituent parts are possessed with preemptive desire to assert their separations, such an affirmation is solely needed. The value of a system considered necessary for the administrative unity of the country despite the ubiquity of Congress party rule and found indispensable for securing fair play and competence in administration despite the acute awareness of their need in the most potent political figures at a time, when their power was untrammeled and their right ran through the length and breadth of the land, can in the less favorable conditions of today be ignored only on pair of perilous consequences. Continuity also demands a system which can maintain links in administrative behavior throughout the country, while political changes visit different states and the Center”.

The Patel Study Team of the ARC also acknowledged, “Not only do the original Considerations for which the IAS was set up in the beginning hold good even today, but they apply with every greater force in some respects. There are some additional reasons like the emergence of a new tier of representative government, which make it necessary that a service structure like the IAS should continue for the foreseeable future.”

 

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June 28, 2010 - Posted by | Bureaucracy/Civil Services | ,

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