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Political set-up in India

 

India is a large country with perplexing diversity in geography, language, race and culture. The Constitution of India is based upon the principles of `Justice, Social, Economic and Political. The political system adopted by it is that of a federal parliamentary democracy. The federal structure consists of Union and State Administration. The Union Government at the Centre consists of a President in whom all the executive power of the Union is vested and is to be exercised by him either directly or through officers subordinate to him. The Vice-President is only a ceremonial dignitary; and a council of ministers with prime Minister as its head “to aid and advice the President in the exercise of his functions”. The President is the nominal head of the executive. The Prime Minister and his colleagues are real political heads of different government departments. Their executive power, in practice, is exercised by permanent civil service/bureaucracy (civil services mean all the streams of functional, technical and specialist cadres as well as managerial and generalist cadres. In a federal set-up like ours, it also includes the officials at regional or state level) which works under ministers and serves as a link – so essential to maintain continuity of policy and consistency of administration between successive ministers. Legislative powers are vested in Parliament. There is also an independent judiciary, which acts as a watchdog of the Constitution and is the supreme law of the land.

Different provinces or states in India have their separate political set-up similar to that of Centre. In the states, Governor, instead of President, is the nominal head. They have their own legislature, council of Ministers with a Chief Minister and an independent judicial system. The subjects for the Centre as well as state administration have been divided clearly by the Constitution itself in the Seventh Schedule. The subjects for the Centre level administration have been mentioned in Central List and the Concurrent List and that of state level administration in the State List II and the Concurrent List. On Concurrent List subjects, preference is given to the Centre.

 

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April 6, 2009 - Posted by | Uncategorized

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